World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Goodluck Jonathan

Article Id: WHEBN0003385208
Reproduction Date:

Title: Goodluck Jonathan  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Umaru Musa Yar'Adua, Nigerian presidential election, 2011, Muhammadu Buhari, Cabinet of President Umaru Yar'Adua, People's Democratic Party (Nigeria)
Collection: 1957 Births, Candidates in the Nigerian General Election, 2011, Candidates in the Nigerian General Election, 2015, Governors of Bayelsa State, Grand Commanders of the Order of the Federal Republic, Grand Commanders of the Order of the Federal Republic (Nigeria), Ijaw People, Living People, Nigerian Christians, Nigerian Zoologists, People from Bayelsa State, People's Democratic Party (Nigeria) Politicians, People's Democratic Party Presidents of Nigeria, People's Democratic Party State Governors of Nigeria, Presidents of Nigeria, University of Port Harcourt Alumni, Vice Presidents of Nigeria
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Goodluck Jonathan

Goodluck Jonathan
4th President of Nigeria
In office
5 May 2010 – 29 May 2015
Vice President Namadi Sambo
Preceded by Umaru Yar'Adua
Succeeded by Muhammadu Buhari
Vice President of Nigeria
In office
29 May 2007 – 5 May 2010
President Umaru Yar'Adua
Preceded by Atiku Abubakar
Succeeded by Namadi Sambo
Governor of Bayelsa
In office
9 December 2005 – 29 May 2007
Preceded by Diepreye Alamieyeseigha
Succeeded by Timipre Sylva
Personal details
Born Goodluck Ebele Azikiwe Jonathan
(1957-11-20) 20 November 1957
Ogbia, Nigeria
Political party People's Democratic Party
Spouse(s) Patience Faka
Alma mater University of Port Harcourt
Religion Christianity

Goodluck Ebele Azikiwe Jonathan, GCFR, BNER, GCON (born 20 November 1957)[1] was President of Nigeria from 2010 to 2015. He served as Vice-President of Nigeria from 2007 to 2010 and as Governor of Bayelsa State from 2005 to 2007.

He contested and lost the 2015 presidential election, upon which he conceded defeat and became the first sitting Nigerian president to do so.[2] Jonathan's term as President of Nigeria ended on 29 May 2015, when he handed over to his successor, Muhammadu Buhari.


  • Early and personal life 1
  • Governor 2
    • Deputy Governor of Bayelsa 2.1
    • Governor of Bayelsa 2.2
  • Vice-presidency 3
  • Presidency 4
    • Acting president 4.1
    • Order of succession 4.2
    • 2011 presidential campaign and elections 4.3
    • Major initiatives 4.4
      • Roadmap for Power Sector Reform 4.4.1
      • Youth Enterprise with Innovation in Nigeria 4.4.2
      • Lead poisoning incident 4.4.3
      • Transformation Agenda 4.4.4
    • Foreign policy 4.5
    • 2015 presidential campaign and elections 4.6
  • Security challenges 5
  • National politics 6
    • World Cup 2010 6.1
    • Removal of fuel subsidy 6.2
    • Renaming of the University of Lagos 6.3
    • Same Sex Marriage Prohibition Act 6.4
  • Controversies 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9
  • Further reading 10

Early and personal life

Jonathan was born in what is now Bayelsa State to a family of canoe makers.[1][3] Jonathan holds a B.Sc. degree in Zoology in which he attained Second Class Honours. He holds an M.Sc. degree in Hydrobiology and Fisheries biology, and a PhD degree in Zoology from the University of Port Harcourt, which he did not finish according to Olusegun Obasanjo.[4][5][6] Before he entered politics in 1998, he worked as an education inspector, lecturer, and environmental-protection officer.[7]

Jonathan and his wife Patience have two children. He is a Christian, and he comes from the Ijaw ethnic group.[8]

In 2007, President Jonathan declared his assets worth a total of ₦ 295,304,420 Naira ($1,845,652 USD).[9] However, on 9 October 2014, the website ranked Mr Jonathan sixth on its list, claiming his net worth was about $100m (£62m). He threatened to sue the website, claiming it "was an attempt to portray him as corrupt."[10] The page was removed, but was then published by another website[11] which estimated Jonathan's net wealth at $10 million.[12]


