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Flap endonuclease

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Title: Flap endonuclease  
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Subject: SNP genotyping, POLD4, Autonomously replicating sequence, HolD, T7 DNA helicase
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Flap endonuclease

Flap endonucleases (FENs, also known as 5' homologue; this redundancy may give an indication of the importance of these enzymes. In prokaryotes, the FEN enzyme is found as an N-terminal domain of DNA polymerase I, but some prokaryotes appear to encode a second homologue.[1][2][3]

The endonuclease activity of FENs was initially identified as acting on a DNA duplex which has a single-stranded 5' overhang on one of the strands (termed a "5' flap", hence the name flap endonuclease).[4] FENs catalyse hydrolytic cleavage of the phosphodiester bond at the junction of single- and double-stranded DNA. FENs can also act as 5'-3' exonucleases on the 5' terminus of the flap strand and on 'nicked' DNA substrates.

Protein structure models based on X-ray crystallography data suggest that FENs have a flexible arch created by two α-helices through which the single 5' strand of the 5' flap structure can thread.[5]

Flap endonucleases have been used in biotechnology, for example the Taqman PCR assay [6] and the Invader single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay.[7]

See also


  1. ^ Sayers, Jon R. (1994). "Computer Aided Identification of a Potential 5′-3′ Exonuclease Gene Encoded by Escherichia coli". Journal of Theoretical Biology 170 (4): 415–21.  
  2. ^ Liu, Yuan; Kao, Hui-I; Bambara, Robert A. (2004). "FLAP ENDONUCLEASE 1: A Central Component of DNA Metabolism". Annual Review of Biochemistry 73: 589–615.  
  3. ^ Ceska, T; Sayers, JR (1998). "Structure-specific DNA cleavage by 5′ nucleases". Trends in Biochemical Sciences 23 (9): 331–6.  
  4. ^ Harrington, John J.; Lieber, Michael R. (1994). "The characterization of a mammalian DNA structure-specific endonuclease". The EMBO journal 13 (5): 1235–46.  
  5. ^ Ceska, T. A.; Sayers, J. R.; Stier, G.; Suck, D. (1996). "A helical arch allowing single-stranded DNA to thread through T5 5'-exonuclease". Nature 382 (6586): 90–3.  
  6. ^
  7. ^ Olivier, Michael (2005). "The Invader® assay for SNP genotyping". Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 573 (1–2): 103–10.  

External links

External link Flap endonucleases, 5'-3' exonucleases & 5' nucleases

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