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Freeman Dyson

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Freeman Dyson

Freeman Dyson
At the Long Now Seminar
in San Francisco, 2005
Born Freeman John Dyson
(1923-12-15) 15 December 1923
Crowthorne, Berkshire, England
Nationality American
Fields Physics, Mathematics
Institutions Royal Air Force
Institute for Advanced Study
University of Birmingham
Duke University
Cornell University
Alma mater Trinity College, Cambridge, Cornell University[1]
Academic advisors Hans Bethe
Known for Dyson sphere
Dyson operator
Dyson series
Schwinger-Dyson equation
Circular ensemble
Random Matrix Theory
Advocacy against nuclear weapons
Dyson conjecture
Dyson's eternal intelligence
Dyson number
Dyson tree
Dyson's transform
Project Orion
Influences Richard Feynman,[2][3] Abram Samoilovitch Besicovitch[4]
Notable awards Heineman Prize (1965)
Lorentz Medal (1966)
Hughes Medal (1968)
Harvey Prize (1977)
Wolf Prize (1981)
Andrew Gemant Award (1988)
Matteucci Medal (1989)
Oersted Medal (1991)
Fermi Award (1993)
Templeton Prize (2000)
Pomeranchuk Prize (2003)
Poincaré Prize (2012)
Children George Dyson, Dorothy Dyson, Mia Dyson, Rebecca Dyson, Emily Dyson
He is the son of George Dyson.

Freeman John Dyson FRS (born 15 December 1923) is an English-born American theoretical physicist and mathematician, known for his work in quantum electrodynamics, solid-state physics, astronomy and nuclear engineering.[5][6] Dyson is a member of the Board of Sponsors of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.[7]


  • Biography 1
    • Early life 1.1
    • Career in the United States 1.2
    • Marriages and children 1.3
    • Character 1.4
  • Honors and awards 2
  • Concepts 3
    • Biotechnology and genetic engineering 3.1
    • The Origin of Life 3.2
    • Dyson sphere 3.3
    • Dyson tree 3.4
    • Space colonies 3.5
    • Space exploration 3.6
    • Dyson's transform 3.7
    • Dyson series 3.8
    • Quantum physics and prime numbers 3.9
  • Views 4
    • Metaphysics 4.1
    • Climate change 4.2
    • Nuclear winter 4.3
    • Warfare and weapons 4.4
    • Civil Defense 4.5
    • The role of failure 4.6
    • On English academics 4.7
    • Science and religion 4.8
  • Works 5
  • In popular culture 6
  • See also 7
  • Further reading 8
  • Documentaries 9
  • References 10
  • External links 11
    • By Dyson 11.1
    • About Dyson 11.2


Early life

Born on 15 December 1923, at

  • "The Civil Heretic ", profile at the New York Times Magazine by Nicholas Dawidoff, 25 March 2009
    • Interview, 4 June 2009, Dyson comments on the misleading overemphasis of his climate-change views in the NYT profile.
  • ., biography, circa 2000
  • Dyson biographical outline, circa 2005
  • Dyson author page and archive, from The New York Review of Books
  • "The Scientist as Rebel", 2005 interview at Wild River Review
  • NPR interview of Freeman Dyson, audio, All Things Considered, 2 November 2004
  • Google video: interviewer: Robert Wright, video, 44:55, 30 June 2001
  • Freeman Dyson wins $1m religion prize, 9 May 2000
  • "Freeman Dyson's Brain", interview by Stewart Brand at Wired, 1998
  • Oral History interview transcript with Freeman J. Dyson 17 December 1986, American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library and Archives
  • "Disturbing the Universe": BBC interview with Freeman Dyson, audio, 18 January 1980
  • To Mars by A-bomb. BBC Airdate 8 February 2006.
  • 2008 Video Interview with Freeman Dyson by Atomic Heritage Foundation Voices of the Manhattan Project
  • Freeman Dyson at TED
    • Freeman Dyson: Let's look for life in the outer solar system (TED2003)

About Dyson

  • "Is A Graviton Detectable?", by Freeman Dyson, invited talk given at the Conference in Honour of the 90th Birthday of Freeman Dyson, Institute of Advanced Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 26–29 August 2013
  • "The Question of Global Warming", by Freeman Dyson, 12 June 2008
    • Comments on "The Question of Global Warming", with a reply by Dyson, 25 September 2008
  • "Our Biotech Future", essay by Freeman Dyson, 19 July 2007
    • Comments on "Our Biotech Future", with a reply by Dyson,27 September 2007
    • Another comment on "Our Biotech Future", with a reply by Dyson, 11 October 2007
  • "In Praise of Open Thinking", audio from a panel discussion with his son George Dyson, recorded 07-29-2004
  • Templeton Prize acceptance lecture 2000, by Freeman Dyson
  • Imagined Worlds by Freeman Dyson, 1996: Chapter 1
  • Video Interview of Freeman Dyson discussing Bogus Climate Models on YouTube
  • A radio interview with Freeman Dyson Aired on the Lewis Burke Frumkes Radio Show in 2009.
  • Tactical Nuclear Weapons in Southeast Asia, published March 1967 (declassified December 2002)
  • Suzan Mazur interviewing Dyson, 2012
  • "Pushing the Boundaries - A Conversation with Freeman Dyson", Ideas Roadshow, 2014

