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Germany–Israel relations

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Title: Germany–Israel relations  
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Subject: Foreign relations of Israel, Foreign relations of Germany, Germany–North Korea relations, Operation Damocles, Germany–Switzerland relations
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Germany–Israel relations

Germany–Israel relations
Map indicating locations of Germany and Israel



Germany–Israel relations refers to the diplomatic relationship between Israel and Germany. At first, Israel refused to establish relations with Germany due to the Hitler regime's genocide of 6 million Jews during the Holocaust. However, relations gradually thawed as Germany offered to pay reparations in 1952, and diplomatic relations were officially established in 1965, although a deep mistrust of the German people remained widespread in Israel and Jewish diaspora communities worldwide for many years after. Israel and Germany now maintain a "special relationship" based on shared beliefs, Western values and a combination of historical perspectives.[1] Among the most important factors in their relations is Nazi Germany's genocide of Jewish diaspora communities during the Holocaust.[2]

Germany is represented in Israel through its embassy in Tel Aviv. Israel is represented in Germany through its embassy in Berlin and its Consulate-General in Munich. Both countries are full members of the Union for the Mediterranean.


Reparations agreement

Konrad Adenauer meeting with Zalman Shazar in Israel

In the early 1950s, the negotiations began between the Prime Minister of Israel David Ben-Gurion, the chairman of the Jewish Claims Conference Nahum Goldmann, and the Chancellor of West Germany Konrad Adenauer. Because of the sensitivity of accepting reparations, this decision was intensely debated in the Israeli Knesset. In 1952, the Reparations Agreement was signed. All in all, as of 2007 Germany had paid 25 billion euros in reparations to the Israeli state and individual Israeli holocaust survivors.[3]

In 1950, Hermann Maas became the first German to be officially invited to Israel.[4] It took another fifteen years until West Germany and Israel established diplomatic relations on May 12, 1965.[5] Since then, mutual state visits regularly occur, although for many years relations were affected by the fact that Jews both in and outside Israel maintained a deep mistrust of Germany and the German people. German President Roman Herzog's first official visit outside Europe was to Israel in 1994. Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak was the first foreign leader received in Berlin after the German government's relocation from Bonn in 1999. German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder visited Israel in October 2000. In 2005, the year of the 40th anniversary of bilateral diplomatic relations,[6] German President Horst Köhler and Israel's former President Moshe Katsav exchanged state visits.[7][8]

Ben-Gurion attending funeral of Adenauer in Bonn

The two countries established a network of contacts between parliamentary, governmental, and non-governmental organizations, as well as strategic and security ties.

On January 30, 2008, Chancellor Angela Merkel's spokesman announced that the German and Israeli cabinets would meet in Israel in March 2008, in honor of Israel's 60th anniversary celebrations. This was the first time the German cabinet met with another cabinet outside of Europe. The joint meeting was expected to become an annual occurrence.[9] On March 17, 2008, Merkel paid a three-day visit to Israel to mark Israel's 60th anniversary. Merkel and Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert signed agreements on a range of projects in education, the environment and defense.[10] Merkel spoke of Germany's "Holocaust shame", and asserted its support for the Jewish state during an unprecedented speech to the Knesset on March 18, 2008.[11]

German stamp marking 40 years of relations between Germany and Israel

In January 2011, Merkel visited Israel and met with Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and opposition Kadima leader Tzipi Livni.[12] In February 2011, Netanyahu called Merkel to discuss Germany's vote in the United Nations Security Council in favor of the Palestinian proposal. Merkel reportedly told Netanyahu that he had disappointed her and done nothing to advance peace.[13] To clear the air, Netanyahu was invited for a reconciliation visit to Berlin in mid-March 2011.[13]

In September, Merkel criticized Israel for construction in settlements in Jerusalem and said that the new housing permits raised doubts over Israel's readiness to negotiate with the Palestinians.[14]

Germany was one of 14 countries that voted against Palestine's UNESCO membership in October 2011, within the context of the Palestine 194 initiative. When Israel announced that building settlements would continue in response to Palestinian attempts to declare statehood unilaterally, Germany threatened to stop deliveries to Israel of submarines capable of firing nuclear warheads.[15]

Deutsche Bahn, the German national railway, in May 2011 pulled out of the high-speed railway to Jerusalem project because the line will pass in part through the West Bank. According to press reports, the German transport minister Peter Ramsauer told Deutsche Bahn's CEO that the projected rail line was "problematic from a political perspective" and violated international law. As a result, the company, which is owned by the German government, withdrew from the project. The company's decision was seen as a victory for left-wing Israeli and Palestinian activists who had waged a campaign within the context of the international Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions movement.[16]


Israeli Minister of Commerce, Shalom Simhon, meeting with German officials

Germany is Israel's largest trading partner in Europe and Israel's second most important trading partner after the United States. Israeli imports from Germany amount to some USD 2.3 billion annually, while Israel is Germany's fourth largest trading partner in the North Africa/Middle East region.[1]

Culture, science and social programs

The two countries enjoy extensive scientific relations, with cooperation in science between Israeli and German universities and the development of the Minerva Society. During the visit by President Katsav, Bundestag President Wolfgang Thierse promoted the establishment of German–Israeli Youth Office – modeled on Germanys joint youth offices with France and Poland – as a tool to educate German and Israeli youth about their respective histories and the sensitivities of their relationship.[1]

A number of exchange programs work between young Germans and Israelis. About 2,000 Israelis and 4,500 Germans currently participate each year in the exchange program run by Germany's Federal Ministry for the Family, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth. The German organization Action Reconciliation (Aktion Sühnezeichen) has played a role in bringing Germans and Israelis together. Since 1961, Action Reconciliation has sent about 2,500 volunteers to work in Israeli hospitals and social welfare programs. Churches and trade unions have been active in fostering relations.

Israel places great importance on sister city relationships with German cities. Haifa has five sister cities in Germany; Tel Aviv has five and Netanya has two. Over 100 Israeli cities and local authorities have ties with Germany.[17]

According to a 2013 BBC World Service Poll, 8% of Germans view Israel's influence as positive and 67% view it as negative, though this was about average for the European countries surveyed.[18]

Military cooperation

Germany and Israel have significant and long-standing military cooperation. From 1959 to 1967 the Federal Republic of Germany was a significant supplier of military equipment and arms to Israel.[19] However, after 1965, when West Germany backed out of an agreement to sell tanks to Israel, the United States filled the order by selling 210 M48 Patton tanks. The Merkava 4, uses a German MTU MB 873 Ka-501 air-cooled diesel V12 engine produced under license. Germany has supplied Israel with Dolphin class submarines while Germany utilizes the Israeli-designed Spike Anti-Tank Missile. In 2008, it was revealed that Germany and Israel had been jointly developing a nuclear warning system, dubbed Operation Bluebird, in secret.[20]

See also


  1. ^ "Has football ever started a war?".  
  2. ^ "Raffael verlängert bis 2014" [Raffael extends contract to 2014] (in German).  
  3. ^ "Hertha Berlin 2–2 FC Augsburg".  

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