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European diaspora

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European diaspora

The European diaspora refers to the communities throughout the world that are descended from the movement of peoples from Europe — predominantly to the Americas, Oceania and Africa, among other areas around the globe.
Emigration from Europe
Total population
480,000,000 +
7% of the total world population
Americas - approximately 446,394,000
Oceania - 23,185,000
Regions with significant populations
European descended population
 United States 223,553,265[1]
 Brazil 91,051,646[2]
 Canada 25,186,890[3]
 Argentina 25,000,000
 Australia 20,982,665
 Colombia 17,519,500[4][5]


 Mexico 10,100,000[9][10]
 Cuba 7,271,926[11]
 South Africa 4,472,100[12]
 Chile 3,5M-5,128,000[13][14]
 Costa Rica 3,500,000[9]
 New Zealand 3,381,076[15]
 Puerto Rico 3,064,862[16]
 Uruguay 2,851,095[17]
 Dominican Republic 2,000,000[8]
 Bolivia 2,000,000[8]
 Peru 1,4M-4,4M[8][18]
 Ecuador 1,400,000[19]
 Paraguay 1,300,000[9]
 Nicaragua 1,000,000[8]
Languages of Europe
Majority (Christianity, mostly Catholic and Protestant· Atheism  · other
Jewish · Muslim · Buddhist · Hinduism
Related ethnic groups

Emigration from Europe began on a large scale during the European colonial empires of the 17th to 19th centuries and continues to the present day. This concerns especially the Spanish Empire in the 16th to 17th centuries (expansion of the Hispanosphere), the British Empire in the 18th to 19th centuries (expansion of the Anglosphere), the Portuguese Empire and the Russian Empire in the 19th century (expansion to Central Asia and the Russian Far East).

From 1815 to 1932, 60 million people left Europe (with many returning home), primarily to "areas of European settlement," in North and South America (especially to the United States, Canada, Argentina and Brazil), Australia, New Zealand and Siberia.[20] These populations also multiplied rapidly in their new habitat; much more so than the populations of Africa and Asia. As a result, on the eve of World War One, 38% of the world’s total population was of European ancestry.[20]

In Asia, European-derived populations (specifically Russians) predominate in Northern Asia, which is part of the Russian Federation. Africa has no countries with European-derived majorities, but there is a significant minority in South Africa and Namibia.

The countries in the Americas that received a major European immigrants wave from 1871 to 1960, were: the United States (27 million), Argentina (6.5 million), Brazil (4.5 million), Canada (4 million), Venezuela (more than 1 million),[21] Cuba (610,000), Uruguay (600,000); other countries received a modest and minor immigration flow (accounting less than 10% of total European emigrate flow to Latin America), they were: Chile (183,000), Peru (150,000),[22] and Mexico (25,000).[23][24][25]

Early emigration

Colonial period

The discovery of the Americas in 1492 stimulated a steady stream of voluntary migration from Europe. About 200,000 Spaniards settled in their American colonies prior to 1600, a small settlement compared to the 3 to 4 million Amerindians who lived in Spanish territory in the Americas. In Brazil the European emigration remained very small in the first two centuries of colonization: between 1500 and 1700, only 100,000 Portuguese settled there. However, the development of the mining economy in the 18th century raised the wages and employment opportunities in the Portuguese colony and the emigration grew: in the 18th century alone, about 600,000 Portuguese settled in Brazil, a mass emigration given that Portugal had a population of only 2 million people. In North America the immigration was dominated by British, Irish and other Northern Europeans.[34]

Post-independence emigration

Mass European emigration to the Americas happened in the 19th and 20th centuries. After the end of the Napoleonic Wars until 1920, some 60 million Europeans (and 10 million Asians) emigrated. Of these, 71% went to North America, 21% to Latin America (mainly Argentina and Brazil) and 7% to Australia. About 11 million of these people went to Latin America, of whom 38% were Italians, 28% were Spaniards and 11% were Portuguese.[35]