By Dyson

External links

  1. ^
  2. ^ a b c
  3. ^ FREEMAN DYSON | School of Natural Sciences
  4. ^
  5. ^ a b
  6. ^ a b Freeman Dyson: Disturbing the universe, pg 131, "I had finally become an American ... The decision to abjure my allegiance to Queen Elizabeth might have been a difficult one, but the Queen's ministers made it easy for me."
  7. ^ Board of Sponsors | Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
  8. ^ The Scientist as Rebel at the Wayback Machine (archived 27 September 2007). Wild River Review Interview by Joy E. Stocke
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^ "A Failure of Intelligence", Essay in Technology Review (November–December 2006)
  13. ^ Fractals in Physics: Essays in Honour of Benoit B. Mandelbrot : Proceedings of the International Conference Honouring Benoit B. Mandelbrot on His 65th Birthday, Vence, France, 1–4 October 1989, p. 66
  14. ^
  15. ^ Dyson, F., "What Can You Really Know", New York Review of Books (10 Nov 2011)
  16. ^ "The Approximation to Algebraic Numbers by Rationals," Acta Mathematica (Uppsala), 89, 1947, pp. 225-240.
  17. ^ "On Simultaneous Diophantine Approximations," Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, Series 2, 49, 1947, pp. 409-420.
  18. ^
  19. ^ a b c d e f g Dawidoff, Nicholas. The Civil Heretic. The New York Times. 25 March 2009
  20. ^
  21. ^ Freeman J. Dyson, Disturbing the Universe, 1979
  22. ^
  23. ^ . [Note: this Ward letter opens with "It has been recently proven by Dyson ..."]
  24. ^ a b F. J. Dyson, E. H. Lieb, Selected papers by Freeman Dyson, AMS (1996).
  25. ^ John Derbyshire, Prime Obsession, 2004, ISBN 0309085497.
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^
  30. ^
  31. ^ "Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma contains strategies that dominate any evolutionary opponent". William H. Press and Freeman Dyson. PNAS vol. 109 no. 26 pp 0409–10413
  32. ^
  33. ^ See excerpt from Digerati: Encounters with the Cyber Elite by John Brockman (HardWired Books, 1996)
  34. ^
  35. ^ Progress In Religion, (2000-05-16). Retrieved on 2014-11-18.
  36. ^
  37. ^
  38. ^
  39. ^
  40. ^
  41. ^
  42. ^ Our Bio tech Future. Retrieved on 2011-10-07.
  43. ^ Dyson, 1999, The Sun, the Genome, and the Internet
  44. ^ Dyson, FJ, "The Greening of the Galaxy" in Disturbing the Universe, 1979
  45. ^ Oparin, A. I. The Origin of Life, Moscow Worker publisher, 1924 (Russian)
  46. ^ The Origin of Life, J.B.S.Haldane, The Rationalist Annual, 1929
  47. ^ Freeman Dyson, Origins of Life,,. Second Edition, Cambridge University Press, 1999
  48. ^ a b c Interview by Monte Davis, October 1978 at the Wayback Machine (archived 7 December 1998). Retrieved on 2011-10-07.
  49. ^
  50. ^ 20 minutes into a video
  51. ^
  52. ^
  53. ^ a b c Dyson, FJ, "Warm-blooded plants and freeze-dried fish: the future of space exploration. Played" The Atlantic Monthly, November 1997 Subscribers only
  54. ^
  55. ^ Freeman Dyson, Selected papers, 1990-2014, pp. 41-42, World Scientific, 2015
  56. ^ a b c dl
  57. ^ "Top boffin Freeman Dyson on climate change, interstellar travel, fusion, and more", interview published 2 June 2009 by The Register
  58. ^ Don't fight, adapt at the Wayback Machine (archived 10 January 2009). Open Letter to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. National Post. 13 December 2007
  59. ^ Wiggles, Open Mind, 16 December 2007 Archived December 17, 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  60. ^ "Freeman Dyson Takes On The Climate Establishment", interview published 2 June 2009 by Yale University's Environment 360
  61. ^ Dyson in The New York Review of Book, 12 June 2008. (2008-06-12). Retrieved on 2011-10-07.
  62. ^
  63. ^ Freeman J. Dyson, "Can we control the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?", Energy, Volume 2, Issue 3, September 1977, Pages 287–291. doi:10.1016/0360-5442(77)90033-0
  64. ^
  65. ^
  66. ^ F.J. Dyson, "The Children's Crusade" in Disturbing the Universe, 1979
  67. ^ F.J. Dyson, "The Blood of a Poet" in Disturbing the Universe, 1979
  68. ^ F.J. Dyson, Weapons and Hope, 1984
  69. ^ Dyson, Freeman, Disturbing the Universe, Chapter 13, The Ethics of Defense, p.149, Basic Books, 1979,
  70. ^ Tactical Nuclear Weapons in Southeast Asia, published March 1967 (declassified December 2002)
  71. ^
  72. ^ Weapons and Hope, Chapter 8, Shelters, Freeman Dyson, Harper Collins, (Reprinted 1985)
  73. ^ Interview by Stewart Brand, February 1998. (2009-01-04). Retrieved on January 07, 2013.
  74. ^
  75. ^ a b Templeton Prize Lecture. (2000-05-16). Retrieved on 2011-10-07.
  76. ^ a b NYRB 22 June 2006. Retrieved on 2011-10-07.
  77. ^
  78. ^
  79. ^
  80. ^ Freeman Dyson, "By the Book", New York Times Sunday Book Review, April 16, 2015.
  81. ^



