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David Duke

David Duke
David Duke in 2008
Member of the Louisiana House of Representatives
from the 81st district
In office
February 18, 1989 – January 13, 1992
Preceded by Charles Cusimano
Succeeded by David Vitter
Personal details
Born David Ernest Duke
(1950-07-01) July 1, 1950
Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA
Political party Republican (since 1989)[1]
Democratic (before 1989)[2]
Populist Party (1988 election)
Spouse(s) Chloê Eleanor Hardin
(m. 1974-1984)
Residence Mandeville, Louisiana[3]
Alma mater IAPM (Ukraine)
(Ph.D., 2005)
Louisiana State University
(B.A., 1974)[4]
Occupation Author, political activist
Religion Christianity[5]
Website .comdavidduke

David Ernest Duke (born July 1, 1950) is an American white nationalist, antisemitic conspiracy theorist, far-right politician, and former Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan.[6][7] A former one-term Republican Louisiana State Representative, he was a candidate in the Democratic presidential primaries in 1988 and the Republican presidential primaries in 1992. Duke unsuccessfully ran for the Louisiana State Senate, United States Senate, United States House of Representatives, and Governor of Louisiana. Duke is a felon, having pleaded guilty to defrauding supporters by falsely claiming to have no money and being in danger of losing his home in order to solicit emergency donations; at the time, Duke was financially secure, and used the donations for recreational gambling.[8]

Duke describes himself as a "racial realist," asserting that "all people have a basic human right to preserve their own heritage."[9] Duke also speaks against what he describes as Jewish control of the Federal Reserve Bank, the U.S. federal government and the media. Duke supports the preservation of what he considers to be Western culture and traditionalist Christian family values, Constitutionalism, abolition of the Internal Revenue Service, voluntary racial segregation, anti-Communism and white separatism.[10][11][12] He also opposes what he considers to be "promotion of homosexuality" by Jews.[13]

Contents

  • Youth and early adulthood 1
  • Family and personal life 2
  • Political activities 3
    • Early campaigns 3.1
    • 1988 presidential campaign 3.2
    • 1989: Successful run in special election for Louisiana House seat 3.3
    • 1990 campaign for U.S. Senate 3.4
    • 1991 campaign for Governor of Louisiana 3.5
    • 1992 Republican Party presidential candidate 3.6
    • 1996 campaign for U.S. Senate 3.7
    • 1999 campaign for U.S. House 3.8
    • Later political activity 3.9
  • Affiliations 4
    • Knights of the Ku Klux Klan 4.1
    • NAAWP 4.2
    • Ernst Zündel and the Zundelsite 4.3
    • 2005 doctorate 4.4
    • Stormfront 4.5
    • British National Party 4.6
  • New Orleans Protocol 5
  • Publications 6
    • Finders-Keepers 6.1
    • My Awakening 6.2
    • Jewish supremacism 6.3
  • Internet broadcast 7
  • Public appearances 8
    • Public address in Syria 8.1
    • Comments in the media 8.2
    • Conferences 8.3
  • Criticism, legal difficulties, and felony conviction 9
    • Critical publications 9.1
    • Tax fraud conviction 9.2
    • 2009 arrest in the Czech Republic 9.3
    • 2013 expulsion from Italy; Schengen Area ban 9.4
  • Electoral history 10
  • Self-published books 11
  • Notes 12
  • References 13
  • Further reading 14
  • External links 15
    • Filmography 15.1
    • Interviews 15.2

Youth and early adulthood

David Duke was born in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to David Duke Sr. and Alice Maxine Crick. As the son of an engineer for Shell Oil Company, Duke frequently moved with his family around the world. They lived a short time in the Netherlands before settling in Louisiana. In the late 1960s, Duke met William Luther Pierce, the leader of the white nationalist and antisemitic National Alliance, who would remain a lifelong influence on him. Duke joined the KKK in 1967.[14]

In 1968, Duke enrolled at Louisiana State University (LSU) in Baton Rouge, and in 1970, he formed a white student group called the White Youth Alliance that was affiliated with the National Socialist White People's Party. The same year, to protest William Kunstler's appearance at Tulane University in New Orleans, Duke appeared at a demonstration in Nazi uniform. Picketing and holding parties on the anniversary of Hitler's birth, he became notorious on the LSU campus for wearing a Nazi uniform.[15]

Duke claimed to have spent nine months in Laos, calling that a "normal tour of duty". He actually went there to join his father, who was working there and had asked him to visit during the summer of 1971.[16] His father got him a job teaching English to Laotian military officers, from which he was dismissed after six weeks when he drew a Molotov cocktail on the blackboard.[17] He also claimed to have gone behind enemy lines 20 times at night to drop rice to anti-communist insurgents in planes flying 10 feet (3.0 m) off the ground, narrowly avoiding receiving a shrapnel wound. Two Air America pilots who were in Laos at that time said that flights were during the day and flew no less than 500 feet (150 m) feet from the ground. One suggested that it might have been possible for Duke to have gone on a safe "milk run" once or twice but no more than that. Duke was also unable to recall the name of the airfield used.[16]

Duke graduated from LSU in 1974. During this time he spent what would have been his senior year organizing the National Party.[18]

Family and personal life

While working in the White Youth Alliance, Duke met Chloê Hardin, who was also active in the group. They remained companions throughout college and married in 1974. Hardin is the mother of Duke's two daughters, Erika and Kristin. The Dukes divorced in 1984,[19] and Chloe moved to [21]

