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Diana Fea

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Diana Fea

Original author(s) TNO
Developer(s) tnodiana
Stable release 9.6
Development status Actively developed
Operating system Microsoft Windows
Platform Windows/x86-32
Linux x86-64
Type Computer-aided engineering, Finite Element Analysis
License Proprietary commercial software

DIANA (acronym DIsplacement ANAlyser) is a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) solver developed and distributed by TNO DIANA BV and several other resellers worldwide. The software is predominantly used by engineering consultants, research institutions and is utilised by many highly respected educational institutions worldwide in both civil and geotechnical engineering courses. DIANA is equipped with very powerful solvers which enables the analysis of large and/or complex structures. A large selection of material models, element libraries and analysis procedures are available within the package which gives DIANA a large degree of flexibility. The main fields of use of DIANA include design and analysis of dams & dikes; tunnels & underground structures; oil & gas[1] & historical constructions and large reinforced concrete structures.[2] Some of the specialised analyses available in DIANA for these fields of use include seismic analysis;[3] fire analysis and young hardening concrete.[4]


  • History 1
    • 1970s to 1980s 1.1
    • 1980s to 1990s 1.2
    • 1990s to 2003 1.3
    • 2003 to present 1.4
  • DIANA Functionality 2
    • Material Models Available Within DIANA 2.1
    • Analysis Functionality Available Within DIANA 2.2
    • Element Types Available Within DIANA 2.3
  • Releases 4
  • Supported Platforms 5
    • Current Version: DIANA 9.6. 5.1
  • References 6
  • External links 7


1970s to 1980s


  • Official website

External links

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Platform Operating System Compilers Used
  • Microsoft® Windows Vista SP2 (64 bit)
  • Microsoft® Windows 7 SP1 (64 bit)
  • Microsoft® Windows 8 (64 bit)
  • Microsoft® Windows 8.1 (64 bit)
  • Microsoft® Windows Server 2008 SP2 (64 bit)
  • Microsoft® Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1
  • Microsoft® Windows Server 2012
  • Microsoft® Windows Server 2012 R2
  • Intel® Fortran Composer XE 2013 SP1 update 4 (
  • Microsoft® Visual C++ Pro 2012
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6, 7.0
  • Cent OS 6.5, 7.0
  • Intel® Parallel Studio XE 2013 SP1 update 4 (

Current Version: DIANA 9.6.

Supported Platforms

1972 Initial code created by TNO (Nederlandse Organisatie voor Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek) (“TNO”)
1977 MESH and GRAPHI modules made available to allow users to display models and analysis results
1980 DIANA-1 release
1988 DIANA-2 release:
  • Potential flow analysis module
  • Users’ manual (in English)
  • Users’ course book (in English)
  • Users’ text book (in English)
1990 DIANA-3.2 release:
  • Fracture mechanics module
  • Dynamic response module
  • Stability analysis module
  • Extended element library including flat shell and interface elements; and elements for groundwater flow analysis
1991 DIANA-4.1 release:
  • Iterative solver
  • Phased analysis module
  • Indirect displacement control in nonlinear analysis
  • Extended element library including orthotropic membrane elements
1993 DIANA-5.1 release:
  • Sub-structuring technique in the solution procedure
  • Stability analysis module (with imperfections)
  • Nonlinear analysis control improved with arc-length and automatic load control
  • Parameter estimation module
  • Pipeline analysis module
  • Extended element library including higher order elements in various families of elements and layered elements
1996 DIANA-6.1 release:
  • Determination and plotting of influence lines
  • Contour plots
  • External pre/post processor FEMGV made available
1998 DIANA-7.1 release:
  • New material models: concrete cracking and crushing
  • Simulation of corrosion of reinforced steel
  • Mobile load analysis module
  • Extended options for geotechnical analysis
  • MS-Windows platform support
1999 DIANA-7.2
  • Interactive graphics for pre/post processing with FEMGV
  • New constitutive models for liquefaction of saturated soil (due to earthquakes)
2002 DIANA-8.1
  • Integrated pre/post processor (iDIANA)
  • Delft soft soil model
  • Hoek-Brown model
  • Rankine Hill anisotropic model
  • Young hardening concrete model
  • Spectral response analysis module
  • Fracture mechanics analysis
  • Beam cross-section analysis
2004 DIANA 9
  • Automatic nonlinear solutions procedures
  • Complete plane strain elements
2006 DIANA-9.2
  • Integrated with Midas FX+ pre/post processor
2008 DIANA-9.3
  • Optimized iterative solver
  • Direct sparse solver with parallel processing
  • 3D line interface element
  • Ambient dependent material properties in interface elements
  • Modified Maekawa concrete model
2009 DIANA-9.4
  • Enhanced parallel processing functionality
  • Bond slip options for embedded reinforcements
2010 DIANA-9.4.2
  • Curved shell elements (with drilling rotations)
  • Linear fluid-structure interface elements
  • D-min soil material model
2010 DIANA-9.4.3
  • Precompiled library files for user-supplied subroutines
  • Sequential linear analysis
  • Reinforcement grid design checking
2012 DIANA-9.4.4
  • Reinforcement design checks
  • Stiffness adaptation analysis
  • Strength reduction analysis (C-Phi) module
2014 DIANA-9.5
  • Introduction of new MeshEdit graphical user interface
  • Tresca and Von Mises plasticity, total strain-stiffness diagrams
  • Bond slip relation as proposed by Shima et al.
  • Dodd-Restrepo Plasticity - for cyclic behaviour of steel reinforcements
  • User supplied subroutines for unixial springs
  • Total strain crack models - shear-retention, damage based shear retention, aggregate size based shear retention
  • Total strain crack model - Maekawa compression curve
  • Eurocode fire load curves as set out by Eurocodes 2 and 4
  • Modal pushover analysis
  • Automatic tying
2014 DIANA-9.6
  • Python scripting console, introduction of mesh-sets, renewed phased construction and spectral response analysis, linear constraints, slice and clipping planes, extended post-processing and diagram output in MeshEdit
  • Extended element library - element mesh and reinforcement mesh topology and property assignment, flat shell elements and analytically integrated flat shell elements
  • New model for tensile failure of fiber reinforced concrete as defined by CEB-FIB
  • Extension in tensile behaviour of Modified Maekawa Concrete Model
  • Ambient time influence on flat shell elements
  • Composite failure criteria: maximum criterion, Tsai-Hill criterion, Tsai-Wu criterion
  • Time and element age dependent hydraulic conductivity
  • Engineering liquefaction
  • Enhancements in Shima Bond-slip model
  • Enhancements in nonlinear behaviour of reinforcement behaviour based on JSCE Concrete Code 2012
  • Smart reinforcement evaluation & smart composed element evaluation
  • Initial state evaluation control option
  • Automatic transition of external loads in phased analysis
  • Physical nonlinear analysis options
  • Eigenvalue analysis based on FEAST method by using the Intel MKL Extended Eigensolver
  • Advancement in Response Spectrum Analysis for large systems
  • Superposition of the individual excitation spectra based on Eurocode 8 EN 1998-1
  • Stiffness Adaptation Analysis based on CEB-FIP model codes 1990 and 2010
  • Modal Mass output for each eigenfrequency
  • Reinforcement Grid Design Checking extension