Books about Dyson

  • "Birds and Frogs" – Notices of the American Mathematical Society, 2009[81]
  • Freeman Dyson, "By the Book," New York Times Sunday Book Review, April 16, 2015[80]

Notable articles by Dyson

Further reading

See also

The fictional character Gordon Freeman from the Half-Life video game series is named after Freeman Dyson.

In popular culture

External video
Freeman Dyson: Let's look for life in the outer solar system, TED Talks, February 2003.
Freeman Dyson 1 - My middle class upbringing, Web of Stories (1st of a series)
Big Ideas: Freeman Dyson on Living Through Four Revolutions, TVO, 1 June 2011 at Perimeter Institute, Waterloo, Canada.


I am myself a Christian, a member of a community that preserves an ancient heritage of great literature and great music, provides help and counsel to young and old when they are in trouble, educates children in moral responsibility, and worships God in its own fashion. But I find Polkinghorne’s theology altogether too narrow for my taste. I have no use for a theology that claims to know the answers to deep questions but bases its arguments on the beliefs of a single tribe. I am a practicing Christian but not a believing Christian. To me, to worship God means to recognize that mind and intelligence are woven into the fabric of our universe in a way that altogether surpasses our comprehension.[79]

While Dyson has labeled himself a Christian, he identifies himself as agnostic about some of the specifics of his faith.[77][78] For example, here is a passage from Dyson's review of The God of Hope and the End of the World from John Polkinghorne:

Weinberg's statement is true as far as it goes, but it is not the whole truth. To make it the whole truth, we must add an additional clause: "And for bad people to do good things—that [also] takes religion." The main point of Christianity is that it is a religion for sinners. Jesus made that very clear. When the Pharisees asked his disciples, "Why eateth your Master with publicans and sinners?" he said, "I come to call not the righteous but sinners to repentance." Only a small fraction of sinners repent and do good things but only a small fraction of good people are led by their religion to do bad things.[76]

Dyson partially disagrees with the famous remark by his fellow physicist Steven Weinberg that "With or without religion, good people can behave well and bad people can do evil; but for good people to do evil—that takes religion."[76]

Science and religion are two windows that people look through, trying to understand the big universe outside, trying to understand why we are here. The two windows give different views, but they look out at the same universe. Both views are one-sided, neither is complete. Both leave out essential features of the real world. And both are worthy of respect. Trouble arises when either science or religion claims universal jurisdiction, when either religious or scientific dogma claims to be infallible. Religious creationists and scientific materialists are equally dogmatic and insensitive. By their arrogance they bring both science and religion into disrepute. The media exaggerate their numbers and importance. The media rarely mention the fact that the great majority of religious people belong to moderate denominations that treat science with respect, or the fact that the great majority of scientists treat religion with respect so long as religion does not claim jurisdiction over scientific questions.[75]

He is a non-denominational Christian and has attended various churches from Presbyterian to Roman Catholic. Regarding doctrinal or Christological issues, he has said, "I am neither a saint nor a theologian. To me, good works are more important than theology."[75]

Science and religion

My view of the prevalence of doom-and-gloom in [74]

