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Didcot

Didcot

Didcot viewed from Wittenham Clumps

Didcot town centre, including the modern art installation, 'The Swirl'
Didcot is located in Oxfordshire
Didcot
 Didcot shown within Oxfordshire
Population 26,920 (2011 census)[1]
OS grid reference
   – London  54.7m 
Civil parish Didcot
District South Oxfordshire
Shire county Oxfordshire
Region South East
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town Didcot
Postcode district OX11
Dialling code 01235
Police Thames Valley
Fire Oxfordshire
Ambulance South Central
EU Parliament South East England
UK Parliament Wantage
Website Didcot Town Council
List of places
UK
England
Oxfordshire

Didcot () or () is a town and civil parish in Oxfordshire about 9 miles (14 km) south of Oxford. Didcot is known for its railway junction, railway museum and power stations, and is the official gateway to the Science Vale: three large science and technology centres in the surrounding villages of Milton (Milton Park), Culham (Culham Science Centre) and Harwell (Harwell Science and Innovation Campus which includes Rutherford Appleton Laboratory).

Contents

  • History 1
    • Ancient and medieval 1.1
    • Early modern era 1.2
    • 19th & 20th centuries: Introduction of the Railway 1.3
      • Great Western Railway 1.3.1
      • Didcot, Newbury and Southampton Railway 1.3.2
    • 21st century 1.4
  • Railways 2
    • Didcot Railway Centre 2.1
    • Didcot Parkway station 2.2
  • Power stations 3
  • Military 4
  • Local government and representation 5
  • Health 6
  • Education 7
  • Sport and leisure 8
    • Parks, gardens and open spaces 8.1
  • Notable people 9
  • In popular media 10
  • Nearby places 11
  • References 12
  • Further reading 13
  • External links 14

History

Ancient and medieval

All Saints' parish church, dating to 1160

The area around present-day Didcot has been inhabited for at least 9000 years, a large scale archaeological dig between 2010–2013 produced finds from the Mesolithic, Neolithic, Iron Age and Bronze Ages.[2][3] During the Roman era the inhabitants of the area tried to drain the marshland by digging ditches through what is now the Ladygrove area north of the town near Long Wittenham, evidence of which was found during surveying in 1994.[4] A hoard of 126 gold Roman coins dating to around 160 CE was found just outside the village in 1995 by an enthusiast with a metal detector; this is now displayed at the Ashmolean Museum on loan from the British Museum.[5][6]

In early historical records Didcot was recorded as Dudcote and Doudecothe amongst other similar names, deriving from the personal name Dydda and the Anglosaxon word for house or shelter, cott.[7] The name is believed to be derived from that of Dida, a 7th-century Mercian sub-king who ruled the area around Oxford and was the father of Saint Frithuswith, now the patron saint of both Oxford and Oxford University.[8] Didcot was then a rural Berkshire village and remained that way for centuries, only occasionally appearing in records. At the time of the Domesday Book in 1086 Didcot was much smaller than several surrounding villages, including Harwell and Long Wittenham, which are now dwarfed by modern Didcot. Didcot was not explicitly named in the Domesday Book with the closest recorded settlement being Wibalditone, with 21 inhabitants and a church, the name possibly survives in Willington's Farm on the edge of Didcot's present-day Ladygrove Estate.[9] Parts of the original village still exist in the Lydalls Road area where the Church of England parish church of All Saints is located, the church's nave walls dates from 1160.[10]

Early modern era

White Cottage, the oldest house in Didcot.

In the 1500s Didcot was a small village of landowners, tenants and tradespeople with a population of around 120.[11] The oldest house still standing in Didcot is White Cottage, a Grade II listed wood shingle roofed, timber-framed building on Manor Road which was built in the early 16th Century.[12] At this time the village centre consisted of a collection of small houses and surrounding farms around Manor, Foxhall and Lydalls Roads, those still standing include The Nook, Thorney Down Cottage and Manor Cottage which were all constructed in the early to mid-17th Century.[10] Didcot village was on the route between London and Wantage (present day Wantage Road) and hosted three turnpikes (toll gates). These brought in revenue for local landowners and gentry and operated between 1752 and 1879 when they were abolished due to the growing use of the railway.[10]

19th & 20th centuries: Introduction of the Railway

Great Western Railway

View of the Didcot Power Station in 2005 from Platform 3 of Didcot Parkway. Three of the cooling towers in the distance were demolished in July 2014.

