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Dance of Zalongo

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Title: Dance of Zalongo  
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Subject: Souliotes, Cham Albanians, Souliote War (1803), Mass suicide, Preveza
Collection: Albanian Dances, Cham Albanians, Female Suicides, Filicides, Greek Dances, Mass Suicides, Ottoman Epirus, Ottoman Greece, Women in War
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Dance of Zalongo

Les Femmes souliotes by Ary Scheffer (1795-1858).

The Dance of Zalongo (Greek: Χορός του Ζαλόγγου, Horos tou Zalongou) was a mass suicide of women from Souli and their children during the Souliote War of 1803, near the village of Zalongo in Epirus, in the then-Ottoman Empire. The name also refers to a popular dance-song commemorating the event.[1] There is also a similar Cham Albanian dance-song called Vallja e Zallongut ("Dance of Zalongo").[2][3]

Contents

  • History 1
  • Songs 2
  • References 3
  • Sources 4

History

During the Souliote War in December 1803, the Souliotes began evacuating Souli after their defeat by the forces of the local Ottoman-Albanian ruler, Ali Pasha.[4] During the evacuation, a small group of Souliot women and their children were trapped by Ali's troops in the mountains of Zalongo in Epirus.[4] In order to avoid capture and enslavement, the women threw their children first and then themselves off a steep cliff, committing suicide.[5] According to the legend, they jumped down the precipice one after the other while singing and dancing.[6] The incident soon became known across Europe. At the Paris Salon of 1827, the French artist Ary Scheffer exhibited two Romantic paintings, one of which was entitled Les Femme souliotes ("The Souliot Women").[7] Today, the Zalongo Monument on Mount Zalongo in Kassope commemorates their sacrifice.[8]

Songs

There is a popular Greek dance-song about the event, which is known and danced throughout Greece today.[9] The Greek folk song "Dance of Zalongo" has the following lyrics:

Monument of Zalongo, commemorating the Dance.
English Greek

Farewell poor world,
Farewell sweet life,
and you, my wretched country,
Farewell for ever

Farewell springs,
Valleys, mountains and hills
Farewell springs
And you, women of Souli

The fish cannot live on the land
Nor the flower on the sand
And the women of Souli
Cannot live without freedom

Farewell springs,
...

The women of Souli
Have not only learnt how to survive
They also know how to die
Not to tolerate slavery

Farewell springs,
...

Έχε γεια καημένε κόσμε,
έχε γεια γλυκιά ζωή
Και ’συ δύστυχη πατρίδα
έχε γεια παντοτινή.

Έχετε γεια βρυσούλες
λόγγοι, βουνά, ραχούλες
Έχετε γεια βρυσούλες
και σεις Σουλιωτοπούλες

Στη στεριά δε ζει το ψάρι
ούτ’ ανθός στην αμμουδιά
Κι οι Σουλιώτισσες δεν ζούνε
δίχως την ελευθεριά.

Έχετε γεια βρυσούλες
...

Οι Σουλιώτισσες δε μάθαν
για να ζούνε μοναχά
Ξέρουνε και να πεθαίνουν
να μη στέργουν στη σκλαβιά.

Έχετε γεια βρυσούλες
...

An Albanian dance-song called Vallja e Zallongut ("Dance of Zalongo") was developed with lyrics that refer to the same aforementioned mass suicide:[3]

Albanian English

Lamtumirë, o Sul, i shkretë,
se po ndahemi per jetë.
Lamtumirë, o Sul i shkretë,
se na do t’ikim për jetë.

Ne po vdesim për liri,
se nuk duam skllavëri.
Lamtumirë, ju male e fusha,
na e punoi Pilo Gusha,
I pabesi faqezi,
s’pati turp, as perëndi.

Lamtumirë, o fusha e male,
ne vdesim pa frikë fare.
Jemi bila shqipëtare,
vdesim duke hedhur valle.
Lamtumirë, o Sul i shkretë,
lamtumir’ për gjithë jetë.

Goodbye, oh desolate Souli,
for we part ways for life.
Goodbye, oh desolate Souli,
because we will leave forever.

