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Title: Fs-1016  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of codecs
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


FS-1016 is a deprecated secure telephony speech encoding standard developed by the United States Department of Defense. The standard was finished in 1991.

Unlike the vocoder used in FS-1015, CELP provides more natural speech. However, due to quite low bit rate and early development (1991), the speech quality is very noisy and below that of commercial cellular speech codec like AMR. FS-1016 is no longer used since its follower MELP provides better performance in all applications.

Technical details

The bit rate of the codec is 4.8 kbit/s. The complexity of the codec is 19 MIPS. 1.5 kilobytes of RAM is needed. Frame size of the codec is 30 ms. Lookahead of 7.5 ms is also required.

The variation of CELP used in the FS-1016 is so-called ternary codebook, meaning that all excitation amplitudes are either +1, -1 or 0. The sub frame gain is calculated and sent to the receiver.


  • CELP-3.2a and LPC-10

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