  • DIANA – Advanced finite element analysis (including the pre/post processor iDIANA)
  • Midas FX+ for DIANA – pre/post processor for DIANA
  • FEMGV – pre/post processor for use with DIANA and other solvers
  • FEMPAL – pallet racking stability analysis software
  • GEO5[29] – reseller for Benelux

The head office of TNO DIANA BV remains in Delft, the Netherlands where the software was originally and continues to be developed. TNO DIANA BV is predominantly a software developer, but also carries out consultancy projects utilising its “DIANA” software and some software customisation/development work for clients with specific requirements. [28] TNO DIANA BV, the developer of the DIANA software was originally established in 2003 as a spin-off company of the Computational Mechanics department of TNO Building and Construction Research Institute (


  • Truss
  • Solid[21]
  • Contact
  • Flow
  • Timoshenko, Bernoulli, and Mindlin beam
  • Plane stress and plane strain[22]
  • Complete plane strain
  • Axisymmetric
  • Plate bending[23]
  • Flat, curved shell and layered shell
  • Composed
  • Interface[24]
  • Discrete spring/dashpot[25]
  • Base spring
  • Bounding (spring/dashpot)[26]
  • Point mass/damping
  • Embedded reinforcements
  • Embedded pile elements[27]
  • Boundary surface elements

Element Types Available Within DIANA

  • Linear static
  • Fatigue failure
  • Linear transient
  • Frequency response
  • Spectral response
  • Physical and geometrical non linear
  • Transient non linear
  • Eigenvalue[17]
  • Buckling and post buckling[18]
  • Steady state and transient heat flow
  • Detailed and regional groundwater flow[19]
  • Steady state and transient groundwater flow
  • Coupled flow-stress
  • Phased structural and potential flow
  • Fluid-structure interaction[20]
  • Strength reduction analysis
  • Stiffness adaptation analysis
  • Parameter estimation
  • Lattice

Analysis Functionality Available Within DIANA

  • Linear, nonlinear and modified elasticity[7]
  • Hyperelasticity[8]
  • Isotropic and orthotropic plasticity[9]
  • Viscoplasticity[10]
  • Smeared crack models[11]
  • Total strain fixed and rotating crack models[12]
  • Young hardening concrete models[13]
  • Creep and shrinkage[14]
  • Maekawa concrete model[15]
  • Soil specials
  • Liquefaction models[16]
  • Model Code models for concrete and steel
  • User-supplied models
  • Special models for interface elements
  • Ambient and time dependent mechanical, heat transfer and groundwater flow properties
  • Classic brick model for soil
  • Modified two-surface model for cyclic behaviour of steel
  • Menegotto-Pinto plasticity model for reinforcements

Material Models Available Within DIANA

DIANA Functionality

The initial iteration of MeshEdit gave the users the ability to import their model from FX+ or iDIANA and then define supports, loading, materials and analysis requirements; carry out the analysis; and deal with post processing. In 9.6 these features were extended to include a Python scripting console, the introduction of mesh sets and further post processing functionality.