The Great Western Railway, engineered by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, reached Didcot in 1839. In 1844 the Brunel-designed Didcot station was opened. The original station burnt down in the later part of 19th century. The more obvious alignment for the original line to Bristol would have been Abingdon-on-Thames slightly farther north, but the landowner, Lord Wantage, is reputed to have prevented the railway coming close to the town.[13] This and the junction of the Great Western line to Oxford created the conditions for the future growth of Didcot. The station's name also finally fixed the spelling of Didcot.

Didcot, Newbury and Southampton Railway

Didcot's junction of the routes to London, Bristol, Oxford and to Southampton via the Didcot, Newbury and Southampton Railway (DN&S) made the town of strategic importance to military logistics, in particular during the First World War campaign on the Western Front and the Second World War preparations for D-Day. The DN&S line has since closed and the sites of the large Army and Royal Air Force ordnance depots that were built to serve these needs have disappeared beneath the power station and Milton Park Business Park.

Remains of the Didcot, Newbury and Southampton Railway are still in evidence in the eastern part of town. This line, designed to provide a direct link to the south coast from the Midlands and the North avoiding the convuluted Reading/Basingstoke route, was constructed from 1879–1882 after previous proposals had floundered. It was designed as a main line and was engineered by John Fowler and built by contractors T.H. Falkiner and Sir Thomas Tancred, who together also constructed the Forth Bridge.[14] It was an very expensive line to build due to the heavy engineering challenges of crossing the Berkshire and Hampshire downs with a ruling 1 in 106 gradient to allow for higher mainline speeds, and this over-capitalisation coupled with initial traffic barely meeting expectations caused the company financial problems, meaning it never reached Southampton of its own accord but had to join the main London and South Western Railway line at Shawford, south of Winchester.

However, from the outbreak of World War II such was the growth of wartime traffic to the port of Southampton a decision was made to upgrade the line which included the complete doubling of the northern section between Didcot and Newbury, closing for 5 months in 1942/3 while this was carried out. Several of the bridges in the Didcot/Hagbourne area were also strengthened and rebuilt.

Although passenger trains between Didcot and Newbury were withdrawn in 1962, the line continued to be used by freight trains for a further four years, up to 11 trains a day each way according to some observers, and oil traffic to the north from the refinery at Fawley near Southampton was a regular feature. In 1966 however, this traffic also was withdrawn, and the line was then dismantled. The last passenger train was, of all things, a re-routed Pines Express in May 1964, diverted due to a derailment at Reading West. A section of the abandoned embankment towards Upton, now designated as a Sustrans route, has views across the town and countryside and is popular with walkers.[15]

21st century

Didcot is currently home to around 27,000 people.[1] The new town centre, The Orchard Centre, was opened in August 2005.[16] There are now a number of major scientific employers nearby including the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority at Culham (and the Joint European Torus (JET) fusion research project), Harwell Laboratory, the Science and Technology Facilities Council (the research council responsible for Rutherford Appleton Laboratory) and the Diamond Light Source synchrotron, which is the largest UK-funded scientific facility to be built for over 30 years.

Didcot has been designated as one of the three major growth areas in Oxfordshire; the Ladygrove development is set to double the number of dwellings in the town since construction began in the late 1980s to the north and east of the railway line on the former marshland. Originally, the Ladygrove development was planned to be complete by 2001; but the plans for the final section to the east of Abingdon Road were only announced in 2006. In anticipation of the completion of the Ladygrove development, a prolonged and contentious planning enquiry decided that a 3,200 dwelling development will now be built to the west of the town, partly overlapping the boundary with the Vale of White Horse.[17]

In 2008 a new £8 million arts and entertainment centre, Cornerstone, opened within the Orchard Centre. It contains exhibition and studio spaces, a cafe and a 236-seat auditorium. Designed by Ellis William Architects, the centre is clad with silvered aluminium panels and features a 'Window Wall', used to connect the building with passing shoppers.[18]

Railways

Didcot Railway Centre

Formed by the Great Western Society in 1967 to house its collection of Great Western Railway locomotives and rolling stock, now housed in Didcot's 1932 built Great Western engine shed.