In January 1972, Duke was arrested in New Orleans for "inciting to riot". Several racial confrontations broke out that month in the Crescent City, including one at the Robert E. Lee Monument involving Duke, Addison Roswell Thompson—a perennial segregationist candidate for governor of Louisiana and mayor of New Orleans—and his 89-year-old friend and mentor, Rene LaCoste (not to be confused with the French tennis player René Lacoste). Thompson and LaCoste dressed in Klan robes for the occasion and placed a Confederate flag at the monument. The Black Panthers began throwing bricks at the pair, but police arrived in time to prevent serious injury.[22]

In 2009, it was confirmed that David Duke was living in Zell am See in Salzburg, Austria,[23] from which he ran the Internet business "Art by Ernst", taking and selling photographs of rare birds, mountain scenery and wildlife[24][25] under the pseudonym "Ernst Duke" (Germanized version of Duke's middle name, Ernest).[26][27] Local authorities stated at the time that as long as he did not break any laws, Duke would be allowed to stay in Austria if he wished.[28] Duke stated: "I'm not in Austria for any political activities. I just come to Austria to relax – the mountains are beautiful. The Austrian Alps are just beautiful. There's beauty all over the world." In May 2009, Duke issued a statement denying that he resides in Austria and saying that he is a resident of Mandeville in St. Tammany Parish and is registered as a taxpayer in his city, state and on the national level.[29] In January 2015 Duke stated: "I am not registered to vote right now. I have legally been able to vote for years but I haven't registered right now and I'd be able to vote for, but I might just register".[30] As of October 3, 2015, Duke is not listed as a registered voter in Louisiana.[31]

Political activities

Early campaigns

Duke first ran for the Louisiana Senate as a Clearwater Sun after Duke allegedly refused to turn over proceeds from a series of 1979 Klan rallies to the Knights. Another Klan official under Duke, Jerry Dutton, told reporters that Duke had used Klan funds to purchase and refurbish his home in Metairie. Duke later justified the repairs by saying most of his home was used by the Klan. In 1979, after his first, abortive run for president (as a Democrat) and a series of highly publicized violent Klan incidents, Duke quietly incorporated the nonprofit National Association for the Advancement of White People (NAAWP) in an attempt to leave the baggage of the Klan behind.[35]

1988 presidential campaign

In 1988, Duke ran initially in the Democratic presidential primaries. His campaign failed to make much of an impact, with the one notable exception of winning the little-known New Hampshire Vice-Presidential primary.[36] Duke, having failed to gain much traction as a Democrat, then successfully sought the Presidential nomination of the Populist Party.[37] He appeared on the ballot for president in 11 states and was a write-in candidate in some other states, some with Trenton Stokes of Arkansas for vice president, and on other state ballots with Floyd Parker for vice president. He received just 47,047 votes, for 0.04 percent of the combined, national popular vote.[38]

1989: Successful run in special election for Louisiana House seat

In December 1988, Duke changed his political affiliation from the Democratic Party to the Republican Party.[2]

In 1988, Republican State Representative Ronald Reagan, and other notable Republicans,[40] as well as Democrats Victor Bussie (president of the Louisiana AFL-CIO) and Edward J. Steimel (president of the Louisiana Association of Business and Industry and former director of the "good government" think tank, the Public Affairs Research Council). Duke, however, hammered Treen on a statement the latter had made indicating a willingness to entertain higher property taxes, anathema in that suburban district.[41] Duke, with 8,459 votes (50.7%) defeated Treen, who polled 8,232 votes (49.3%).[42] He served in the House from 1989 until 1992.[43]

Freshman legislator Odon Bacqué of Lafayette, a No Party member of the House, stood alone in 1989 when he attempted to deny seating to Duke on the grounds that the incoming representative had resided outside his district at the time of his election. When John Treen failed in a court challenge in regard to Duke's residency, Duke was seated. Lawmakers who opposed Duke said that they had to defer to his constituents who narrowly chose Duke as representative.[44]

Duke took his seat on the same day as Jerry Luke LeBlanc of Lafayette Parish, who won another special election held on the same day as the Duke-Treen runoff to choose a successor to Kathleen Blanco, the future governor who was elected to the Louisiana Public Service Commission. Duke and LeBlanc were sworn in separately.

Colleague Ron Gomez of Lafayette stated that Duke, as a short-term legislator, was "so single minded, he never really became involved in the nuts and bolts of House rules and parliamentary procedure. It was just that shortcoming that led to the demise of most of his attempts at lawmaking."[45]

One legislative issue pushed by Duke was the requirement that welfare recipients be tested for the use of narcotics. The recipients had to show themselves to be drug-free to receive state and federal benefits under his proposal.[46]

Gomez, a long-time journalist, recalls having met and interviewed Duke in the middle 1970s when Duke was a state senate candidate: "He was still in his mid-20s and very non-descript. Tall and slimly built, he had a very prominent nose, flat cheek bones, a slightly receding chin and straight dark brown hair. The interview turned out to be quite innocuous, and I hadn't thought about it again until Duke came to my legislative desk, and we shook hands. Who was this guy? Tall and well-built with a perfect nose, a model's cheek bones, prominent chin, blue eyes and freshly coiffed blond hair, he looked like a movie star. He obviously didn't remember from the radio encounter, and I was content to leave it at that."[47]

Consistent with Gomez's observation, Duke in the latter 1980s reportedly had his nose thinned and chin augmented. Following his election to the Louisiana House of Representatives, he shaved his mustache.[48][49][50]

Gomez, in his 2000 autobiography, wrote about Duke: "He once presented a bill on the floor, one of the few which he had managed to get out of committee. He finished his opening presentation and strolled with great self-satisfaction back up the aisle to his seat. In his mind, he had spoken, made his presentation and that was that. Before he had even reached his desk and re-focused on the proceedings, another first-term member had been recognized for the floor and immediately moved to table the bill. The House voted for the motions effectively killing the bill. That and similar procedures were used against him many times."[51] Gomez said that he recalls Duke obtaining the passage of only a single bill, legislation which prohibited movie producers or book publishers from compensating jurors for accounts of their court experiences.[52]

