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Solar PV* is Photovoltaics Bio other* = 198TWh (Biomass) + 69TWh (Waste) + 4TWh (other)

Cogeneration

Co-generation is the practice of using exhaust or extracted steam from a turbine for heating purposes, such as drying paper, distilling petroleum in a refinery or for building heat. Before central power stations were widely introduced it was common for industries, large hotels and commercial buildings to generate their own power and use low pressure exhaust steam for heating.[15] This practice carried on for many years after central stations became common and is still in use in many industries.

Environmental concerns

Variations between countries generating electrical power affect concerns about the environment. In France only 10% of electricity is generated from fossil fuels, the US is higher at 70% and China is at 80%.[16] The cleanliness of electricity is dependent its source. Most scientists agree that emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases from fossil fuel-based electricity generation account for a significant portion of world greenhouse gas emissions; in the United States, electricity generation accounts for nearly 40% of emissions, the largest of any source. Transportation emissions are close behind, contributing about one-third of U.S. production of carbon dioxide.[17] In the United States, fossil fuel combustion for electric power generation is responsible for 65% of all emissions of sulfur dioxide, the main component of acid rain.[18] Electricity generation is the fourth highest combined source of NOx, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter in the US.[19] In July 2011, the UK parliament tabled a motion that "levels of (carbon) emissions from nuclear power were approximately three times lower per kilowatt hour than those of solar, four times lower than clean coal and 36 times lower than conventional coal".[20]

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Electricity generation

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Electricity generation

11 - - 5.0 - - - 0.20 - 5.2 26 - 215 17
 Thailand 32 1.7 102 135 18 - - 7.1 0.002 0.003 - - - 7.1 23 4.8 147 21
 France 27 5.8 22 55 24 439 2 68 - 0.04 - 5.7 0.51 75 8 5.9 575 8
 UK 127 6.1 177 310 7 52 10 9.3 - 0.02 - 7.1 - 16 18 11 389 11
 Italy 49 31 173 253 9 - - 47 5.5 0.2 - 4.9 - 58 11 8.6 319 12
 South Korea 192 15 81 288 8 151 5 5.6 - 0.3 - 0.4 - 6.3 24 0.7 446 10
 Spain 50 18 122 190 14 59 9 26 - 2.6 0.02 32 - 61 10 4.3 314 13
 Canada 112 9.8 41 162 17 94 7 383 - 0.03 - 3.8 0.03 386 2 8.5 651 6
 Saudi Arabia - 116 88 204 12 - - - - - - - - - - - 204 18
 Taiwan 125 14 46 186 15 41 11 7.8 - 0.004 - 0.6 - 8.4 21 3.5 238 16
 Australia 198 2.8 39 239 10 - - 12 - 0.2 0.004 3.9 - 16 19 2.2 257 15
 Netherlands 27 2.1 63 92 21 4.2 15 0.1 - 0.04 - 4.3 - 4.4 27 6.8 108 23
Country Coal Oil Gas sub
total
rank Nuclear rank Hydro Geo
Thermal
Solar
PV
Solar
Thermal
Wind Tide sub
total
rank Bio
other
Total rank
Lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions by electricity source.[21]
Technology Description 50th percentile
(g CO2/kWhe)
Hydroelectric reservoir 4
Wind onshore 12
Nuclear various generation II reactor types 16
Biomass various 18
Solar thermal parabolic trough 22
Geothermal hot dry rock 45
Solar PV Polycrystaline silicon 46
Natural gas various combined cycle turbines without scrubbing 469
Coal various generator types without scrubbing 1001

Water consumption

Most large scale thermoelectric power stations consume considerable amounts of water for cooling purposes and boiler water make up - 1 L/kWh for once through (e.g. river cooling), and 1.7 L/kWh for cooling tower cooling.[22] Water abstraction for cooling water accounts for about 40% of European total water abstraction, although most of this water is returned to its source, albeit slightly warmer. Different cooling systems have different consumption vs. abstraction characteristics. Cooling towers withdraw a small amount of water from the environment and evaporate most of it. Once-through systems withdraw a large amount but return it to the environment immediately, at a higher temperature.

See also

References

  1. ^ 'The Institution of Engineering & Technology: Michael Faraday'
  2. ^ In 1881, under the leadership of Jacob Schoellkopf, the first hydroelectric generating station was built on Niagara Falls.
  3. ^ Pearl Street Station: The Dawn of Commercial Electric Power
  4. ^ http://www.eia.gov/electricity/monthly/epm_table_grapher.cfm?t=epmt_1_01
  5. ^ DGEMP / Observatoire de l'énergie (April 2007). "L’Electricité en France en 2006 : une analyse statistique." (PDF) (in Français). Retrieved 2007-05-23. 
  6. ^ "piezoelectric generator". The Times Of India. Retrieved 2012-05-20. 
  7. ^ Reuters News Service (2005-12-30). "Mohave Power Plant in Nevada to Close as Expected". Planet Ark. Retrieved 2007-07-16. 
  8. ^ New World Record Achieved in Solar Cell Technology (press release, 2006-12-05), U.S. Department of Energy.
  9. ^ World's Largest Utility Battery System Installed in Alaska (press release, 2003-09-24), U.S. Department of Energy. "13,670 nickel-cadmium battery cells to generate up to 40 megawatts of power for about 7 minutes, or 27 megawatts of power for 15 minutes."
  10. ^ Smith, Karl. Forbes http://www.forbes.coms/modeledbehavior/2013/03/22/will-natural-gas-stay-cheap-enough-replace-coal-and-lower-us-carbon-emissions/ . 
  11. ^ [1] OECD 2011-12 Factbook
  12. ^ International Energy Agency, "2008 Energy Balance for World", 2011.
  13. ^ IEA Statistics and Balances retrieved 2011-5-8
  14. ^ CIA World Factbook 2009 retrieved 2011-5-8
  15. ^ Hunter & Bryant 1991
  16. ^ IEA Statistics and Balances retrieved 2011-5-8
  17. ^ Borenstein, Seth (2007-06-03). "Carbon-emissions culprit? Coal". The Seattle Times. 
  18. ^ "Sulfur Dioxide". US Environmental Protection Agency. 
  19. ^ "AirData". US Environmental Protection Agency. 
  20. ^ http://www.parliament.uk/edm/2010-12/2061
  21. ^ http://srren.ipcc-wg3.de/report/IPCC_SRREN_Annex_II.pdf see page 10 Moomaw, W., P. Burgherr, G. Heath, M. Lenzen, J. Nyboer, A. Verbruggen, 2011: Annex II: Methodology. In IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation.
  22. ^ AAAS Annual Meeting 17 - 21 Feb 2011, Washington DC. Sustainable or Not? Impacts and Uncertainties of Low-Carbon Energy Technologies on Water.Evangelos Tzimas , European Commission, JRC Institute for Energy, Petten, Netherlands

External links

  • Electricity - A Visual Primer
  • Power Technologies Energy Data Book
  • NOW on PBS: Power Struggle
  • This Week in Energy (TWiEpodcast)
  • Electricity: From Table-top to Powerplant
  • The Power Sector in Lebanon via Carboun
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