World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Electrology

Article Id: WHEBN0000142375
Reproduction Date:

Title: Electrology  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Facial hair, Hair fetishism, Chemical depilatory, Plucking (hair removal), Hormone replacement therapy (male-to-female)
Collection: Hair Removal
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Electrology

Electrology is the practice of electrical epilation to permanently remove human hair. The actual process of removing the hair is referred to as electrolysis.

Contents

  • Overview 1
  • Modalities 2
    • Galvanic 2.1
    • Thermolysis 2.2
    • Blend 2.3
  • Technique 3
  • Treatment duration 4
  • Status of profession 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Overview

The practitioner slides a solid hair-thin metal probe into each hair follicle. Proper insertion does not puncture the skin. Electricity is delivered to the follicle through the probe, which causes localized damage to the areas that generate hairs, either through the formation of caustic lye (galvanic method), overheating (thermolysis method), or both (blend method).

Modalities

Three methods or "modalities" are used in electrology. Galvanic, thermolysis, and blend all have their own merits, and one method is not better than another. The success depends on the skill of the electrologist, the type of hair being removed, the condition of the skin and the pain threshold of the client. All three methods, when properly performed, can be thorough at destroying the hair matrix cells, and leaving follicles incapable of regrowing hair.

Galvanic

This modality is named after Luigi Galvani and uses a person's body as an electrolytic cell. Galvanic electrolysis was first reported in the medical literature by ophthalmologist Charles Michel in 1875 to remove ingrown eyelashes in patients with trichiasis.[1] A galvanic epilator is essentially a positive ground power supply that delivers 0-3 milliamperes through the body. The follicular probe is the cathode of an electrolytic cell. Sodium hydroxide formed at the cathode by the process of chemical electrolysis kills the hair matrix cells. Modern galvanic epilators automatically adjust the voltage to maintain constant current.

Thermolysis

Another method is known as thermolysis, radio frequency (RF), shortwave or diathermy. Thermolysis was developed in the 1920s and first reported in medical literature by Henri Bordier.[2] A thermolytic epilator is essentially a radio transmitter, usually with an output of about 0-8 watts at a frequency of 13.56 MHz. RF energy emanates from the probe tip to tissue within about a millimeter. Thermolysis works by heating the hair matrix cells to about 48 to 50 °C (118 to 122 °F), causing electrocoagulation.

Blend

Galvanic and thermolysis are often combined in a method known as blend, developed by Arthur Hinkel in 1948, which uses both RF and direct current, combining many of the advantages of galvanic and thermolysis.[3]

Technique

The practitioner selects a metal probe that slides easily into the hair follicle, usually the same diameter as the hair shaft or smaller. This is typically 50 to 150 µm (0.002 to 0.006 inches) for all three modalities. Care is needed to insert the probe at the same angle as the hair is growing out of the skin. The probe is inserted to the depth of the dermal papilla or hair matrix, which is the site of formation of hair from highly mitotic and keratinized cells. The power and duration of the electricity are started at the lowest setting, then gradually increased until the hair comes out as easily as possible. If the patient experiences significant discomfort, the settings can be lowered.

Treatment duration

Most practitioners will advise that complete removal of male pattern facial hair takes between 1 and 4 years, with an average treatment length of 2 years in case of one session per week, one hour per session. Removal of body hair works considerably faster.

Status of profession

In the United States, electrolysis is regulated in many states, requiring training and licensing.

Electrolysis as a profession faced new competition in the 1990s after laser hair removal was developed and promoted as a quicker and easier way to remove hair. The Food and Drug Administration declared laser and similar devices can only claim to reduce hair growth, not permanently remove it.[4]

In the state of Connecticut the professionals govern a board called the Connecticut State Electrolysis Association.

See also

References

  1. ^ Michel CE. Trichiasis and distichiasis; with an improved method for radical treatment. St. Louis Clinical Record, 1875 Oct; 2:145-148
  2. ^ Bordier H. Nouveau traitment de l'hypertrichose par la diathermie. Vie Med., 1924, 5:561
  3. ^ Hinkel AR, Lind RW (1968). Electrolysis, Thermolysis and the Blend: the principles and practice of permanent hair removal.Los Angeles, CA: Arroway Publishers, ISBN 0-9600284-1-2
  4. ^ U.S. Food and Drug Administration (04/26/2011). Laser Facts.

External links

  • American Electrology Association
  • British Institute and Association of Electrolysis
  • The Society for Clinical & Medical Hair Removal, Inc.


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.