Gomez added that Duke's "tenure in the House was short and uninspired. Never has anyone parlayed an election by such a narrow margin to such a minor position to such international prominence. He has run for numerous other positions without success but has always had some effect, usually negative, on the outcome."[53]

Gomez continued: Duke's "new message was that he had left the Klan, shed the Nazi uniform he had proudly worn in many previous appearances, and only wanted to serve the people. He eliminated his high-octane anti-Semitic rhetoric. He was particularly concerned with the plight of 'European-Americans.' He never blatantly spoke of race as a factor but referred to the 'growing underclass.' He used the tried and true demagoguery of class envy to sell his message: excessive taxpayers' money spent on welfare, school busing practices, affirmative action... and set-aside programs. He also embraced a subject near and dear to every Jefferson Parish voter, protection of the homestead exemption."[54]

Duke launched unsuccessful campaigns for the

Louisiana House of Representatives
Preceded by
Chuck Cusimano
State Representative, 81st Representative District
1989–1992
Succeeded by
David Vitter
  • The Nationalist Report: Interview with David Duke
  • The Sunic Journal: Interview with David Duke

Interviews

  • David Duke at the Internet Movie Database
  • David Duke speaks in his Presidential campaign in Washington 1991 on C-SPAN
  • David Duke speaks in his Presidential campaign in Massachusetts 1992 on C-SPAN
  • David Duke withdraws his Presidential campaign, April 1992
  • David Duke interview on "My Awakening" on C-SPAN, Mar 30, 1999
  • David Duke on The Outrageous Racist Hypocrisy of Israel and World Zionism! on YouTube, June 18, 2012

Filmography

  • Official website

External links

Further reading

  • Bridges, Tyler. "The Rise of David Duke" (Mississippi University Press, 1995; 300 pages) ISBN 0-87805-678-5
  • Rose; Douglas D. The Emergence of David Duke and the Politics of Race. University of North Carolina Press. 1992
  • Zatarain, Michael "David Duke: Evolution of a Klansman" (Pelican Publishing Company, 1990; Gretna, Louisiana; 304 pages) ISBN 0-88289-817-5
  • Interviews with Dutch nationalist Alfred Vierling [1] [2]
  • "Ex-Klan Leader Is Popular in Europe, Mideast, Even as He Heads to Jail Here", The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, April 13, 2003 by John McQuaid