On English academics

You can't possibly get a good technology going without an enormous number of failures. It's a universal rule. If you look at bicycles, there were thousands of weird models built and tried before they found the one that really worked. You could never design a bicycle theoretically. Even now, after we've been building them for 100 years, it's very difficult to understand just why a bicycle works – it's even difficult to formulate it as a mathematical problem. But just by trial and error, we found out how to do it, and the error was essential.[73]

The role of failure

While teaching for a few weeks in Zurich, Dyson was visited by two officials from the Swiss civil defense authority. Their experts were telling them that fairly simple shelters on a large scale would enable them to survive a nuclear attack, and they wanted confirmation. They knew that Dyson had a security clearance. Dyson reassured them that their shelters would do the job. The US does not build such shelters because it would be contrary to the doctrine of mutual assured destruction, since the US would be able to launch a first strike but survive retaliation.[72]

Civil Defense

Dyson opposed the Vietnam War, the Gulf War, and the invasion of Iraq. He supported Barack Obama in the 2008 US presidential election and The New York Times has described him as a political liberal.[19] He was one of 29 leading US scientists who wrote a strongly supportive letter to Obama regarding his administration's 2015 nuclear deal with Iran.[71]

In 1967, in his capacity as a military adviser Dyson wrote an influential paper on the issue of possible US use of tactical nuclear weapons in the Vietnam War. When a general said in a meeting "I think it might be a good idea to throw in a nuke now and then, just to keep the other side guessing,"[69] Dyson became alarmed and obtained permission to write an objective report discussing the pros and cons of using such weapons from a purely military point of view. (This report, Tactical Nuclear Weapons in Southeast Asia, published by the Institute for Defense Analyses, was obtained, with some redactions, by The Nautilus Institute for Security and Sustainability under the Freedom of Information act in 2002.)[70] It was sufficiently objective that both sides in the debate based their arguments on it. Dyson says that the report showed that, even from a narrow military point of view, the US was better off not using nuclear weapons. Dyson stated on the Dick Cavett show that the use of nuclear weaponry was a bad idea for the US at the time because "our targets were large and theirs were small." (His unstated assumption was that the Soviets would respond by supplying tactical nukes to the other side.)

I am convinced that to avoid nuclear war it is not sufficient to be afraid of it. It is necessary to be afraid, but it is equally necessary to understand. And the first step in understanding is to recognize that the problem of nuclear war is basically not technical but human and historical. If we are to avoid destruction we must first of all understand the human and historical context out of which destruction arises.[68]
I agreed emphatically with Henry Stimson. Once we had got ourselves into the business of bombing cities, we might as well do the job competently and get it over with. I felt better that morning than I had felt for years… Those fellows who had built the atomic bombs obviously knew their stuff… Later, much later, I would remember [the downside].[67]

On hearing the news of the bombing of Hiroshima:

All our advice to the commander in chief [went] through the chief of our section, who was a career civil servant. His guiding principle was to tell the commander in chief things that the commander in chief liked to hear… To push the idea of ripping out gun turrets, against the official mythology of the gallant gunner defending his crew mates…was not the kind of suggestion the commander in chief liked to hear.[66]

At the British Bomber Command, Dyson and colleagues proposed ripping out two gun turrets from the RAF Lancaster bombers, to cut the catastrophic losses due to German fighters in the Battle of Berlin. A Lancaster without turrets could fly 50 mph (80 km/h) faster and be much more maneuverable.

Warfare and weapons

As a scientist I want to rip the theory of nuclear winter apart, but as a human being I want to believe it. This is one of the rare instances of a genuine conflict between the demands of science and the demands of humanity. As a scientist, I judge the nuclear winter theory to be a sloppy piece of work, full of gaps and unjustified assumptions. As a human being, I hope fervently that it is right. Here is a real and uncomfortable dilemma. What does a scientist do when science and humanity pull in opposite directions?[65]

From his 1988 book Infinite in All Directions, he offered some criticism of then current models predicting a devastating nuclear winter in the event of a large-scale nuclear war:

Nuclear winter

In a 2014 interview, he said that "What I'm convinced of is that we don't understand climate ... It will take a lot of very hard work before that question is settled."[2]

Since originally taking interest in climate studies in the 1970s, Dyson has suggested that carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere could be controlled by planting fast-growing trees. He calculates that it would take a trillion trees to remove all carbon from the atmosphere.[63][64]

I'm not saying the warming doesn't cause problems, obviously it does. Obviously we should be trying to understand it. I'm saying that the problems are being grossly exaggerated. They take away money and attention from other problems that are much more urgent and important. Poverty, infectious diseases, public education and public health. Not to mention the preservation of living creatures on land and in the oceans.[62]

He has, however, argued that political efforts to reduce the causes of climate change distract from other global problems that should take priority:

In 2008, he endorsed the now common usage of "global warming" as synonymous with global anthropogenic climate change, referring to "measurements that transformed global warming from a vague theoretical speculation into a precise observational science."[61]

Dyson says his views on global warming have been strongly criticized. In reply, he notes that "[m]y objections to the global warming propaganda are not so much over the technical facts, about which I do not know much, but it’s rather against the way those people behave and the kind of intolerance to criticism that a lot of them have."[60]

He is among signatories of a letter to the UN criticizing the IPCC[58][59] and has also argued against ostracizing scientists whose views depart from the acknowledged mainstream of scientific opinion on climate change, stating that "heretics" have historically been an important force in driving scientific progress. "[H]eretics who question the dogmas are needed ... I am proud to be a heretic. The world always needs heretics to challenge the prevailing orthodoxies."[56]

What has happened in the past 10 years is that the discrepancies between what's observed and what's predicted have become much stronger. It's clear now the models are wrong, but it wasn't so clear 10 years ago.[57]

and, in 2009:

The models solve the equations of fluid dynamics, and they do a very good job of describing the fluid motions of the atmosphere and the oceans. They do a very poor job of describing the clouds, the dust, the chemistry and the biology of fields and farms and forests. They do not begin to describe the real world we live in ...[56]

Dyson agrees that anthropogenic global warming exists, and has written that "[one] of the main causes of warming is the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from our burning of fossil fuels such as oil and coal and natural gas."[56] However, he believes that existing simulation models of climate fail to account for some important factors, and hence the results will contain too much error to reliably predict future trends:

Climate change

Dyson has suggested a kind of cosmic metaphysics of mind. In his book Infinite in All Directions he writes about three levels of mind: "The universe shows evidence of the operations of mind on three levels. The first level is the level of elementary physical processes in quantum mechanics. Matter in quantum mechanics is [...] constantly making choices between alternative possibilities according to probabilistic laws. [...] The second level at which we detect the operations of mind is the level of direct human experience. [...] [I]t is reasonable to believe in the existence of a third level of mind, a mental component of the universe. If we believe in this mental component and call it God, then we can say that we are small pieces of God's mental apparatus" (p. 297).



Dyson and Hugh Montgomery discovered together an intriguing connection between quantum physics and Montgomery's pair correlation conjecture about the zeros of the Zeta function. The primes 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, ... are described by the Riemann Zeta function, and Dyson had previously developed a description of quantum physics based on m by m arrays of totally random numbers.[54] What Montgomery and Dyson discovered is that the eigenvalues of these matrices are spaced apart in exactly the same manner as Montgomery conjectured for the nontrivial zeros of the Zeta function. Andrew Odlyzko has verified the conjecture on a computer, using his Odlyzko–Schönhage algorithm to calculate many zeros. Dyson recognized this connection because of a number-theory question Montgomery asked him. Dyson had published results in number theory in 1947 while a Fellow at Trinity College, Cambridge and so was able to understand Montgomery's question. If Montgomery had not been visiting the Institute for Advanced Study that week, this connection might not have been discovered. There are in nature one, two, and three dimensional quasicrystals. Mathematicians define a quasicrystal as a set of discrete points whose Fourier transform is also a set of discrete points. Andrew Odlyzko has done extensive computations of the Fourier transform of the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann Zeta function, and they seem to form a one dimensional quasicrystal. This would in fact follow from the Riemann hypothesis.[55]

Quantum physics and prime numbers

Freeman Dyson in 2007 at the Institute for Advanced Study

The Dyson series, the formal solution of an explicitly time-dependent Schrödinger equation by iteration, and the corresponding Dyson time-ordering operator \mathcal T\,, an entity of basic importance in the mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics, are also named after Dyson.

Dyson series

Dyson also has some credits in pure mathematics. His concept "Dyson's transform" led to one of the most important lemmas of Olivier Ramaré's theorem that every even integer can be written as a sum of no more than six primes.

Dyson's transform

A direct search for life in Europa's ocean would today be prohibitively expensive. Impacts on Europa give us an easier way to look for evidence of life there. Every time a major impact occurs on Europa, a vast quantity of water is splashed from the ocean into the space around Jupiter. Some of the water evaporates, and some condenses into snow. Creatures living in the water far enough from the impact have a chance of being splashed intact into space and quickly freeze-dried. Therefore, an easy way to look for evidence of life in Europa's ocean is to look for freeze-dried fish in the ring of space debris orbiting Jupiter. Freeze-dried fish orbiting Jupiter is a fanciful notion, but nature in the biological realm has a tendency to be fanciful. Nature is usually more imaginative than we are. [...] To have the best chance of success, we should keep our eyes open for all possibilities.[53]

Space exploration

Dyson also proposed the use of bioengineered space colonies to colonize the Kuiper Belt on the outer edge of our Solar System. He proposed that habitats could be grown from space hardened spores. The colonies could then be warmed by large reflector plant leaves that could focus the dim, distant sunlight back on the growing colony. This was illustrated by Pat Rawlings on the cover of the National Space Society's Ad Astra magazine.