Didcot Parkway station

The station was renamed Didcot Parkway in 1985 by British Rail and the site of the old GWR provender stores which had been demolished in 1976 (the provender pond was kept to maintain the water table) was made into a large car park to attract passengers from the surrounding area. An improvement programme for the forecourt of the station began in September 2012 and is expected to take around 15 months, this is viewed as being the first phase of better connecting the station to Didcot town centre.[19]

Power stations

Aerial view of Didcot Power Stations A (centre) and B (extreme left)

Didcot A Power Station (between Didcot and Sutton Courtenay) ceased generating electricity for the National Grid in March 2013. Country Life magazine once voted the power station the third worst eyesore in Britain. Some locals referred to them as "the Cathedral of the Vale" [of White Horse], a title which really belongs to the Church of England parish church at Uffington.

Didcot Power Stations viewed from Wittenham Clumps

The power station cooling towers are visible from up to 30 miles (48 km) away due to their location, but were designed with visual impact in mind (six towers in two separated groups 0.5 miles (800 m) apart rather than a monolithic 3x2 block), much in the style of what is sometimes called Didcot's 'sister' station – Fiddlers Ferry Power Station – at Widnes, Cheshire, constructed slightly earlier. The power station had also proved a popular man-made object for local photographers.

In October 2010, Didcot Sewage Works became the first in the UK to produce biomethane gas supplied to the national grid, for use in up to 200 homes in Oxfordshire.[20]

On Sunday 27 July 2014 three of the six 114m high cooling towers were demolished in the early hours of the morning using 180 kg of explosives. The demolition was streamed live by webcam.[21]

Military

The British Army has a presence within the town at Vauxhall Barracks which is situated on the edge of town.[22]

Local government and representation

Until 1974 Didcot was in Berkshire, but was transferred to Oxfordshire in that year, and from Wallingford Rural District to the district of South Oxfordshire, becoming the largest town in the new district. Didcot is also the largest town in the parliamentary constituency of Wantage, which has been represented since 2005 at Westminster by Ed Vaizey, Conservative.

Didcot is a parish but has the status of a town. It is administered by Didcot Town Council, which comprises 21 councillors representing the four wards in the town:

  • All Saints' (5 councillors)
  • Park (5 councillors)
  • Ladygrove (6 councillors)
  • Northbourne (5 councillors)

Health

The district in England with the highest healthy life expectancy, according to an Office for National Statistics (ONS) study, is the 1990s-built Ladygrove Estate in Didcot.[23] While the average UK healthy lifespan was thought to be 68.8 for women and 67 for men in 2001, people in Ladygrove district of Didcot could expect 86 healthy years. It is believed Ladygrove may have benefited from the local recreation grounds and sports centre.[23][24]

Education

Didcot is served by six primary schools: All Saints' C of E, Ladygrove Park, Manor, Northbourne C of E, Stephen Freeman and Willowcroft. Along with these 6 schools based in Didcot, a further 7 local village schools form the Didcot Primary Partnership: Blewbury Endowed C of E, Cholsey, Hagbourne, Harwell Community, Long Wittenham C of E and South Moreton County.

The two state secondary schools in Didcot are St Birinus School and Didcot Girls' School. These two single-sex schools join together at sixth form. Didcot Girls' School has specialist Language College status, and St Birinus has Technology and Language College status.

Sport and leisure

Didcot Town Football Club's home ground is the RWE nPower Loop Meadow Stadium on Ladygrove Estate. The club won the FA Vase in 2005. Didcot Cricket Club's current home ground is at Didcot Power Station in Sutton Courtenay.[25]

Didcot has three main leisure centres: Didcot Leisure Centre,[26] Didcot Wave Leisure Pool[27] and Willowbrook Leisure Centre.[28]

Didcot has its own chapter of the Hash House Harriers.[29] The club started in 1986 (the first run was on 8 April of that year).