References

  1. ^
  2. ^ a b
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^ a b David Duke pleads to mail fraud, tax charges USA Today. 18 December 2002. Accessed on 18 July 2015.
  9. ^
  10. ^ a b
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^ Issues '92 Profile: David Duke; The Orange County Register. Santa Ana, California: March 2, 1992. pp. a.04
  15. ^ a b c
  16. ^ a b
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^ The Rise of David Duke, Tyler Bridges, pg. 80, 1994
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^ Gruene.at Archived September 27, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
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  36. ^
  37. ^ Our Campaigns – US President – Pop Convention Race, March 11, 1988]
  38. ^ D.C. Finegold-Sachs (2005). D.C.'s Political Report. 1988 Presidential Candidates; retrieved on 2009-04-04.
  39. ^
  40. ^ "GOP Condemns Duke" Newsday. Long Island, N.Y.: February 25, 1989, pg. 9
  41. ^ Douglas D. Rose, The Emergence of David Duke and the Politics of Race (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992), p. iii (ISBN 978-0-8078-4381-9); see also Michael Zatarain, David Duke: Evolution of a Klansman (Gretna, LA: Pelican, 1990), ISBN 0-88289-817-5, ISBN 978-0-88289-817-9.
  42. ^
  43. ^
  44. ^ Ron Gomez, "David Duke? He's Just Another Freshman", My Name Is Ron And I'm a Recovering Legislator: Memoirs of a Louisiana State Representative, Lafayette, Louisiana: Zemog Publishing, 2000, pp. 157-164; ISBN 0-9700156-0-7
  45. ^ Gomez, My Name Is Ron And I'm a Recovering Legislator, pg. 230
  46. ^ "Duke welfare bill wins panel favor," Minden Press-Herald, May 9, 1989, pg. 1
  47. ^ Gomez, Recovering Legislator, pg. 228. Gomez has implied that Duke had a facelift by the time he entered the legislature.
  48. ^
  49. ^
  50. ^
  51. ^ Ron Gomez, p. 230
  52. ^ Gomez, Recovering Legislator, pgs. 231-2
  53. ^ Gomez, Recovering Legislator, pg. 231
  54. ^ Gomez, Recovering Legislator, pg. 222
  55. ^
  56. ^ "Duke undecided on Senate race", Minden Press-Herald, November 6, 1989, p. 1
  57. ^ a b
  58. ^ "Can Johnston be beaten?", Minden Press-Herald, November 19, 1989, p. 1
  59. ^ "Treen: Renounce David Duke's 'garbage'", Minden Press-Herald, December 22, 1989, p. 7A
  60. ^
  61. ^
  62. ^
  63. ^
  64. ^
  65. ^ "David Duke Going for U.S. Senate seat" Sheila Grissett East Jefferson bureau. The Times-Picayune New Orleans, La.: February 23, 1996. pg. B1
  66. ^ a b Suro, Roberto (November 7, 1991). "THE 1991 ELECTION: Louisiana; Bush Denounces Duke As Racist and Charlatan." The New York Times
  67. ^
  68. ^ West, Paul. (October 21, 1991). "Winners set stage for racially charged La. runoff." The Baltimore Sun.
  69. ^ Stern, Kenneth (September 16, 2009). "Elizabeth Rickey, Derailed David Duke." The Jewish Daily Forward
  70. ^ Patricia Sullivan, "Beth Rickey dies with an immune disorder and Crohn's disease," Washington Post, September 16, 2009
  71. ^
  72. ^
  73. ^
  74. ^ Photo of bumper sticker, New Orleans, The Times-Picayune
  75. ^
  76. ^
  77. ^
  78. ^
  79. ^
  80. ^ David Duke Heads North to Raise Money for House Race" By Michael Janofsky, The New York Times, January 3, 1999
  81. ^ a b
  82. ^
  83. ^
  84. ^
  85. ^
  86. ^
  87. ^ a b
  88. ^
  89. ^
  90. ^
  91. ^ Dr. David Duke: The Zio Media Lies: I have not endorsed Donald Trump!, davidduke.com
  92. ^ A torrent of Zio-Media Lies: David Duke’s Trump endorsement that wasn’t!, davidduke.com
  93. ^ Rose, Douglas. The Emergence of David Duke and the Politics of Race University of North Carolina Press. 1992
  94. ^ "The Hatemongers Get a New Tailor." The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. Winter 1996/1997.
  95. ^
  96. ^
  97. ^
  98. ^
  99. ^
  100. ^
  101. ^
  102. ^
  103. ^
  104. ^ a b
  105. ^
  106. ^
  107. ^
  108. ^
  109. ^
  110. ^
  111. ^
  112. ^ "RedState, White Supremacy, and Responsibility", Daily Kos, December 5, 2005
  113. ^ Fox News Channel, May 8, 2003
  114. ^
  115. ^ Captmike works undercover with the US Government to stop the invasion of the Island Nation of Dominica. manana.com
  116. ^ Operation Red Dog: Canadian neo-nazis were central to the planned invasion of Dominica in 1981 canadiancontent.ca
  117. ^ April 2000 meeting
  118. ^ a b
  119. ^ a b
  120. ^ a b
  121. ^ a b c
  122. ^
  123. ^ Splcenter.org
  124. ^
  125. ^
  126. ^
  127. ^
  128. ^
  129. ^ The Official Website of Representative David Duke, PhD » Day 1 of the 21 Day Fundraising Drive for the New, Updated Edition of My Awakening
  130. ^
  131. ^ David Duke in Russia. Anti-Defamation League. January 31, 2002. Retrieved on November 16, 2006.]
  132. ^ "Закрыто дело Миронова", Русский вестник, 2001-12-19. Retrieved on November 16, 2006. (Russian)]
  133. ^
  134. ^ Duke, David.: Author's PrefaceJewish Supremacism
  135. ^ a b The Official Website of Representative David Duke Archived April 8, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  136. ^ ISBN 978-952-92-8137-4
  137. ^ Davidduke.com Archived October 22, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  138. ^ Duke, David. Mearsheimer and Free Speech Issues MP3, October 11, 2006
  139. ^ Duke, David. Duke Responds to Walt and Mearsheimer! MP3, October 10, 2006
  140. ^ Duke, David. More Fallout from Walt and Mearsheimer MP3, May 19, 2006
  141. ^ The Official Website of Representative David Duke Archived July 7, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  142. ^ Lake, Eli. "David Duke Claims to Be Vindicated By a Harvard Dean", The New York Sun, March 20, 2006. Accessed March 28, 2006.
  143. ^
  144. ^
  145. ^ Ariel Sharon: The terrorist behind the 9-11 Attack! by David Duke
  146. ^ a b
  147. ^
  148. ^ David Duke in Syria: Zionists Occupy Washington, NY and London by Ezra HaLevi, IsraelNationalNews.com, November 29, 2005.
  149. ^ Screenshot whoknew.us
  150. ^ Interview with David Duke broadcast on "Bridges TV" network
  151. ^ 'Scarborough Country' for March 21, show transcript, MSNBC, March 21, 2006.
  152. ^
  153. ^ Assassination Attempt Against David Duke Fails by David Duke
  154. ^ Historic Moscow Conference davidduke.com
  155. ^ "Iranian leader says Israel will be ‘wiped out’: Ahmadinejad renews heated rhetoric at meeting of Holocaust deniers", Associated Press, December 12, 2006
  156. ^
  157. ^
  158. ^ Troubled Memory: Anne Levy, the Holocaust and David Duke's Louisiana Info from Book Cover by Publisher
  159. ^ The New York Times
  160. ^ David Duke Gets 15-Month Sentence for Fraud FoxNews.com
  161. ^ Ex-Klan Leader David Duke Indicted CBSNews.com
  162. ^ Duke pleads guilty to fraud, false tax claims CNN.com
  163. ^ David Duke Pleads To Federal Charges Bill of Information for Mail Fraud and False Statements on an Income Tax Return
  164. ^
  165. ^ Edelweiß für den Grand Wizard, Jungle World, Nr. 22, 28. May 2009
  166. ^ a b Czech police arrest former Ku Klux Klan leader Duke, ČTK, April 24, 2009.
  167. ^ Ex-Louisiana KKK chief arrested in Prague: Police, Agence France-Presse (reprinted by Canada.com), April 24, 2009.
  168. ^ Former KKK leader ordered to leave Czech Republic, Associated Press (reprinted by the Kansas City Star), April 24, 2009.
  169. ^ Former Ku Klux Klan leader released, must leave Czech Republic, ČTK, April 25, 2009.
  170. ^
  171. ^ Prague university bans lecture by David Duke, Associated Press (reprinted by USA Today), April 21, 2009.
  172. ^
  173. ^ a b