No law of physics or biology forbids cheap travel and settlement all over the solar system and beyond. But it is impossible to predict how long this will take. Predictions of the dates of future achievements are notoriously fallible. My guess is that the era of cheap unmanned missions will be the next fifty years, and the era of cheap manned missions will start sometime late in the twenty-first century.
Any affordable program of manned exploration must be centered in biology, and its time frame tied to the time frame of biotechnology; a hundred years, roughly the time it will take us to learn to grow warm-blooded plants, is probably reasonable.[53]

He still hopes for cheap space travel, but is resigned to waiting for private entrepreneurs to develop something new—and cheap.

The problem is, of course, that they can't afford to fail. The rules of the game are that you don't take a chance, because if you fail, then probably your whole program gets wiped out.[48]

Dyson has been interested in space travel since he was a child, reading such science fiction classics as Olaf Stapledon's Star Maker. As a young man, he worked for General Atomics on the nuclear-powered Orion spacecraft. He hoped Project Orion would put men on Mars by 1965, Saturn by 1970. He's been unhappy for a quarter-century on how the government conducts space travel:

I've done some historical research on the costs of the Mayflower's voyage, and on the Mormons' emigration to Utah, and I think it's possible to go into space on a much smaller scale. A cost on the order of $40,000 per person [1978 dollars, $143,254 in 2013 dollars] would be the target to shoot for; in terms of real wages, that would make it comparable to the colonization of America. Unless it's brought down to that level it's not really interesting to me, because otherwise it would be a luxury that only governments could afford.[48]

Space colonies

Plants could grow greenhouses…just as turtles grow shells and polar bears grow fur and polyps build coral reefs in tropical seas. These plants could keep warm by the light from a distant Sun and conserve the oxygen that they produce by photosynthesis. The greenhouse would consist of a thick skin providing thermal insulation, with small transparent windows to admit sunlight. Outside the skin would be an array of simple lenses, focusing sunlight through the windows into the interior… Groups of greenhouses could grow together to form extended habitats for other species of plants and animals.[53]

Dyson has also proposed the creation of a Dyson tree, a genetically-engineered plant capable of growing on a comet. He suggested that comets could be engineered to contain hollow spaces filled with a breathable atmosphere, thus providing self-sustaining habitats for humanity in the outer solar system.

Dyson tree

Dyson conceived that such structures would be clouds of asteroid-sized space habitats, though science fiction writers have preferred a solid structure: either way, such an artifact is often referred to as a Dyson sphere, although Dyson himself used the term "shell". Dyson says that he used the term "artificial biosphere" in the article meaning a habitat, not a shape.[50] The general concept of such an energy-transferring shell had been advanced decades earlier by author Olaf Stapledon in his 1937 novel Star Maker, a source that Dyson has credited publicly.[51][52]

In 1960 Dyson wrote a short paper for the journal Science, entitled "Search for Artificial Stellar Sources of Infrared Radiation".[49] In it, he theorized that a technologically advanced extraterrestrial civilization might completely surround its native star with artificial structures in order to maximize the capture of the star's available energy. Eventually, the civilization would completely enclose the star, intercepting electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths from visible light downwards and radiating waste heat outwards as infrared radiation. Therefore, one method of searching for extraterrestrial civilizations would be to look for large objects radiating in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum.

One should expect that, within a few thousand years of its entering the stage of industrial development, any intelligent species should be found occupying an artificial biosphere which completely surrounds its parent star.[48]
Artist's concept of Dyson rings, forming a stable Dyson swarm, or "Dyson sphere".

Dyson sphere

Unfortunately there is no direct evidence for the dual origin concept, because once genes developed, they took over, obliterating all traces of the earlier forms of life. In the first origin, the cells were probably just drops of water held together by surface tension, teeming with enzymes and chemical reactions, and a primitive kind of growth or replication. When the liquid drop became too big, it split into two drops. Many complex molecules formed in these "little city economies" and the probability that genes would eventually develop in them was much greater than in the prebiotic environment.[47]

Dyson favors the dual origin concept: Life first formed cells, then enzymes, and finally, much later, genes. This was first propounded by the Russian Alexander Oparin.[45] J. B. S. Haldane developed the same theory independently.[46] Dyson has simplified things by saying simply that life evolved in two stages, widely separated in time. He regards it as too unlikely that genes could have developed fully blown in one process, because of the biochemistry. He proposes that in a primitive early cell containing ATP and AMP, DNA was invented accidentally because of the similarity of the two. Current cells contain Adenosine triphosphate or ATP and adenosine 5'-monophosphate or AMP, which greatly resemble each other but have completely different functions. ATP transports energy around the cell, and AMP is part of RNA and the genetic apparatus. Dyson proposes that in a primitive early cell containing ATP and AMP, RNA and replication were invented accidentally because of the similarity of the two. He suggests that AMP was produced when ATP molecules lost two of their phosphate radicals, and then one cell somewhere performed Eigen's experiment and produced RNA.

