World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Feldmarschall


Field marshal or Generalfeldmarschall (Kriegsmarine.

In the German-Prussian Army and later in the Wehrmacht, the rank had several privileges, such as elevation to nobility, equal protocol rank with cabinet ministers, right of reporting directly to the monarch, and a constant escort/protection. In 1854, the rank of colonel-general (German: Generaloberst) was created in order to promote William I, German Emperor to senior rank without breaking the rule that only wartime field commanders could receive the rank of field marshal for a victory in a decisive battle or the capture of a fortification or major town. In 1870 Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia and Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm—who had commanded armies during the Franco-Prussian War—became the first Prussian princes appointed field marshals.

In the Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe of Germany during World War II, the rank of Generalfeldmarschall was the highest military rank until July 1940, when it was made subordinate to the even higher rank of Reichsmarschall (held solely by Hermann Göring). The equivalent of a Generalfeldmarschall in the navy was Großadmiral ("grand admiral"). The rank of Generalfeldmarschall was abolished after the fall of the Third Reich.

Hitler promoted Friedrich Paulus—commander of the 6th Army at Stalingrad—to the rank of field marshal shortly before his army's inevitable surrender in order to encourage him to continue to fight until death or commit suicide. In the promotion Hitler noted that no German or Prussian field marshal at that point in history had ever been captured alive. Paulus surrendered anyway, claiming "I have no intention of shooting myself for this Bohemian corporal".[1]

Currently, the highest military grade in in the reconstituted Bundeswehr is general and admiral. The Commander-in-Chief (German: Inhaber der Befehls- und Kommandogewalt) of the Bundeswehr is in peacetime, according to Article 65 a of the Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany, the civilian Federal Minister of Defence (German: Bundesminister der Verteidigung), who holds supreme command authority over all soldiers. The Chief of Staff, Bundeswehr German: Generalinspekteur) is the chief of defence post and heads the armed forces command staff (German: Führungsstab der Streitkräfte).

The Nationale Volksarmee of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) created the rank of Marschall der DDR ("marshal of the GDR") on 25 March 1982. A general could be appointed to this rank by the Staatsrat (the head-of-state council of the GDR) during wartime or for exceptional military achievement; no one ever held the rank, however.

See also

Notes

External links

  • Photo of Field Marshal Hermann Göring's baton

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.