Notes

  • Duke, David "Jewish Supremacism" (Free Speech Press, 2003; 350 pages) ISBN 1-892796-05-8
  • Duke, David "Jewish Supremacism" Book preview available on Google Books
  • Duke, David "My Awakening" (Free Speech Books, 1998; 736 pages) ISBN 1-892796-00-7

Self-published books

Electoral history

In 2013, an Italian court ruled in favor of expelling Duke from Italy.[173] Duke, then 63, was living in a mountain village Valle di Cadore in northern Italy. Although Duke had been issued a visa to live there by the Italian embassy in Malta, Italian police later found that Switzerland had issued a residence ban against Duke that applied throughout Europe's Schengen Area. Duke's attorney said he had not decided, as of December 5, 2013, whether or not to appeal the decision.[173]

2013 expulsion from Italy; Schengen Area ban

In September 2009, the office of the District Prosecutor for Prague dropped all charges, explaining that there was no evidence that David Duke had committed any crime.[172]

Duke's first lecture had been scheduled at Charles University in Prague, but it was canceled after university officials learned that neo-Nazis were planning to attend.[171] Some Czech politicians, including Interior Minister Ivan Langer and Human Rights and Minorities Minister Michael Kocáb, had previously expressed opposition to Duke's being allowed entrance into the Czech Republic[166]

The police released him early on April 25, on condition that he leave the country by midnight that same day.[168][169][170]

In April 2009, Duke traveled to the Czech Republic on invitation by a Czech neo-Nazi group known as Národní Odpor ("National Resistance") to deliver three lectures in Prague and Brno to promote the Czech translation of his book My Awakening.[165] He was arrested on April 23 on suspicion of "denying or approving of the Nazi genocide and other Nazi crimes" and "promotion of movements seeking suppression of human rights," which are crimes in the Czech Republic punishable by up to three years' imprisonment. At the time of his arrest, Duke was reportedly guarded by members of the Národní Odpor.[166][167]

2009 arrest in the Czech Republic

Duke supporter Don Black claims that Duke was targeted by the government to discredit him.[164]

The Smoking Gun posted the entire file of court documents related to this case at its website, including details on Duke's guilty pleas.[163]

The mail fraud charges stemmed from what prosecutors described as a six-year scheme to dupe thousands of his followers by asking for donations. Using the postal service, Duke appealed to his supporters for funds by fraudulently stating he was about to lose his house and his life savings. Prosecutors alleged that Duke raised hundreds of thousands of dollars in this scheme. Prosecutors also stipulated that in contrast to what he stated in the mailings, he sold his home at a hefty profit, had multiple investment accounts, and spent much of his money gambling at casinos.[160][161][162]

Four months later, Duke was sentenced to 15 months in prison, and he served the time in Big Spring, Texas. He was also fined US$10,000, ordered to cooperate with the Internal Revenue Service, and to pay money still owed for his 1998 taxes. Following his release in May 2004, he stated that his decision to take the plea bargain was motivated by the bias that he perceived in the United States federal court system and not his guilt. He said he felt the charges were contrived to derail his political career and discredit him to his followers, and that he took the safe route by pleading guilty and receiving a mitigated sentence, rather than pleading not guilty and potentially receiving the full sentence.

On December 12, 2002, David Duke pleaded guilty to the felony charge of filing a false tax return under 26 U.S.C. § 7206 and mail fraud under 18 U.S.C. § 1341[8] According to the New York Times: "Mr. Duke was accused of telling supporters that he was in financial straits, then misusing the money they sent him from 1993 to 1999. He was also accused of filing a false 1998 tax return.... Mr. Duke used the money for personal investments and gambling trips.... [T]he [supporter] contributions were as small as $5 and [according to the United States attorney, Jim Letten] there were so many that returning the money would be 'unwieldy.'"[159]

Tax fraud conviction

In Troubled Memory: Anne Levy, the Holocaust and David Duke's Louisiana[156][157] Lawrence N. Powell, a founding member of the Louisiana Coalition Against Racism and Nazism, depicts the "story of Anne Skorecki Levy, a Holocaust survivor who transformed the horrors of her childhood into a passionate mission to defeat the political menace of reputed neo-Nazi and Ku Klux Klan leader David Duke." [158]

Critical publications

Criticism, legal difficulties, and felony conviction

On the weekend of June 8–10, 2006, Duke attended as a speaker at the international "White World's Future" conference in Moscow, which was coordinated and hosted by Pavel Tulayev.[154] From December 11–13, Duke attended the International Conference to Review the Global Vision of the Holocaust in Tehran, Iran, opened by Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, stating "The Holocaust is the device used as the pillar of Zionist imperialism, Zionist aggression, Zionist terror and Zionist murder."[155]

Duke claims that Swedish police thwarted an attempted assassination against him, in August 2005, while Duke was speaking in Sweden.[153]

On June 3, 2005, Duke co-chaired a conference named "Zionism As the Biggest Threat to Modern Civilization" in Ukraine, sponsored by the Interregional Academy of Personnel Management. The conference was attended by several notable Ukrainian public figures and politicians, and writer Israel Shamir.[152]

Duke organized a gathering of European Nationalists who signed the New Orleans Protocol on May 29, 2004. The signatories agreed to avoid infighting among far-right racialists.

Conferences

After Mearsheimer and Walt's paper on the Israel lobby appeared in March 2006, Duke praised the paper in a number of articles on his website, on his March 18 web broadcast, and on MSNBC's March 21 Scarborough Country program.[151] According to The New York Sun, Duke said in an email, "It is quite satisfying to see a body in the premier American university essentially come out and validate every major point I have been making since even before the war even started." Duke added that "the task before us is to wrest control of America's foreign policy and critical junctures of media from the Jewish extremist Neocons that seek to lead us into what they expectantly call World War IV."