The Origin of Life

"To answer the world's material needs, technology has to be not only beautiful but also cheap."[44]

Dyson cheerfully admits his record as a prophet is mixed, but "it is better to be wrong than to be vague."[43]

My book The Sun, the Genome, and the Internet (1999) describes a vision of green technology enriching villages all over the world and halting the migration from villages to megacities. The three components of the vision are all essential: the sun to provide energy where it is needed, the genome to provide plants that can convert sunlight into chemical fuels cheaply and efficiently, the Internet to end the intellectual and economic isolation of rural populations. With all three components in place, every village in Africa could enjoy its fair share of the blessings of civilization.[42]

Biotechnology and genetic engineering


In 2011, Dyson was received as one of twenty distinguished Old Wykehamists at the Ad Portas celebration, the highest honour that Winchester College bestows.

In 2003, Dyson was awarded the Telluride Tech Festival Award of Technology in Telluride, Colorado.

In 2000, Dyson was awarded the Templeton Prize for Progress in Religion.[41]

In 1995 he gave the Jerusalem-Harvard Lectures at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, sponsored jointly by the Hebrew University and Harvard University Press that grew into the book Imagined Worlds.[40]

In 1993, Dyson was given the Enrico Fermi Award.

Dyson has published a number of collections of speculations and observations about technology, science, and the future. In 1996 he was awarded the Lewis Thomas Prize for Writing about Science.

In 1989, Dyson taught at Duke University as a Fritz London Memorial Lecturer. In the same year, he was elected as an Honorary Fellow of Trinity College, University of Cambridge.

In the 1984–85 academic year he gave the Gifford lectures at Aberdeen, which resulted in the book Infinite In All Directions.

Dyson was awarded the Lorentz Medal in 1966, Max Planck Medal in 1969, the J. Robert Oppenheimer Memorial Prize in 1970,[38][39] and the Harvey Prize in 1977.

In 1952 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.[37]

Honors and awards

Friends and colleagues describe Dyson as shy and self-effacing, with a contrarian streak that his friends find refreshing but his intellectual opponents find exasperating. "I have the sense that when consensus is forming like ice hardening on a lake, Dyson will do his best to chip at the ice", Steven Weinberg said of him. His friend, the neurologist and author Oliver Sacks, said: "A favorite word of Freeman's about doing science and being creative is the word 'subversive'. He feels it's rather important not only to be not orthodox, but to be subversive, and he's done that all his life."[19] In The God Delusion (2006), biologist Richard Dawkins criticized Dyson for accepting the religious Templeton Prize in 2000; "It would be taken as an endorsement of religion by one of the world's most distinguished physicists."[34] However, Dyson declared in 2000 that he is a (non-denominational) Christian,[35] and he has disagreed with Dawkins on several occasions, as when he criticized Dawkins' understanding of evolution.[36]


Dyson's eldest daughter, Esther, is a digital technology consultant and investor; she has been called "the most influential woman in all the computer world."[32] His son George is a historian of science,[33] one of whose books is Project Orion: The Atomic Spaceship 1957–1965.

With his first wife, the mathematician masters runner, and they eventually had four more children, Dorothy, Mia, Rebecca, and Emily Dyson.[19]

Marriages and children

In 2012, he published (with William H. Press) a fundamental new result about the Prisoner's Dilemma in PNAS.[31]

Dyson has won numerous scientific awards but never a Nobel Prize. Nobel physics laureate Steven Weinberg has said that the Nobel committee has "fleeced" Dyson, but Dyson himself remarked in 2009, "I think it's almost true without exception if you want to win a Nobel Prize, you should have a long attention span, get hold of some deep and important problem and stay with it for ten years. That wasn't my style."[19]

Dyson is a regular contributor to The New York Review of Books.

Dyson retired from the Institute for Advanced Study in 1994.[29] In 1998, Dyson joined the board of the Gerard K. O'Neill; As of 2013 he is on its Board of Trustees.[30] Dyson is a long-time member of the JASON group.