Cornerstone, the new 278-seater multi-purpose arts centre, opened on 29 August 2008.[30]

Didcot Choral Society, founded in 1958, performs three concerts a year in various venues around the town as well as an annual tour (Paris in 2008, Belgium in 2009).[31]

Didcot Dragons Korfball club was founded in 2003. The club has now expanded to two teams in the OKA Division 2 North. They train in Willowbrook Leisure Centre in the winter, and St Birinus School in the summer.

Didcot Phoenix cycle club[32] was founded in 1973 and is represented by over 70 members who participate in a range of cycling activities including touring, time trials, road racing, Audax, cyclocross and off road events.

Parks, gardens and open spaces

Didcot Town Council maintains the following:[33]

  • Edmonds Park
  • Loyd Recreation Park
  • Smallbone Recreation Park
  • Garden of Remembrance
  • Marsh Recreation Ground
  • Great Western Drive Park
  • Ladygrove Park and Lakes
  • Ladygrove Skate Park
  • Mendip Heights Play Area
  • The Diamond Jubilee Garden
  • Broadway Gardens
  • Stubbings Land
  • Millennium wood at the Hagbourne Triangle
  • Cemetery, Kynaston Road

Didcot also has a nature reserve, Mowbray Fields, where wildlife including common spotted orchid and Southern Marsh Orchid occur.

Notable people

Didcot was the birthplace of William Bradbery, the first person to cultivate watercress commercially in the early 19th century.[34] Didcot is also the birthplace of former Reading and Oxford United manager Maurice Evans and one of Reading's most-capped football players Jerry Williams.[35] Figurative artist Rodney Gladwell was also born in the town in 1928.[36] Air Commodore Russell La Forte CBE ADC was born in Didcot in 1960 and is currently the commander of British armed forces in the South Atlantic Islands, he was a member of the Didcot Air Training Corps (Air Cadets) as a child.[37][38]

Matt Richardson, a comedian and television presenter known for hosting The Xtra Factor, grew up in Didcot.[39][40][41] The band Radiohead are from nearby Abingdon and recorded four tracks of OK Computer in a converted apple shed on the outskirts of Didcot in 1996, the album has appeared frequently in critic's lists of the greatest albums of all time.[42][43][44]

In popular media

Didcot and Didcot Power Station were mentioned on episode 4 of Series 4 of the BBC's QI (Quite Interesting).[45]

Didcot's synonymous connection with railways was noted in Douglas Adams and John Lloyd's humorous book the Meaning of Liff, published in 1983. The book, a "dictionary of things that there aren't any words for yet", referred to "a Didcot" as "The small, oddly-shaped bit of card which a ticket inspector cuts out of a ticket with his clipper for no apparent reason".[46]