For geotechnical engineers the ability to carry out a Strength Reduction Analysis (C-Phi) was made available in a new module. This allowed the strength characteristics of the structural material to be reduced by factors leading to the loss of stability, typically used in slope stability analysis. In 2014 there were two releases of DIANA (9.5 & 9.6), these releases introduced the new Mesh Edit graphical user interface. With the ultimate goal of providing TNO DIANA’s own integrated graphical user interface. Mesh Edit offers a streamlined and user friendly interface which will ultimately enable users to use all the functionality of DIANA within one program.

The module “Reinforcement Design Checks” gave civil engineers the opportunity to optimise the design of structures by assessing the additional capacity within the existing reinforcement. Running alongside this, the new module “Stiffness Adaptation Analysis” made it possible to predict crack patterns, the size of crack openings, plasticity onset, force distribution and deformations in serviceability limit state.

In January 2012 came the next iteration of the DIANA software, DIANA 9.4.4. Two new application modules were made available which signified a leap forward in the analysis of reinforced concrete.

Between 2006 and 2011, TNO DIANA BV established a relationship with the Korean software developer MIDAS. In conjunction with MIDAS, the FX+ for DIANA pre/post processor was developed for use specifically with DIANA and was sold as an additional option to purchasers. In return, TNO DIANA BV helped MIDAS embed elements of DIANA into their midasGTS product as its solver. During this period, TNO DIANA BV was also a reseller of MIDAS products: midasCIVIL; midasFEA; midasGEN; and midasGTS. At the end of 2011, following the completion of the FX for DIANA and midasGTS projects, the relationship between TNO DIANA BV and MIDAS was distanced allowing each company to concentrate on the sales and development of their own products.

In 2002 TNO prepared a new organization around DIANA: a company named TNO DIANA BV was founded and in the beginning of 2003 all technical activities were transferred from TNO Building and Construction research to the new company. Also the marketing and sales activities, until then being done by DIANA Analysis BV, were transferred to TNO DIANA BV. At the same time TNO DIANA BV became owner of Femsys Ltd. The purpose for creating this new organization was to combine commercial and technical activities and to have full focus to needs of DIANAusers world-wide.

2003 to present

Between 1990 and 2003, with continuing development and input from the Users Association and the DIANA Foundation, DIANA became recognised worldwide for its analysis capabilities. DIANA Analysis BV was established to manage the sales, marketing, promotion and support of DIANA. In the late 1990s FEMGV (produced by FEMSYS Ltd (UK)) was introduced and promoted by TNO as a pre/post processor which could be coupled to DIANA providing an interactive graphical interface. In the early 2000s, FEMGV was embedded into the DIANA programme and became known as iDIANA and distributed as part of the DIANA package. FEMGV continued to be sold separately by TNO (and now TNO DIANA BV). In October 2002 the Third DIANA World Conference[6] took place in Tokyo. By this time, Japan had become the most important export market for DIANA. The emphasis of the conference was on application of advanced computational models in civil engineering applications.

1990s to 2003

The first release of DIANA, “DIANA-1”, was made available to the Ministry of Public Works in the Hague (Rijkswaterstaat) in 1980. The result of this and more sales, further funding and development took place and in 1984 the DIANA Users Association was established. This users forum was established to, and continues to, provide an exchange of users experience and indicate development priorities to TNO (now TNO DIANA BV). Release 2.0 of DIANA was made available in 1988, this included new modules for potential flow analysis and connection to external pre/post processors. For the first time users manuals, course books and text books were made available in English – this quickly led to the first sales of DIANA outside of the Netherlands. In 1989, the DIANA Foundation was formed, members included TNO’s major partners (a combination of universities, research institutes and industrial partners). The Foundation was granted access to the DIANA source code thus enabling them to further develop DIANA. It became the role of TNO to transfer these developments into the production version of DIANA.

1980s to 1990s

in Zeeland, the Netherlands. By this time, the amount of time required to carry out analyses had significantly decreased, and DIANA was becoming increasingly recognised for its capabilities. Oosterschelde Deltawerkenlyser. By 1975, DIANA was being used for the analysis of a number of complex off-shore structures in the Netherlands. Experience gained from these projects led to the realisation that in order to model, mesh and analyse large reinforced concrete structures in a streamlined fashion (and within one package), a huge amount of processing power would be required. At that point TNO started to invest in not only developing the DIANA software but also in the purchase of, what was then, up to the minute computing equipment. In the following years, TNO continued to expand the limitations of the DIANA software, introducing MESH for automatic mesh generation and GRAPHI to display the model and analysis results. In 1977, DIANA was used to analyse parts of the ANAsplacement DI upon which the TNO DIANA BV flagship software “DIANA” is based, in 1972. The initial idea had been to develop an in-house code for consultancy work in the field of concrete mechanics and civil engineering. This code was based on the displacement method, and was called “DIANA” – an acronym for [5]

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