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Fort Wayne, Indiana

Fort Wayne, Indiana
City
City of Fort Wayne
Downtown Fort Wayne
Embassy Theatre Historic Fort Wayne
John Chapman's grave Fort Wayne Children's Zoo
Three Rivers

Clockwise from top: Downtown Fort Wayne, Historic Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne Children's Zoo, confluence of the three rivers, Johnny Appleseed's grave, and the Embassy Theatre.

Flag of Fort Wayne, Indiana
Flag
Official seal of Fort Wayne, Indiana
Seal
Nickname(s): "The Summit City" (official),[1] "The City of Churches",[2] "The City That Saved Itself",[3][4] "Magnet Wire Capital of the World"[5][6]
Motto: Kekionga
Location in Allen County and Indiana
Location in Allen County and Indiana
Fort Wayne, Indiana is located in USA
Fort Wayne, Indiana
Fort Wayne, Indiana
Location in the United States
Coordinates:
Country  United States
State Indiana
County Allen
Townships Aboite, Adams, Perry, Pleasant, St. Joseph, Washington, Wayne
Founding October 22, 1794
Incorporated (town) January 3, 1829
Incorporated (city) February 22, 1840
Founded by Jean François Hamtramck
Named for Anthony Wayne
Government
 • Type Mayor–council
 • Mayor Tom Henry (D)
 • City Council
 • State House
 • State Senate
Area[7]
 • City 110.83 sq mi (287.05 km2)
 • Land 110.62 sq mi (286.50 km2)
 • Water 0.21 sq mi (0.54 km2)
 • Urban 135.25 sq mi (350.3 km2)
 • Metro 1,368 sq mi (3,540 km2)
Elevation 810 ft (247 m)
Population (2010)[8]
 • City 253,691
 • Rank 1st in Allen County
2nd in Indiana
74th in the United States
 • Density 2,293.4/sq mi (885.5/km2)
 • Urban 313,492 (119th)
 • Metro 419,453 (122nd)
 • CSA 611,712 (77th)
 • Demonym Fort Wayniac
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 46774, 46802–46809, 46814–46816, 46818, 46819, 46825, 46835, 46845
Area code(s) 260
FIPS code 18-25000
GNIS feature ID 0434689[9]
Interstates
U.S. Routes
State Routes
Waterways St. Joseph River, St. Marys River, and Maumee River
Airports Fort Wayne International Airport and Smith Field
Public transit Fort Wayne Citilink
Website www.cityoffortwayne.org

Fort Wayne is a city in the U.S. state of Indiana and the county seat of Allen County.[10] The population was 256,496[11] as of the 2013 Census estimate making it the 76th largest city in the United States and the second largest in Indiana after Indianapolis. The municipality is located in northeastern Indiana, approximately 18 miles (29 km) west of the Ohio border[12] and 50 miles (80 km) south of the Michigan border.[13] Fort Wayne is the principal city of the Fort Wayne metropolitan area, consisting of Allen, Wells, and Whitley counties, for an estimated population of 419,453.[14] In addition to those three core counties, the combined statistical area includes Adams, DeKalb, Huntington, Noble, and Steuben counties, for a population of about 615,077.[14]

Under the direction of American Revolutionary War statesman Anthony Wayne, the United States Army built Fort Wayne last in a series of forts near the Miami tribe village of Kekionga in 1794.[15] Named in Wayne's honor, the settlement established itself at the confluence of the St. Joseph River, St. Marys River, and Maumee River as a trading post for European pioneers.[16] The village was platted in 1823 and experienced tremendous growth after completion of the Wabash and Erie Canal and advent of the railroad.[16] Once a booming manufacturing town located in the Rust Belt, Fort Wayne's economy has diversified to include distribution, transportation, and logistics, health care, professional and business services, leisure and hospitality, and financial services.[17] The city is also a center for the defense industry which employs thousands in the city.[18]

As northeastern Indiana's cultural hub, Fort Wayne is home to 15 museums and art galleries,[19] two daily newspapers,[19] philharmonic orchestra, botanical conservatory, zoo, convention center, three minor league sports franchises and an NCAA Division I member school, and 86 public parks.[19] The city is home to the fifth-largest public university in Indiana,[20] Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne (IPFW), and the private universities of Concordia Theological Seminary, Indiana Institute of Technology, and University of Saint Francis. The city is also recognized as the final resting place of American folklore legend Johnny Appleseed.[21][22]

The city has been an All-America City Award recipient in 1982, 1998, and 2009[23] and received an Outstanding Achievement City Livability Award by the U.S. Conference of Mayors in 1999.[24]

History

Little Turtle
Anthony Wayne

The Miami people first established a settlement at the Maumee, St. Joseph, and St. Marys rivers in the mid-17th century called Kekionga, capital of the Miami nation and related Algonquian tribes. In the 1680s, the first Europeans in the area (French traders) established a post near Kekionga because of its location on a portage between the Great Lakes and Mississippi River.[25] In 1696, Comte de Frontenac appointed Jean Baptiste Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes, as commander of this French outpost.[26] The French built the first fort on the site, Fort Miami, in 1697 as part of a group of forts built between Quebec, and St. Louis. In 1721, a few years after Bissot's death, Fort Miami was replaced by Fort St. Philippe des Miamis.[27] The first census, performed in 1744 on the order by the governor of Louisiana, revealed a population of approximately 40 Frenchmen and 1,000 Miami.[27]

Increasing tension between France and the United States Army to secure Indiana. Three battles were fought at Kekionga against Little Turtle and the Miami Confederacy. Miami warriors defeated the U.S. forces in the first two battles. Anthony Wayne led a third expedition resulting in the destruction of Kekionga and the start of peace negotiations between Little Turtle and the U.S. After General Wayne refusal to negotiate, the tribe was advanced to Fallen Timbers where they were defeated on August 20, 1794. On October 22, 1794, U.S. forces captured the Wabash–Erie portage from the Miami Confederacy and built a new fort at the three rivers, Fort Wayne, in honor of the general.[28]

In 1819, three years after Indiana's statehood, the military garrison was discontinued and a federal land office opened to sell land ceded by local Native Americans by the Treaty of St. Mary's.[29] Platted in 1823, the village became an important frontier outpost, and was incorporated as the Town of Fort Wayne in 1829, with a population of 300.[30] The arrival of the Wabash and Erie Canal eased travel to the Great Lakes and Mississippi River, opening Fort Wayne to expanded economic opportunities. The population topped 2,000 when the town was incorporated as the City of Fort Wayne on February 22, 1840.[31] Fort Wayne's nickname as "The Summit City" came from

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