Nearby places

References

  1. ^ a b "Didcot (Oxfordshire, South East United Kingdom)". City Population. Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  2. ^ Dig discovers 9,000-year-old remains at Didcot. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
  3. ^ Didcot dig: A glimpse of 9,000 years of village life. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
  4. ^ "Ladygrove Estate Archaeological Evaluation, Oxford Archaeological Unit" (PDF). The Human Journey. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  5. ^ "Inside the Ashmolean". Oxford Mail. Retrieved 9 March 2015. 
  6. ^ "Didcot Hoard". British Museum. Retrieved 9 March 2015. 
  7. ^ Skeat, Walter W. (1911). The Place Names of Berkshire (1st ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 26. Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  8. ^ Vincent, James Edmund (1919). Highways and Byways in Berkshire (PDF) (1st ed.). St. Martin's Street, London: MacMillan and Co. p. 67. Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  9. ^ "Willington". Open Domesday. University of Hull. Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  10. ^ a b c Lingham, Brian (2014). Didcot Through Time. Gloucester: Amberley Publishing. Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  11. ^ "Didcot The Essential Guide". Issuu. Issuu Digital Publishing. Retrieved 9 March 2015. 
  12. ^ "White Cottage". English Heritage. Retrieved 9 March 2015. 
  13. ^ The Railway Comes to Didcot (1st ed.). Sutton Publishing. 1992.  
  14. ^ Sands, T.B. (1971). The Didcot, Newbury & Southampton Railway. The Oakwood Library of Railway History. Oakwood Press. pp. 6–7. OL28. 
  15. ^ "Didcot, Wantage and The Ridgeway – Map". Sustrans. 8 April 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  16. ^ "Oxfordshire's Big Apple". The Orchard Centre. Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  17. ^ http://www.southoxon.gov.uk:8123/website/localplan/text/section10.asp#DID2
  18. ^ Didcot receives new arts centre http://www.worldarchitecturenews.com/index.php?fuseaction=wanappln.projectview&upload_id=10416
  19. ^ "Didcot Station – Latest Developments – South Oxfordshire District Council". Southoxon.gov.uk. Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  20. ^ Shah, Dhruti (5 October 2010). "Oxfordshire town sees human waste used to heat homes". BBC News. Retrieved 5 October 2010. 
  21. ^ "Didcot power station towers demolished". BBC Oxford News. 27 July 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2014. 
  22. ^ "Vauxhall Barracks, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 7EG". Completelytradeandindustrial.co.uk. Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  23. ^ a b "'"Regional health gap 'is 30 years. BBC News. 9 September 2007. Retrieved 9 February 2012. 
  24. ^ "Didcot: Where to enjoy a long healthy life". The Telegraph. Retrieved 9 October 2014. 
  25. ^ Didcot Cricket Club
  26. ^ "Welcome to Didcot Leisure Centre". Better.org.uk. 1 July 2008. Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  27. ^ "Welcome to Didcot Wave". Better.org.uk. 1 July 2008. Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  28. ^ "Willowbrook Leisure Centre". Soll-leisure.co.uk. Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  29. ^ "Didcot Hash House Harriers". Didcoth3.org. Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  30. ^ "Didcot Herald – Doors thrown open at the £7.4m arts centre". Retrieved 22 August 2008. 
  31. ^ "Didcot Choral Society". Didcot Choral Society. 15 June 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  32. ^ "Didcot Phoenix Cycle Club". 
  33. ^ "Parks Gardens and Lakes". Didcot.gov.uk. Retrieved 5 April 2014. 
  34. ^ "Man about towns: Comedian Mark Steel reveals why British towns are anything but boring". The Independent. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  35. ^ "Profile". Post War English & Scottish Football League A – Z Player's Database. 
  36. ^ Spalding, Frances [1990] 20th Century Painters and Sculptors, Antique Collectors Club, Woodbridge p.207
  37. ^ Allen, Emily (18 December 2007). "Airman to serve the Queen". The Oxford Times. Retrieved 29 July 2013. 
  38. ^ "Trading places" (pdf). Royal Air Force News. 26 April 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013. 
  39. ^ Matt Richardson (24 January 2013). "Hello. I'm Matt.". Mattrichardsoncomedy.co.uk. Retrieved 5 April 2014. 
  40. ^ Moorin, Callum (26 September 2012). "Interview with Matt Richardson". cmoorin.co.uk. Retrieved 5 April 2014. 
  41. ^ Seamus Duff (29 August 2013). "Simon Cowell proudly announces X Factor series 10 – but forgets Matt Richardson's name". Metro News. Retrieved 5 April 2014. 
  42. ^ Doyle, Tom (April 2008), "The Complete Radiohead",  
  43. ^ Footman, Tim (2007). Welcome to the Machine: OK Computer and the Death of the Classic Album.  
  44. ^ "162 OK Computer – Radiohead".  
  45. ^ "Transcript of QI S04E04". Retrieved 4 July 2012. 
  46. ^  

Further reading

  •  
  • Lingham, Brian (1979). The Long Years of Obscurity. A History of Didcot, Volume One – to 1841. Didcot: BF Lingham.  
  • Lingham, Brian (1992). Railway Comes to Didcot: A History of the Town (Volume 2) – 1839 to 1918. Didcot: Sutton Publishing Ltd.  
  • Lingham, Brian (2000). A Poor Struggling Little Town: A History of Didcot (Volume 3) – 1918 to 1945. Didcot: Didcot Town Council. 
  •  

External links

  • Didcot Twinning Association
  • Didcot.com community website
  • Didcot Today – local community website
  • Didcot First
  • Future Didcot
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