World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Eastern Himalayan alpine meadows

Article Id: WHEBN0014185383
Reproduction Date:

Title: Eastern Himalayan alpine meadows  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of ecoregions in India
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Eastern Himalayan alpine meadows

Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows
Biome Montane grasslands and shrublands
Bird species 496[1]
Mammal species 117[1]
Area 121,200 km2 (46,800 sq mi)
Countries Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar and Nepal
Habitat loss 9.2095%[1]
Protected 32.9%[1]

The Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows is a montane grasslands and shrublands ecoregion of Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, and Nepal, which lies between the tree line and snow line in the eastern portion of the Himalaya Range.


The Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows covers an area of 121,300 square kilometres (46,800 sq mi), extending along the north and south faces of the Himalaya Range from the Kali Gandaki Gorge in central Nepal eastwards through Tibet and India's Sikkim state, Bhutan, India's Arunachal Pradesh state, and northernmost Myanmar.

The alpine shrub and meadows lie between approximately 4,000 and 5,500 metres (13,100 and 18,000 ft) elevation. Permanent ice and snow lies above 5,500 metres (18,000 ft). The Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests lie below 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) along the southern slopes of the range, from Central Nepal to Bhutan. The Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests lie south of the range in Arunachal Pradesh, extending north of the range into the lower valley of the Brahmaputra River and its tributaries. The Northern Triangle temperate forests lie to the south of the alpine shrub and meadows in northern Myanmar, and the Nujiang Langcang Gorge alpine conifer and mixed forests lie to the east in the gorges of the upper Irrawaddy and Salween rivers.

The Yarlung Tsangpo arid steppe lies in the upper Brahmaputra Valley of Tibet, north of the Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows.


Alpine shrublands, characterized by rhododendrons, predominate at lower elevations, close to the treeline. The rhododendron flora of the ecoregion is quite varied, with species composition changing as one moves from west to east along the range.

Above the shrublands are alpine meadows which support a variety of herbaceous plants, including species of Alchemilla, Androsace, Anemone, Diapensia, Draba, Gentiana, Impatiens, Leontopodium, Meconopsis, Pedicularis, Potentilla, Primula, Rhododendron, Saussurea, Saxifraga, Sedum, and Viola. In the spring and summer, the alpine meadows are covered with brightly colored flowers.

On the upper slopes, low grasses and cushion plants grow among the boulders and scree.


Large mammals include the Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia), Bharal or Himalayan Blue Sheep (Pseudois nayaur), Himalayan Tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus), takin (Budorcas taxicolor), Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster), Himalayan Goral (Nemorhaedus baileyi), and Mainland Serow (Capricornis sumatraensis). Smaller mammals include Himalayan Marmots (Marmota himalayana), weasels, and pikas.


Several protected areas lie within or partly within the ecoregion, including:

See also


External links

  • , showing the Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.