Film print

A release print is a copy of a film that is provided to a movie theater for exhibition.


Release prints are not to be confused with other types of print used in the photochemical post-production process:

  • Rush prints are one-light, contact-printed copies made from an unedited roll of original camera negative immediately after processing and screened to the cast and crew in order to ensure that the takes can be used in the final film.
  • Workprints, sometimes called cutting copies, are, like rush prints, copies of a camera negative roll. They are used for editing before the negative itself is conformed, or cut to match the edited workprint.
  • An Answer print is made either from the cut camera negative or an interpositive, depending on the production workflow, in order to verify that the grading ('timing' in US English) conforms to specifications, so that final adjustments can be made before the main batch of release prints is made.
  • A Showprint is a very high quality projection print made for screening at special events such as gala premieres. It is usually printed directly from the composited camera negative, with each shot individually timed as a duplicate intermediate element would normally be, onto a higher quality of print stock than is usual for mass-production release prints. As it is at least two generations closer to the composited camera negative than a typical release print, the definition and saturation in the projected image is significantly higher. Generically called an "EK" (historically, for Eastman Kodak), since "Showprint" is a trademark.



In the traditional photochemical post-production workflow, release prints are usually copies, made using a high-speed continuous contact printer, of an internegative (sometimes referred to as a 'dupe negative'), which in turn is a copy of an interpositive (these were sometimes referred to as 'lavender prints' in the past), which in turn is a copy, optically printed to incorporate special effects, fades, etc., from the cut camera negative. In other words, a typical release print is three generations removed from the cut camera negative.

Digital intermediate

The post-production of many feature films is now carried out using a digital intermediate workflow, in which the uncut camera negative is scanned, editing and other post-production functions are carried out using computers, and an internegative is burnt out to film, from which the release prints are struck in the normal way. This procedure eliminates at least one generation of analogue duplication and usually results in a significant higher quality of release prints. It has the further advantage that a Digital Cinema Package can be produced as the final output in addition to or instead of film prints, meaning that a single post-production workflow can produce all the required distribution media.

Release print stocks

Eastman Kodak is, at the time of writing (January 2013) the only remaining manufacturer of colour release print stock in the world. Along with Kodak, ORWO of Germany also sells black-and-white print stock.[1] Other manufacturers, principally DuPont of the United States, Fujifilm of Japan (the penultimate company to discontinue colour print stock[2]), Agfa-Gevaert of Germany, Ilford of the United Kingdom and Tasma of the Soviet Union competed with Kodak in the print stock market throughout most of the twentieth century.

The person operating the printer on which the release print is struck must take several factors into consideration in order to achieve accurate color. These include the stock manufacturer, the color temperature of the bulbs in the printer, and various color filters which may have been introduced during initial filming or subsequent generation of duplicates.

Theatrical projection

At the theater, release prints are projected through an [1].

Production and disposal

Release prints are generally expensive. For example, in the United States, it is not unusual for each one to cost around $1,500 to print and ship to theaters around the country. The cost of a release print is determined primarily by its length in feet, the type of print stock used and the number of prints being struck in a given run. Laser subtitling release prints of foreign language films adds significantly to the cost per print. Due to fear of piracy, distributors try to ensure that prints are returned and destroyed after the movie's theatrical run is complete.[3] However, small numbers of release prints do end up in the hands of private collectors, usually entering this market via projectionists, who simply retain their prints at the end of the run and do not return them. A significant number of films have been preserved this way, with the prints eventually being donated to film archives and preservation masters printed from them. The polyester film base is often recycled.

EKs (showprints) are even more expensive as they are almost completely made by hand and to much higher quality standards. Perhaps only five EKs will be made of a widely distributed feature, although perhaps thousands of conventional release prints may be made. They are intended primarily for first-run and Academy-consideration theatrical runs in Los Angeles and New York City. This accounts for two of the typically five produced. Two EKs are usually reserved for the film's producer. The remaining EK is usually archived by the film's distributor.

Conventional release prints, which are made from timed internegatives, usually contain black motor and changeover cue marks as the printing internegatives are "punched" and "inked" for this specific purpose.

Showprints, being made from the composited camera negatives, which are never "punched" or "inked", have white motor and changeover cue marks as these marks are punched (or scribed) directly on the prints by hand, in the lab.


  • SFIFF: Brad Bird's State of Cinema Address
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