Between 1821 and 1880, 9.5 million Europeans settled in the United States, mainly Germans and Irish. Other waves included British and Scandinavian people. Despite the large number of immigrants arriving, people born outside of the United States formed a relatively small number of U.S. population: in 1910, foreigners were 14.7% of the country's population. Nothing similar to what happened in Argentina, which was the American country where immigrants had a larger impact in the ethnic composition. By 1914, 30% of Argentina's population was foreign-born, with 12% of its population born in Italy, the largest immigrant group. Next was Canada: by 1881, 14% of Canada's population was foreign-born, and the proportion increased to 22% in 1921. In Brazil the proportion of immigrants in the national population was much smaller, because immigrants tended to be concentrated in the central and Southern parts of the country. The proportion of foreigners in Brazil peaked in 1920, with 7%, mostly Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, Germans and Japanese.[34] In 1901–1920 immigration was responsible for only 7 percent of Brazilian population growth but in the years of high immigration, 1891–1900, the share was as high as 30 percent (higher than Argentina's 26% in the 1880s).[36]

Immigration arrivals in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

Destination Years Arrivals Reference
United States 1821–1932 32,244,000 [37]
Argentina 1856–1932 6,405,000 [37]
Canada 1831–1932 5,206,000 [37]
Brazil 1821–1932 4,431,000 [37]
Australia 1821–1932 2,913,000 [37]
Cuba 1901–1931 857,000 [37]
South Africa 1881–1932 852,000 [37]
Chile 1882–1932 726,000* *Incomplete series[37]
Uruguay 1836–1932 713,000 [37]
New Zealand 1821–1932 594,000 [37]
Mexico 1911–1931 226,000 [37]


By populations

Country Percentage of the local population Population in
Reference & year
Uruguay 90.7 2.8 2011 Census[17]
Australia 90 20 2006 Census[38]
Argentina 85 or 97 34 or 38 Lizcano & CIA World Factbook[8][9][39]
Canada 76.7 25.1 2011 Census[3]
Puerto Rico 75.8 3.1 2010 Census[40]
New Zealand 74.0 2.9 2013 Census[41]
United States 74 223.5 2010 Census[1]
Cuba 64.1 7.2 2012 Census[42][43]
Costa Rica 40 1.7 or 3.8 2011 Latinobarometro survey, Lizcano[9][44]
Brazil 47.7 91 2010 Census[45]
Venezuela 42.2 11.9M 2011 Census[46]
Colombia 25 or 37 11 or 17 Library of Congress Country Studies & Colombia a country study, 2010[47][48][49]
Chile 20 or 30 3.5 or 5.1 & E.Medina-and-A.M.Kaempffer[13][14]
Paraguay 20 1.3 Lizcano[9]
Nicaragua 17 1 CIA World Factbook[50]
Dominican Republic 13.6 or 16 2.0 Fuente: Encuesta Latin American Public Opinion Project, LAPOP, (2006 survey)[51] CIA World Factbook[52]
Mexico 9 or 15 10.1 or 16.8 or 20 CIA World Factbook & Lizcano[9][53]
Bolivia 15 2.0 CIA World Factbook[54]
Ecuador 6.1 1.3 2010 Census [55]
Peru 4.9 or 15 1.4 or 4.4 2006 Survey & CIA World Factbook[18][56]

By region

Nations and regions outside of Europe with significant populations of European ancestry:[57]


About 0-1 percent of the populations in Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone, usually are in the professional business elites. Not limited to Europeans, the "white" population includes Arab peoples: Lebanese and Syrians.[63]


Today, the official percentage of Filipinos with Spanish ancestry is unknown. The Philippine Statistics Department does not account for the racial background or ancestry of an individual. The official population of all types of mestizos (Asian, American, Hispanic, etc.) that reside inside and outside of the Philippines remains unknown. Although a study provided by Stanford University[82] claimed that around 3.6% of the population have White or Caucasian ancestries from both Spanish and American colonization, it only genotyped 28 individuals from the Philippines, a sample size far too small to draw conclusions on a population of over 90 million people.

In addition there are different estimates of this mixed descent, either by the parent side, it is calculated that some 3,500,000 to 5,000,000. In other cases it is also estimated with a proximity of 17,000,000 to 36,550,197 (15-39% of the Philippine population) people of Hispanic descent. But none of these estimates are supported by genetic studies.[83]

    •  Indonesia (Indo people) - 14,000 people, mostly of mixed Indonesian and Dutch descent.[84]
    •  Cambodia - approximately 16,000 people or 0.1% of the total population are Cambodian Eurasians, mainly of French ancestry from former French settlers.[85]
    •  Pakistan (Anglo-Indian) (Anglo-Pakistani) - approximately 11,000 people or 0.005% of the total population are the descendents of former British settlers who intermarried with local populations.[86]
    •  East Timor - approximately 1,100 people or 0.08% of the total population are Portuguese, descended from former Portuguese settlers.[87]
    •  Laos - an unknown number of Eurasians with French ancestry who are the descendents of former French settlers reside in Laos.
    •  Christmas Island - approximately 13% of the total population are white, with a further 2% Eurasian, both are British Australian.[88]
    •  Cocos (Keeling) Islands - 28.5% or one third of the total population are White, mostly British Australian.[89]

Small communities of European and American expatriates live in East Asia, such as China, Japan, Korea and Thailand.

