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Free State Bottleneck

Free State Bottleneck
Freistaat Flaschenhals
Unoccupied territory within post-World War I Germany

1919–1923
Capital Lorch
Languages German
Government Republic
President Edmund Pnischeck
Historical era Interwar period
 -  Established 10 January 1919
 -  Abolished 23 February 1923
Population
 -  1920 est. 17,363 
Currency Freistaattaler

The Free State Bottleneck (German: Freistaat Flaschenhals) was a short-lived quasi-state that existed from 10 January 1919 until 25 February 1923. It was formed out of part of the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau as a consequence of the occupation of the Rhineland following World War I. The Bottleneck is now part of the modern German states of Hesse and Rhineland-Palatinate.

Contents

  • Creation 1
  • Life in the Bottleneck 2
  • Foreign relations 3
  • Abolition 4
  • The Bottleneck today 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Creation

Following the Armistice of 1918, Allied forces occupied the German territory west of the Rhine. To maintain a military presence on the eastern side, the Allied powers extended their zones of occupation by creating three semi-circular bridgeheads of 30 km radius, radiating from Cologne (British zone), Koblenz (American zone), and Mainz (French zone).

Because of an error in measurement, the French and American zones did not meet. The resulting gap on the eastern side of the Rhine contained the Wisper valley, the towns of Lorch and Kaub, and villages of Lorchhausen, Sauerthal, Ransel, Wollmerschied, Welterod, Zorn, Strüth and Egenrod.

Surrounded by the two Allied bridgeheads, the Taunus range to the north-east, and the Rhine to the south-west, this tiny region was effectively cut off from the rest of Germany and subsequently separated from the administration of the Weimar Republic.

Owing to the circular nature of the Allied bridgeheads, this enclosed territory took on the shape of a bottleneck, hence the name that was given to the microstate, when it was declared on 10 January 1919.

Life in the Bottleneck

The region contained approximately 17,000 people and its largest town, Lorch, was established as its capital. The mayor of Lorch, Edmund Pnischeck, was subsequently elected as president of this small territory. Pnischeck headed the Bottleneck's administration for the time of its existence, which even oversaw the production of its own stamps and currency.

There were no roads connecting the Bottleneck to unoccupied Germany, trains were not permitted to stop there, and air or river transportation was impossible. The movement of goods and post to and from the state was only made possible by smuggling. Once, a French train loaded with coal from the Ruhr valley was hijacked from neighbouring Rüdesheim and taken to the Bottleneck, where the coal was distributed among the populace for heating purposes.[1]

Foreign relations

The state issued its own passports to its citizens, and had plans to establish an embassy in Berlin. Furthermore, it was intended to establish diplomatic relations with other countries, but the state ceased to exist before these plans were realised.[2]

Abolition

After four years of existence, the Free State Bottleneck was abolished on 23 February 1923 following the French Occupation of the Ruhr. The Bottleneck was eventually reincorporated with the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau.

The Bottleneck today

The territory that formerly comprised the Bottleneck is now part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site. The history of the Bottleneck is now a tourist attraction in the area, particularly in the former Free State's major towns of Kaub and Lorch.

Bottleneck stamps and currency are now sought-after rarities. Wine that was smuggled in from occupied Germany and stored in Lorch and Kaub can also fetch high prices.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Official" website of the Free State Bottleneck
  2. ^ (German) Lebendige Geschichte: Vor 80 Jahren: der Freistaat Flaschenhals Hessischer Rundfunk

External links

  • "Official" website of the Free State Bottleneck

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