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# Gardner–Salinas braille codes

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 Title: Gardner–Salinas braille codes Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia Language: English Subject: Collection: Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia Publication Date:

### Gardner–Salinas braille codes

The Gardner–Salinas braille codes are a method of encoding mathematical and scientific notation linearly using braille cells for tactile reading by the visually impaired. The most common form of Gardner–Salinas braille is the 8-cell variety, commonly called GS8. There is also a corresponding 6-cell form called GS6.[1]

The codes were developed as a replacement for Nemeth Braille by John Gardner, a physicist at Oregon State University, and Norberto Salinas, an Argentinian mathematician.

The Gardner–Salinas braille codes are an example of a compact human-readable markup language. The syntax is based on the LaTeX system for scientific typesetting.

## Table of Gardner–Salinas 8-dot (GS8) braille

The set of lower-case letters, the period, comma, semicolon, colon, exclamation mark, apostrophe, and opening and closing double quotes are the same as in Grade-2 English Braille.[1]

### Digits

Symbol 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Braille

Apart from 0, this is the same as the Antoine notation used in French and Luxembourgish Braille.

### Upper-case letters

GS8 upper-case letters are indicated by the same cell as standard English braille (and GS8) lower-case letters, with dot #7 added.

Symbol A B C D E F G H I J K L M
Braille
Symbol N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Braille

Compare Luxembourgish Braille.

### Greek letters

Dot 8 is added to the letter forms of International Greek Braille to derive Greek letters:

Symbol α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ
Braille
Symbol ν ξ ο π ρ σ τ υ φ χ ψ ω
Braille
Symbol Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π Σ Υ Φ Ψ Ω
Braille

### Characters differing from English Braille

Symbol Parentheses Brackets single quote
open close open close open close ?
Braille

### ASCII symbols and mathematical operators

Symbol " \$ & @ \ ^ _ ` { } ~
Braille
Symbol # % * + / < = > × · ÷
Braille

Braille

### Math/Science symbols

Symbol |x| (abs. value) line ∫ closed ∫
Braille
Symbol
Braille

### Markup

Symbol Superscript Subscript Left-superscript Left-subscript Begin fraction Denominator End fraction Over *
Braille

* Encodes the fraction-slash for the single adjacent digits/letters as numerator and denominator.

Symbol complex radicand * displayed equation ** math expressions ** hyperlink **
Open Close Open Close Open Close Open Close
Braille

* Used for any > 1 digit radicand.

** Used for markup to represent inkprint text.

Symbol Array
Begin End End element End line vert. stack horiz. combo superposition
Braille
Symbol Misc. Symbol *     Modifiers
Begin End Quantity Markup indicator Inverted Stroke/Not Variant Large
Braille

### Typeface indicators

Symbol Script Bold Italic Underline Definable font 1 Fractur Roman Underline
Braille

### Shape symbols

Symbol Open Square
Braille

Symbol
Braille

## References

1. ^ a b "Index of Topics in Braille Section". Oregon State University Science Access Project Braille topics. Retrieved 2012-04-29.
• Blind physicist creates better Braille — a CNN news item, November 9, 1995
• The world of blind mathematicians — article in Notices of the AMS, November 2002

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