But we will die for freedom,
because we do not want slavery.
Goodbye, oh mountains and valleys,
this was done by Pelios Gousis,
The wicked scoundrel,
had no shame, no god.

Goodbye, oh valleys and mountains,
We die without fear at all.
It’s because we are Albanians,
we die by dancing.
Goodbye, oh desolate Souli,
goodbye for all eternity.



References

  1. ^ Royal Society of Canada 1943, p. 100; International Folk Music Council 1954, p. 39.
  2. ^ Sako 1961.
  3. ^ a b Mero Rrapaj, Fatos (1983). Këngë popullore nga Çamëria [Popular songs from Chameria]. Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë, Instituti i Kulturës Popullore. p. 451. "Kjo është «Vallja e Zallongut». Siç dihet, pjesa me e madhe e suljotëve (që s’mundi të hidhej në Korfuz me Foto Xhavellën), e nisur për në Pargë, ndeshet në fillimet e vitit 1804 me forcat e Ali Pashës. Mjaft prej tyre nuk pranojnë të dorëzohen dhe vazhdojnë luftën gjersa shfarosen, ndërsa një grup grash suljote për të mos renë në duar të armikut, në çastin e fundit, dredhin e këndojnë këtë valle lamtumirë, dhe njëra pas tjetrës me fëmijët në krahë hidhen në greminë nga shkëdmbenjt e Zallongut, duke u bërë copë-copë. [This is the «Dance of Zalongo». As is known, the majority of the Souliotes (who could not go across to Corfu with Photos Tzavella), started to go toward Parga, encountered at the beginning of 1804 the forces of Ali Pasha. Many of them refused to surrender and continued to fight until they were destroyed, while a group of Souliote women not fallen into the hands of the enemy, at the last minute, they sung this dance of goodbye, and one after the other children in their arms were thrown into the abyss upon the rocks of Zalongo, becoming pieces.]"
  4. ^ a b Sakellariou 1997, pp. 250–251.
  5. ^ Royal Society of Canada 1943, p. 100; International Folk Music Council 1954, p. 39; Papaspyrou-Karadēmētriou, Lada-Minōtou & Ethniko Historiko Mouseio 1994, p. 47; Pritchett 1996, p. 103.
  6. ^ International Folk Music Council 1954, p. 39; Mynatt & Kaiman 1968, p. 28.
  7. ^ Athanassoglou-Kallmyer 1989, p. 102.
  8. ^ Pritchett 1991, p. 219 (Footnote #326); Pritchett 1996, p. 103.
  9. ^ International Folk Music Council 1954, p. 39.

Sources

  • Athanassoglou-Kallmyer, Nina M. (1989). French Images from the Greek War of Independence (1821-1830): Art and Politics under the Restoration. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press.  
  • International Folk Music Council (1954). Journal of the International Folk Music Council, Volumes 6-10. Cambridge, England: Published for the International Folk Music Council by W. Heffer & Sons. 
  • Mynatt, Constance Virginia; Kaiman, Bernard D. (1968). Folk Dancing for Students and Teachers. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Co. 
  • Papaspyrou-Karadēmētriou, Euthymia; Lada-Minōtou, Maria; Ethniko Historiko Mouseio (Greece) (1994). The National Historical Museum. Athens, Greece: Historical and Ethnological Society of Greece.  
  • Pritchett, William Kendrick (1996). Greek Archives, Cults, and Topography. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: J.C. Gieben.  
  • Pritchett, William Kendrick (1991). The Greek State at War, Volume 5. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.  
  • Mero Rrapaj, Fatos (1983). Këngë popullore nga Çamëria [Popular songs from Chameria]. Tirana, Albania.: Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë, Instituti i Kulturës Popullore. 
  • Royal Society of Canada (1943). Mémoires de la Société Royale du Canada. Ottawa, Canada: Royal Society of Canada. 
  • Sakellariou, M. V. (1997). Epirus: 4000 Years of Greek History and Civilization. Athens, Greece: Ekdotike Athenon.  
  • Sako, Zihni, ed. (1961). Mbledhës të Hershëm të Folklorit Shqiptar (1635-1912). Tirana, Albania: Instituti i Folklorit, Sektori i Folklorit Letrar. 


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