Small communities of European and American expatriates in the Persian Gulf countries like Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and the UAE; and in Aramco compounds in Saudi Arabia. Historically before 1970, small ethnic European (esp. Greek and Italian) enclaves were found in Egypt (Greeks in Egypt, Italian Egyptians) and Syria (Greeks in Syria).


European colonization
of the Americas
First colonization
Colonization of Canada
Colonization of the U.S.

Total European population in the Americas—approximately 446,394,000

Europeans in Northern America

Europeans in Latin America and the Caribbean

  • Middle America (including Central America and the Caribbean) and South America (see White Latin American) -- Total European population approximately 197,094,000
    •  Argentina - 97% of the population or 38,913,000, may include a still unknown percentage of mestizos and mulattos.[93]
    •  Bahamas (European Bahamian) - 12% of the population or 39,600, the majority are African or other races.[94]
    •  Barbados (White Barbadian) - 4% of the population or 11,238, it's thought to be the highest of all British West Indies islands.[95]
    •  Bermuda - 34.1% of the population or 23,064, with a black or part-white/black majority.[96]
    •  Bolivia - 15% of the population or 1,636,000, the country except for Paraguay have the lowest white populations of South America.[97]
    •  Brazil (White Brazilian) - 49.7% of the population or 93,000,000. Another 42.6% are pardos of mixed White, African and/or Amerindian descent (showed by genetic research to be of predominant European ancestry). Afro-Brazilians by genetical research showed to be of about 37.1% European ancestry (the majority inherited by colonial or Imperial times and of Portuguese origin). Some people of claimed Asian and Indigenous origin can also have European descent.[98]
    •  Chile - 20% of population (4,500,000),[13] or 30% of the population (5,128,000) is from European descent;[14] Francisco Lizcano estimates whites Chilean in a cultural base (not ethnic) at 52.7% (9,100,000).[9]
    •  Colombia (white Colombian) - 37% of the population or 17,519,500, 40 to 60% are part white (mestizo or mulatto).[4][5]
    •  Costa Rica - up to 90% white and/or mestizo (European and Amerindian descent), or 3,827,000.[99]
    •  Cuba - 65% of the population or 7,204,000[100]
    •  Dominican Republic - 16% of the population or 1,655,959 is white and an additional 73% are mulatto or 7,555,311. In total, 89% of the Dominican population is either fully or partially of European ancestry.[101]
    •  Ecuador - 6% of the population or 940,000, while 72% are mestizos.[102]
    •  El Salvador - 9% of the population or 720,000, but the remainder 90% have some European ancestry.[103]
    •  French Guiana - 12% of the population or 26,000, but the French government insists all citizens of France regardless of race are "French".[104]
    •  Guatemala 18% of the population or 2,490,000 people.
    •  Haiti - 4% of the population in Haiti are white and mulatto (both African and European ancestry) and 1% European, or 97,000. White Haitians are chiefly of French, Italian, or German origin not including Middle Eastern & North American whites. This figure excludes the percentage of Haitians with less than noticeable European admixture.
    •  Jamaica - Approximately 2% of the population or 40,000 people are White, mainly British, American, and Portuguese (This number increases to 60,000 people and 3% of the total population when Arabs and Lebanese are included). However, the vast majority of the population in Jamaica have some degree of European Ancestry.[105]
    •  Martinique - 2% of the population or 8,000, with another 3% mulatto descent.[106]
    •  Mexico[107] (White Mexican) - About 18% of the population European or about 20,160,000, and an additional 72% of mixed European and Amerindian descent [108][109][110]
    •  Nicaragua - 17% of the population or 1,000,000 people, and 70% mestizo.[111]
    •  Panama 14.0% of the population is White of European origin or 352,000 people, 58.1% mestizo, 7% mulatto, 6.7% Amerindian, 5.5% Asian, and 7.1% other (2000 Census).
    •  Puerto Rico 75.8% of the population or 3,620,897 self identify as having European ancestry. 12.4% is of black or African-American ancestry and 8.5% are of other ancestry, including American Indian. 3.3% identify as mixed.[112]
    •  Peru (European Peruvian) - 15% of the population or 3,425,000, about 40% mestizo or partial European descent.[113]
    •  Trinidad and Tobago - 1.7% of European descent or 24,600, mainly British, Spanish, French, German, and Portuguese, with a number of Scandinavian descent, although 30-40% have East Indian or 5% are Lebanese/Syrian Arab backgrounds.[114]
    •  Venezuela (white Venezuelan) - 42,2% of the population or 11,490,018, about 49,9% are part white (mestizo or partial European descent.) making it 92,1% of the population white and/or mestizo (European and Amerindian descent) or 25,076,755.[115]
    •  Uruguay - 88% of the population or 3,074,000, the rest have various levels of European descent.[116]
    •  Saint Barthélemy—90% or 7,940; Saint Martin (Statistics not available).[117]
    •  Falkland Islands, 100% European of British descent—total population 3,140.

