World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

French Canada

Article Id: WHEBN0000212066
Reproduction Date:

Title: French Canada  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Culture of Canada, Franco-country, Quebec nationalism, John the Baptist, Dit name
Collection: Canadian Culture, French Canada, French Culture, French-Canadian People
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

French Canada

French Canada is the Francophone population of Canada, centred in Quebec, which consists of cultural, linguistic, and historical groups distinguishable from those of English Canada.


  • Definition 1
    • Canada, New France 1.1
    • Canadian settlements 1.2
    • Francophones 1.3
  • Culture and national identity 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4


Because it has represented different realities at different times, the term French Canada can be interpreted in different ways. Roughly chronologically they are:

Canada, New France

Canada, New France, was the historic homeland of the original Canadians (les Canadiens), the St. Lawrence River valley, in the time of New France. It corresponds to the southern part of modern Quebec excluding the Eastern Townships. Later, it was renamed the Province of Quebec (1763), Lower Canada (1791), Canada East (1840), and finally the Province of Quebec[1] (1867) again.

Canadian settlements

All the communities where French Canadians have settled in North America may be interpreted as French Canada. In this interpretation; Ottawa, Ontario; Falher, Alberta; Bonnyville, Alberta; Gravelbourg, Saskatchewan; St. Boniface, Manitoba; Hawkesbury, Ontario; Montreal, Quebec; Edmundston, New Brunswick are part of French Canada, while Pontiac, Stanstead, and most First Nations in Quebec are not. French Canadian communities in the United States were called "Little Canadas".


Francophone regions of Canada are those areas with large concentrations of French-speaking residents. In this sense, Quebec, parts of New Brunswick, Eastern Ontario, Northern Ontario, southern Manitoba, and smaller communities elsewhere fall under this category.

This can also represent the collection of all francophones in Canada, whether or not they live in communities with significant francophone populations. "Francophone" here may mean those who speak French natively, or it may alternatively include those allophones in Canada who, in various ways, are sometimes associated with French Canadian society more closely than with English Canadian society.

These Canadian francophones refer to themselves as Québécois in Quebec, Acadiens in the Maritime provinces, Fransaskois in Saskatchewan, Franco-Manitobains in Manitoba, Franco-Ontariens in Ontario, Franco-Albertains in Alberta, Franco-Colombiens in British Columbia, Franco-Terreneuviens in Newfoundland and Labrador, Franco-Yukonnais in the Yukon and Franco-Ténois in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. With the exception of the Acadians who have a different history altogether, most French Canadians trace their origins to Quebec, although there are numerous more recent immigrants from various francophone colonies around the world (e.g. Haitians).

Number of francophones by province and territory in Canada (2012)
Flag Province/Territory Group Name Principal Regions French-speaking population Percentage
Ontario Franco-Ontarians Eastern Ontario, Northeastern Ontario, Central Ontario 561,160 4.4%
Quebec Quebecois Entire province 8,214,000 93%
Nova Scotia Acadians Digby County, Richmond County, Inverness County, Yarmouth County 34,585 3.8%
New Brunswick Acadians & Brayons Madawaska County, Restigouche County, Gloucester County, Kent County, Westmorland County 234,410 31.6%
Manitoba Franco-Manitobans St. Boniface (Winnipeg), Eastman Region 47,680 3.8%
British Columbia Franco-Columbians Maillardville (Greater Vancouver), Victoria 70,755 1.6%
Prince Edward Island Acadians Evangeline Region (Prince County) 5,685 4.1%
Saskatchewan Fransaskois Regina, Saskatoon, Gravelbourg, Albertville, Zénon Park, St. Isidore-de-Bellevue 18,935 1.9%
Alberta Franco-Albertans Bonnie Doon (Edmonton), Calgary, St. Paul, Bonnyville, Lac la Biche, Peace River 81,085 2.2%
Newfoundland & Labrador Franco-Newfoundlanders Port au Port Peninsula 3,015 0.6%
Northwest Territories Franco-Ténois Yellowknife, Hay River, Inuvik, Fort Smith 1,175 2.9%
Yukon Franco-Yukonnais Whitehorse, Dawson City 1,630 4.8%
Nunavut Franco-Nunavois Iqaluit 450 1.4%

Culture and national identity

The idea of a unified French Canada is somewhat problematic.[2] Any conceived national identity is largely a product of imagination and self-interpretation, and the conceptualization of French Canada as a single identity poses the same ambiguities as a unified English Canada. Though French is the official language of Quebec, throughout the rest of Canada where significant Franco-Canadian populations live there is a bilingual system in place.

Quebec, though not entirely equatable with French Canada, is still considered its heartland, and due to the concentration of French Canadians in this province it is the region where a distinctly French Canada exists. Because of its French roots, the majority of the population have much in common with France and French culture, while still maintaining a close relationship to Anglophone Canada. One of its most popular traditions is Carnivale, which is related to the celebration of Mardi Gras in Louisiana, also a former French territory.

In 2006, the House of Commons officially recognized that "the Québécois form a nation within a united Canada." There have been referendums on the secession of Quebec from Canada which have failed in the past, but Québécois still maintain an identity distinct from the rest of the country due to traditions, language, and history.

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^ Magosci, P. Robert. "Canadian Identity: A Francophone Perspective" (PDF). Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.