Since 2005, Duke has appeared three times on Current Issues, a Lafayette, Louisiana–based television show hosted and produced by Palestinian-American Hesham Tillawi, which has recently been picked up by Bridges TV. Tillawi gave Duke the opportunity to discourse at length about his beliefs on Jewish supremacism. On a show in October 2005, Duke claimed that Jewish extremists are responsible for undermining the morality of America and are attempting to "wash the world in blood."[150]

Comments in the media

On November 24, 2005, Duke visited Damascus, Syria, addressing a rally broadcast on Syrian television and giving an interview.[146][147] During the rally, he referred to Israel as a "war-mongering country" and stated that Zionists "occupy most of the American media and now control much of the American government…It is not just the West Bank of Palestine, it is not just the Golan Heights that are occupied by the Zionists, but Washington D.C. and New York and London and many other capitals of the world.” He concluded by stating: "Your fight for freedom is the same as our fight for freedom.” In a second interview, he said Israel "makes the Nazi state look very, very moderate." Syrian parliament member Mohammad Habash later stated that Duke's visit gave Syrians a "new and very positive view of the average American."[146][148][149]

Public address in Syria

Public appearances

On his show on February 4, 2009, Duke repeatedly called MSNBC pundit Keith Olbermann "untermensch" in response to being labeled "Worst Person in the World" on Countdown with Keith Olbermann.

On February 5, 2002, Duke said on his Internet broadcast that Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon was "the world's worst terrorist" and that Mossad was involved in the September 11 attacks. The broadcast said that Zionists were behind the attacks in order to reduce sympathy for Muslim nations in the West, and that the number of Israelis killed in the attack was lower than it would be under normal circumstances, citing early assessments by The Jerusalem Post and "the legendary involvement of Israeli nationals in businesses at the World Trade Center". According to Duke, this indicated that Israeli security services had prior knowledge of the attack.[145]

Internet broadcast

His website has hosted articles by various authors claiming that Jewish loan-sharks own the Federal Reserve Bank,[143] and that Jews own Hollywood and the U.S. media.[144]

In 2006, Duke said his views had been "vindicated" with the publication of The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy by professors John Mearsheimer and Stephen Walt, and said he was "surprised how excellent [the paper] is". Duke dedicated several radio webcasts to the book and the authors comparing it to his work Jewish Supremacism,[138][139][140][141] although Walt stated: "I have always found Mr. Duke's views reprehensible, and I am sorry he sees this article as consistent with his view of the world".[142]

In 2004, the book was published in the United States. Originally published in English and Russian, the book has subsequently been translated internationally into Swedish, Ukrainian, Persian, Hungarian, Spanish[135] and most recently (2010) into Finnish.[136] In 2007, an updated edition was published[137] which Duke purports to be a "fine quality hardback edition with full color dust jacket and it has a new index and a number of timely additions".[135]

The ADL refer to the book as antisemitic,[133] though Duke had denied the book is motivated by antisemitism.[134] At one time, the book was sold in the main lobby of the building of Russian State Duma (lower house of parliament). The first printing of 5,000 copies sold out in several weeks.

The ADL office in Moscow urged the Moscow prosecutor to open an investigation into Mironov. The ADL office initiated a letter from Alexander Fedulov, a prominent member of the Duma, to Prosecutor General Vladimir Ustinov, urging a criminal case be opened against the author and the Russian publisher of Duke's book. In his letter, Fedulov described the book as antisemitic and a violation of Russian anti-hate crime laws.[131] Around December 2001, the prosecutor's office closed the investigation of Boris Mironov and Jewish Supremacism. In a public letter, Yury Biryukov, First Deputy of the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation, stated that a psychological examination, which was conducted as a part of the investigation, concluded that the book and the actions of Boris Mironov did not break Russian hate-crime laws.[132]

In 2001, Duke traveled to Russia to promote his next book, Jewish Supremacism: My Awakening to the Jewish Question. The book purports to "examine and document elements of ethnic supremacism that have existed in the Jewish community from historical to modern times."[130] The book is dedicated to Israel Shahak, a critical author of what Shahak saw as supremacist religious teachings in Jewish culture. Former Boris Yeltsin press minister Boris Mironov wrote an introduction for the Russian edition, printed under the title The Jewish Question Through the Eyes of an American.

David Duke (right) and Udo Voigt (left), the former leader of the National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD), shaking hands.

Jewish supremacism

To raise the money to re-publish a new, updated edition of My Awakening, Duke instigated a 21-day fundraising drive on November 26, 2007, stating he had to raise "$25,344 by a December 17 deadline for the printers."[129] Duke states the drive was necessary because the work "has become the most important book in the entire world in the effort to awaken our people for our heritage and freedom."

The Anti-Defamation League book review refers to it as containing racist, antisemitic, sexist and homophobic views.[128]

We [Whites] desire to live in our own neighborhoods, go to our own schools, work in our own cities and towns, and ultimately live as one extended family in our own nation. We shall end the racial genocide of integration. We shall work for the eventual establishment of a separate homeland for African Americans, so each race will be free to pursue its own destiny without racial conflicts and ill will.[10]

In 1998, Duke published the autobiographical My Awakening: A Path to Racial Understanding. The book details Duke's social philosophies, particularly his reasoning behind racial separation. In the book, Duke writes:

My Awakening

To raise money in 1976, Duke (using the double pseudonym "Dorothy Vanderbilt" and "James Konrad") wrote a self-help book for women, Finders-Keepers: Finding and Keeping the Man You Want, which contains sexual, diet, fashion, cosmetic and relationship advice, and was published by the now defunct Arlington Place Books. Tulane University history professor Lawrence N. Powell, who read a rare copy of the book given to him by journalist Patsy Sims, wrote that it includes advice on vaginal exercises, fellatio, and anal sex.[124][125][126] The book is out of print and difficult to find; however, according to journalist Tyler Bridges, The Times-Picayune obtained a copy and traced its proceeds to Duke,[127] who compiled the content from women's self-help magazines.[15]

