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Dominant ninth

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Dominant ninth

A ninth chord is a chord that encompasses the interval of a ninth when arranged in close position with the root in the bass.[1]

Dominant ninth

A dominant ninth is a

In the common practice period, "the root, 3rd, 7th, and 9th are the most common factors present in the V9 chord," with the 5th, "typically omitted".[2] The 9th and 7th usually resolve downward to the 5th and 3rd of I.[2]

Example of tonic dominant ninth chords include Wild Cherry's "Play That Funky Music".[6]

Dominant minor ninth

Dominant minor ninth
Component intervals from root
minor ninth
minor seventh
perfect fifth
major third
root
Tuning
8:10:12:14:17

A dominant minor ninth chord' consists of a major third, perfect fifth, minor seventh, and minor ninth. In C: G B D F A. Fétis tuned the chord 8:10:12:14:17.[5] In notation for jazz and popular music, this chord is often denoted e.g. C7b9.

Minor ninth

Minor ninth
Component intervals from root
major ninth
minor seventh
perfect fifth
minor third
root

The minor ninth chord is played with the third and seventh both flattened, or lowered a semitone. The formula is 1, 3, 5, 7, 9. This chord is written as Cm9. This chord has a more "bluesy" sound and fits very well with the dominant 9th.

Major ninth

Major ninth
Component intervals from root
major ninth
major seventh
perfect fifth
major third
root

The major ninth chord is played with the third and seventh both major. The formula is 1, 3, 5, 7, 9. This chord is written as Cmaj9.

6/9 chord

The 6/9 chord is a pentad in which a major triad is extended with a sixth and 9th above the root, but no seventh, thus: C6/9 is C,E,G,A,D. It is not a tense chord requiring resolution, and is considered a substitute for the tonic in jazz. Its constituent notes are those of the pentatonic scale.[9]

Heinrich Schenker, though he allowed the substitution of the dominant seventh, leading-tone, and leading tone half-diminished seventh chords, rejected the concept of a ninth chord on the basis that only that on the fifth scale degree (V9) was admitted and that inversion was not allowed of the ninth chord.[10]

Second

In eleventh chord.

Conventionally, the second is third in importance to the root, fifth, and third, being an added tone. It is generally not allowed as the root since that inversion resembles an eleventh chord on the second rather than an added tone chord on the original note. In jazz chords and theory, the second is required due to its being an added tone.

The quality of the second may be determined by the scale or may be indicated. For example, in both a major and minor scale a diatonic second added to the tonic chord will be major (C-D-E-G or C-D-E-G) while one added to the dominant chord will be major or minor (G-A-B-D or G-A-B-D), respectively.

The second is octave equivalent to the ninth. If one could cut out the note in between the fifth and the ninth and then drop the ninth down an octave to a second, one would have a second chord (CEGBD' – B = CDEG). The difference between sus2 and add9 is conventionally the absence or presence, respectively, of the third.

Added ninth

An added ninth chord is a major triad with an added ninth. Thus, Cadd9 consists of C E G and D. (The D, which might be called an added second, is two fifths up from the root.) Added ninth chords differ from other ninth chords because the seventh is not included.

See also

Sources

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