Around 1979, Dyson worked with the Institute for Energy Analysis on climate studies. This group, under the direction of Alvin Weinberg, pioneered multidisciplinary climate studies, including a strong biology group. Also during the 1970s, he worked on climate studies conducted by the JASON defense advisory group.[19]

A seminal work by Dyson came in 1966 when, together with Andrew Lenard and independently of Elliott H. Lieb and Walter Thirring, he proved rigorously that the exclusion principle plays the main role in the stability of bulk matter.[26][27][28] Hence, it is not the electromagnetic repulsion between outer-shell orbital electrons which prevents two wood blocks that are left on top of each other from coalescing into a single piece, but rather it is the exclusion principle applied to electrons and protons that generates the classical macroscopic normal force. In condensed matter physics, Dyson also did studies in the phase transition of the Ising model in 1 dimension and spin waves.[24]

In 1958 he led the design team for the TRIGA, a small, inherently safe nuclear reactor used throughout the world in hospitals and universities for the production of medical isotopes.

From 1957 to 1961 he worked on the Orion Project, which proposed the possibility of space-flight using nuclear pulse propulsion. A prototype was demonstrated using conventional explosives, but the 1963 Partial Test Ban Treaty (which Dyson was involved in and supported) permitted only underground nuclear testing, so the project was abandoned.

Dyson also did work in a variety of topics in mathematics, such as topology, analysis, number theory and random matrices.[24] There is an interesting story involving random matrices. In 1973 the number theorist Hugh Montgomery was visiting the Institute for Advanced Study and had just made his pair correlation conjecture concerning the distribution of the zeros of the Riemann zeta function. He showed his formula to the mathematician Atle Selberg who said it looked like something in mathematical physics and he should show it to Dyson, which he did. Dyson recognized the formula as the pair correlation function of the Gaussian unitary ensemble, which has been extensively studied by physicists. This suggested that there might be an unexpected connection between the distribution of primes 2,3,5,7,11, ... and the energy levels in the nuclei of heavy elements such as uranium.[25]

Also in 1949, in a related work, Dyson invented the Dyson series.[22] It was this paper that inspired John Ward to derive his celebrated Ward identity.[23]

In 1949, Dyson demonstrated the equivalence of two then-current formulations of quantum electrodynamicsRichard Feynman's diagrams and the operator method developed by Julian Schwinger and Sin-Itiro Tomonaga.[20] He was the first person (besides Feynman) to appreciate the power of Feynman diagrams, and his paper written in 1948 and published in 1949 was the first to make use of them. He said in that paper that Feynman diagrams were not just a computational tool, but a physical theory, and developed rules for the diagrams that completely solved the renormalization problem. Dyson's paper and also his lectures presented Feynman's theories of QED (quantum electrodynamics) in a form that other physicists could understand, facilitating the physics community's acceptance of Feynman's work. Robert Oppenheimer, in particular, was persuaded by Dyson that Feynman's new theory was as valid as Schwinger's and Tomonaga's. Oppenheimer rewarded Dyson with a lifetime appointment at the Institute for Advanced Study, "for proving me wrong", in Oppenheimer's words.[21]

In 1951 he joined the faculty at Cornell as a physics professor, although still lacking a doctorate, and in 1953 he received a permanent post at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey—where he has now lived for more than fifty years.[19] In 1957 he became a naturalized citizen of the United States and renounced his British nationality. One reason he gave decades later is that his children born in the US had not been recognized as British subjects.[5][6]

In 1947 Dyson moved to the US, as Commonwealth Fellow at Cornell University (1947–1948) and the Institute for Advanced Study (1948–1949). Between 1949 and 1951, he was a teaching fellow at the University of Birmingham (UK).[18]

Career in the United States

From 1936 to 1941, Dyson was a Scholar at Winchester College, where his father was Director of Music. On 25 July 1943, he entered the Operational Research Section (ORS) of the Royal Air Force’s Bomber Command,[11] where he developed analytical methods to help the Royal Air Force to bomb German targets during the Second World War.[12] After the war, Dyson was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge,[13] where he obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree in mathematics.[14] From 1946 to 1949 he was a Fellow of his college, occupying rooms just below those of the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, who resigned his professorship in 1947.[15] In 1947 he published two papers in Number theory[16][17]

[10] Politically, Dyson says he was "brought up as a socialist".[2].Eric Temple Bell by Men of Mathematics As a child, he showed an interest in large numbers and in the solar system, and was strongly influenced by the book [9], as a small boy Dyson was aware of him and has credited the popularity of an astronomer sharing his surname as having helped to spark his own interest in science. At the age of five he calculated the number of atoms in the sun.Frank Watson Dyson Although not known to be related to the early 20th-century astronomer [8]

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