Finders-Keepers

Publications

The SPLC noted that the "high tone" of the NOP contrasted with statements at the event where the pact was signed, such as Paul Fromm calling a Muslim woman "a hag in a bag" and Sam Dickson (from the Council of Conservative Citizens, another sponsor) speaking about the "very, very destructive" effect of opposing the Nazis in World War II – opposition that caused people to view Hitler's "normal, healthy racial values" as evil.[121] The SPLC described the NOP as a "smokescreen", saying that "most of conference participants' ire was directed at what they consider to be a worldwide Jewish conspiracy to destroy the white race through immigration and miscegenation".[123]

Those who signed the pact on May 29, 2004, include Duke, Don Black, Paul Fromm, Willis Carto (whose holocaust-denying Barnes Review helped sponsor the event), Kevin Alfred Strom, and John Tyndall (signing as an individual, not on behalf of his British National Party).[121]

  1. "Zero tolerance for violence."
  2. "Honorable and ethical behavior in relations with other signatory groups. This includes not denouncing others who have signed this protocol. In other words, no enemies on the right."
  3. "Maintaining a high tone in our arguments and public presentations."

[122][121] Duke organized a weekend gathering of "European Nationalists", in the vein of white nationalism, in

New Orleans Protocol

This was widely reported in the media of the United Kingdom, as well as the meeting between Duke and Griffin, following electoral successes made by the party in 2009.[118][119][120]

instead of talking about racial purity, we talk about identity ... that means basically to use the saleable words, as I say, freedom, security, identity, democracy. Nobody can criticise them. Nobody can come at you and attack you on those ideas. They are saleable.
— Nick Griffin[118][119][120]

In 2000, Nick Griffin (then leader of the British National Party in the United Kingdom) met with Duke at a seminar with the American Friends of the British National Party.[117] This meeting, as well as a quote from Griffin where he said:

British National Party

In 1995, Don Black and Chloê Hardin, Duke's ex-wife, began a small bulletin board system (BBS) called Stormfront. Today, Stormfront has become a prominent online forum for white nationalism, white separatism, holocaust denial, Neo-Nazism, hate speech and racism.[112][113][114] Duke is an active user on Stormfront, where he posts articles from his own website and polls forum members for opinions and questions, in particular during his Internet broadcasts. Duke has worked with Don Black on numerous projects including Operation Red Dog in 1980.[115][116]

Stormfront

[111] Duke has taught an international relations and a history course at MAUP.[110] The Anti-Defamation League describes it as a "University of Hate".[109][108][107][106] Anti-Defamation League claims that MAUP is the main source of [104] His doctoral thesis was titled "Zionism as a Form of Ethnic Supremacism."

In September 2005, Duke received a Candidate of Sciences degree in history from the Ukrainian Interregional Academy of Personnel Management (MAUP).[104] On his website, Duke now refers to himself as "Dr. David Duke PhD." and "Dr. Duke."

2005 doctorate

Duke has expressed his support for Holocaust denier Ernst Zündel, a German emigrant in Canada. Duke made a number of statements supporting Zündel and his Holocaust denial campaign.[98][99][100][101] After the aging Zündel was deported from Canada to Germany[102] and imprisoned in Germany on charges of inciting the masses to ethnic hatred,[103] Duke referred to him as a "political prisoner".

Ernst Zündel and the Zundelsite

[97] In 1980, Duke left the Klan and formed the

NAAWP

[96] he left the Klan in 1980 because he disliked its associations with violence and could not stop the members of other Klan chapters from doing "stupid or violent things."The Daily Telegraph Duke would repeatedly insist that the Klan was "not anti-black", but rather "pro-white" and "pro-Christian." Duke told [95] In 1974, Duke founded the Louisiana-based

Knights of the Ku Klux Klan

Affiliations

In 2015, it was reported in the media that Duke endorsed 2016 presidential nominee Donald Trump for president.[89][90] Duke responded on his personal website, saying he had not actually endorsed Trump.[91][92]

Duke claimed that thousands of Tea Party movement activists had urged him to run for president in 2012,[86][87] and that he was seriously considering entering the Republican Party primaries.[87] However, Duke ultimately did not contest the primaries won by Mitt Romney, who lost in the presidential election to incumbent Barack Obama.[88]

In 2004, Duke's bodyguard, roommate, and longtime associate Roy Armstrong made a bid for the United States House of Representatives, running as a Democrat, to serve Louisiana's First Congressional District. In the open primary, Armstrong finished second in the six candidate field with 6.69% of the vote, but Republican Bobby Jindal received 78.40% winning the seat.[83] Duke was the head advisor of Armstrong's campaign.[84][85]

Later political activity

A special election was held in Louisiana's First Congressional District following the sudden resignation of powerful Republican incumbent Bob Livingston in 1999. Duke sought the seat as a Republican and received 19% of the vote. He finished a close third, thus failing to make the runoff. His candidacy was repudiated by the Republicans.[81] Republican Party chairman Jim Nicholson remarked: "There is no room in the party of Lincoln for a Klansman like David Duke."[81] Republican state representative David Vitter (now a U.S. Senator) went on to defeat former governor Treen. Also in the race was the New Orleans Republican leader Rob Couhig.[82]

1999 campaign for U.S. House

When Johnston announced his retirement in 1996, Duke ran again for the U.S. Senate. He polled 141,489 votes (11.5%). Former Republican state representative Woody Jenkins of Baton Rouge and Democrat Mary Landrieu of New Orleans, the former state treasurer, went into the general election contest. Duke was fourth in the nine-person, jungle primary race.[80]