The Virgin Islands divided between U.S. Virgin Islands and the British Virgin Islands, each have a small European minority.


  • Oceania -- Total population of Europeans in Oceania is approximately 23,185,000 or approximately 22,818,000 excluding Hawaii.
    •  Australia (European Australian) - 93.2% of the population or 20,299,000 people, and part-white-Australian Aborigines number about 500,000 as opposed to the approximately 50,000 pure blooded Australian Aborigines who can speak Australian languages.
    •  New Zealand (New Zealand European) - 59.1% of the population or 2,361,000, plus some Māori of mixed white-European descent.
    •  New Caledonia (Caldoche) - 44.6% of the population or about 112,050; the territory is under French rule.
    •  French Polynesia - 10% of the population (mostly French with some white Americans) or 26,700, and 6 to 8% are Euronesian (part white-Polynesian).[118]
    •  Hawaii - Europeans are 27.1% of the population (2008 survey) or 367,000 (called Haoles), although 65% of all Hawaiians have white-European descent.
    •  Guam - 10% of the population have Spanish and white American descent (2000 Census) or about 17,800 people. Guam has a history of Spanish settlement before 1900, now a U.S. territory.[119]
    •  Norfolk Island, about 50% British-Polynesian from Pitcairn Island (1,070 people) and 50% white-British descent mainly via Australia (1,070 people).

Contemporary European diasporas

National diasporas:

Potential emigrants

According to a 2010 Gallup study, an estimated 80 million adults in the European Union would prefer to emigrate if given free choice. About half of these would migrate to another country within the EU. The remaining 40 million have a desired destination outside of the EU, about 14 million would migrate to North America (USA or Canada), and 9 million to Australia or New Zealand.[120]

See also


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  14. ^ a b c [1] Ernesto Medina-Lois&Ana María Kaempffer Elementos de Salud Pública, Universidad de Chile. (See: Chapter 5.2.6 Estructura racial)
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  16. ^ 2010 Census Data. "2010 Census Data". Retrieved 2011-10-30. 
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  20. ^ a b "European Migration and Imperialism". Archived from the original on 2010-11-22. Retrieved 2013-09-14. The population of Europe entered its third and decisive stage in the early eighteenth century. Birthrates declined, but death rates also declined as the standard of living and advances in medical science provided for longer life spans. The population of Europe including Russia more than doubled from 188 million in 1800 to 432 million in 1900. From 1815 through 1932, sixty million people left Europe, primarily to "areas of European settlement," in North and South America, Australia, New Zealand and Siberia. These populations also multiplied rapidly in their new habitat; much more so than the populations of Africa and Asia. As a result, on the eve of World War One (1914), 38 percent of the world’s total population was of European ancestry. This growth in population provided further impetus for European expansion, and became the driving force behind emigration. Rising populations put pressure on land, and land hunger and led to "land hunger." Millions of people went abroad in search of work or economic opportunity. The Irish, who left for America during the great Potato famine, were an extreme but not unique example. Ultimately, one third of all European migrants came from the British Isles between 1840 and 1920. Italians also migrated in large numbers because of poor economic conditions in their home country. German migration also was steady until industrial conditions in Germany improved when the wave of migration slowed. Less than one half of all migrants went to the United States, although it absorbed the largest number of European migrants. Others went to Asiatic Russia, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, Australia and New Zealand. 
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