1996 campaign for U.S. Senate

[79] explored the Backlash, investigated Duke's appeal among some white voters. Backlash: Race and the American Dream A 1992 film,

Duke ran as a Republican in the 1992 presidential primaries, although Republican Party officials tried to block his participation.[76] He received 119,115 (0.94%) votes[77] in the primaries, but no delegates to the national convention. His presidential campaign inspired a song, "David Duke Is Running For President," by ska punk band Skankin' Pickle.[78]

1992 Republican Party presidential candidate

Edwards received 1,057,031 votes (61.2%), while Duke's 671,009 votes represented 38.8% of the total. Duke nevertheless claimed victory, saying, "I won my constituency. I won 55% of the white vote," a statistic confirmed by exit polls.[15]

The runoff debate, held on November 6, 1991, received significant attention when journalist Norman Robinson questioned Duke. Robinson, who is African-American, told Duke that he was "scared" at the prospect of Duke winning the election because of his history of "diabolical, evil, vile" racist and antisemitic comments, some of which he read to Duke. He then pressed Duke for an apology and when Duke protested that Robinson was not being fair to him, Robinson replied that he didn't think Duke was being honest. Jason Berry of the Los Angeles Times called it "startling TV" and the "catalyst" for the "overwhelming" turnout of black voters who helped Edwards defeat Duke.[75]

Duke's rise garnered national media attention. While he gained the backing of the Edwin Edwards' campaign. Referencing Edwards' long-standing problem with accusations of corruption, popular bumper stickers read: "Vote for the Crook. It's Important",[73][74] and "Vote for the Lizard, not the Wizard." When a reporter asked Edwards what he needed to do to triumph over Duke, Edwards replied with a smile: "Stay alive."

Between the primary and the runoff, called the "general election" under Louisiana election rules (in which all candidates run on one ballot, regardless of party), white supremacist organizations from around the country contributed to Duke's campaign fund.[71][72]

The Louisiana Coalition against Racism and Nazism rallied against the election of Duke as governor. Beth Rickey, a moderate member of the Louisiana Republican State Central Committee and a PhD student at Tulane University, began to follow Duke to record his speeches and expose what she saw as instances of racist and neo-Nazi remarks. For a time, Duke took Rickey to lunch, introduced her to his daughters, telephoned her late at night, and tried to convince her of his worldview: the Holocaust was a myth, notorious Auschwitz physician Josef Mengele was a medical genius, and that blacks and Jews were responsible for various social ills. Rickey released transcripts of their conversations to the press and also provided evidence establishing that Duke sold Nazi literature (including Mein Kampf) from his legislative office and attended neo-Nazi political gatherings while he held elective office.[69][70]

[68] stated that "The President is absolutely opposed to the kind of racist statements that have come out of David Duke now and in the past."John H. Sununu White House Chief of Staff [66] The

Despite repudiation by the Republican Party,[64] Duke ran for governor of Louisiana in 1991. In the primary, Duke finished second to former governor Edwin W. Edwards in votes; thus, he faced Edwards in a runoff. In the initial round, Duke received 32 percent of the vote. Incumbent Governor Buddy Roemer, who had switched from the Democratic to Republican parties during his term, came in third with 27 percent of the vote. Duke effectively killed Roemer's bid for re-election. While Duke had a sizable core constituency of devoted supporters, many voted for him as a "protest vote" to register dissatisfaction with Louisiana's establishment politicians. During the campaign, Duke said he was the spokesman for the "white majority"[65] and, according to the New York Times, "equated the extermination of Jews in Nazi Germany with affirmative action programs in the United States."[66]

1991 campaign for Governor of Louisiana

In a 2006 editorial, Gideon Rachman (The Economist, the Financial Times) recalled interviewing Duke's 1990 campaign manager, who said, "The Jews just aren't a big issue in Louisiana. We keep telling David, stick to attacking the blacks. There's no point in going after the Jews, you just piss them off and nobody here cares about them anyway."[63]

Duke's views prompted some of his critics, including Republicans such as journalist Quin Hillyer, to form the Louisiana Coalition Against Racism and Nazism, which directed media attention to Duke's statements of hostility to blacks and Jews.[62]

The Republican Party officially endorsed state Senator Ben Bagert of New Orleans in a state convention on January 13, 1990, but national GOP officials in October, just days before the primary election, concluded that Bagert could not win. To avoid a runoff between Duke and Johnston, the GOP decided to surrender the primary to Johnston. Funding for Bagert's campaign was halted, and after initial protest, Bagert dropped out two days before the election. With such a late withdrawal, Bagert's name remained on the ballot, but his votes, most of which were presumably cast as absentee ballots, were not counted.[60][61] Duke received 43.51 percent (607,391 votes) of the primary vote to Johnston's 53.93 percent (752,902 votes).[57]

Former Governor David Treen, whose brother, John Treen, Duke had defeated for state representative in 1989, called Duke's senatorial platform "garbage. ... I think he is bad for our party because of his espousal of Nazism and racial superiority."[59]

Though Duke had first hesitated about entering the Senate race, he made his announcement of candidacy for the nonpartisan blanket primary held on October 6, 1990. Duke was the only Republican in competition against three Democrats, including incumbent U.S. Senator J. Bennett Johnston, Jr., of Shreveport,[57] whom Duke derided as "J. Benedict Johnston".[58]

Duke has often criticized federal policies that he believes discriminate against white people in favor of racial minorities. To that end he formed the controversial group, the "National Association for the Advancement of White People", a play on the African American civil rights group, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.[56]

1990 campaign for U.S. Senate

[55]

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