Deputy Governor of Bayelsa

On 29 May 1999, Jonathan was sworn in as Deputy Governor of Bayelsa alongside Diepreye Alamieyeseigha who named in as the governor of the state on the platform of PDP. Jonathan served as Deputy Governor until December 2005.[13]

Governor of Bayelsa

On 9 December 2005, Jonathan, who was Deputy Governor at the time, was sworn in as Governor of Bayelsa State upon the impeachment of the current Governor Diepreye Alamieyeseigha by the Bayelsa State Assembly after being charged with money laundering in the United Kingdom. In September 2006, Jonathan was marred[9] by reports released by Wikileaks claiming his wife was indicted for money-laundering by Nigeria’s anti-crime agency, the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC). The report proved to be false.[14] The head of the EFCC stated that "Mrs. Jonathan was not in any way involved in any case of money laundering investigated by the EFCC".[15][16]


As Vice-President, Jonathan took a very low profile. While recognising the constitutional limits of the Vice-President's office, he participated in cabinet meetings and, by statute, was a member of the National Security Council, the National Defence Council, the Federal Executive Council, and was the Chairman of National Economic Council.

Vice-President Jonathan was instrumental in negotiating an agreement with many of the major militant groups in the Niger Delta, who were mostly his fellow Ijaws, to lay down their weapons and stop fighting as part of a government amnesty.[17]


Acting president

On 9 February 2010, a motion from the Nigerian Senate invested Goodluck Jonathan as acting President of the Federation because President Yar'Adua went for medical treatment in Saudi Arabia in November 2009.[18] On 10 February 2010, during his first day as acting president, Jonathan announced a minor cabinet reshuffle. Prince Adetokunbo Kayode, who was the Labour Minister, was named Minister of Justice, to replace Mr Mike Aondoakaa. Aondoakaa was named as the Minister of Special Duties, and his counterpart Ibrahim Kazaure, was named Minister of Labour.[19]

Acting President Jonathan also promised to continue implementing the Seven-point agenda policy framework of President Umaru Musa Yar’adua.[20]

Order of succession

President Jonathan posing with other world leaders at the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit. (second row, second from the left behind Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva)

In accordance with the order of succession in the Nigerian constitution following President Umaru Yar'Adua's death on 5 May 2010, Vice-President Goodluck Jonathan was sworn in as President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria on 6 May 2010,[21] becoming Nigeria's 14th Head of State. He cited anti-corruption, power and electoral reforms as focuses of his administration. He stated that he came to office under "very sad and unusual circumstances".[22]

On 18 May 2010, the National Assembly approved Jonathan's nomination of former Kaduna State governor, Namadi Sambo, for the position of Vice-President.[23][24]

2011 presidential campaign and elections

On 15 September 2010, Jonathan announced on Facebook that he had decided to run for public office on his own for the first time, in the race for the presidency of Nigeria in 2011.

In the contest for the Peoples Democratic Party nomination, Goodluck Jonathan was up against the former vice-president Atiku Abubakar and Mrs. Sarah Jubril. On 13 January 2011 the primary election results were announced in Eagle Square, Abuja. Jonathan was declared winner with a victory in two-thirds of the states of the Federation counted.[25]

For the general election in 2011, Jonathan and Vice-President Sambo attended political events and travelled the country to campaign for the nation's highest office. Jonathan won the general election against General Muhammadu Buhari and his running mate Pastor Tunde Bakare with 59% of the votes.[26][27][28] On 18 April, Jonathan was declared the winner of the election.[29]

Major initiatives

Roadmap for Power Sector Reform

On 2 August 2010, Jonathan launched his 'Roadmap for Power Sector Reform‘.[30] Its primary goal was to achieve stable electricity supply in Nigeria.

Historically, the Nigerian Power Sector has been plagued by blackouts. Economists estimate that power outages have cost Nigeria, Africa's biggest economy, billions of dollars in imported diesel for generators and lost output. In a study conducted by the World Bank, a lack of access to financing and electricity were cited as Nigeria's main obstacles to development, surpassing corruption.[31] President Jonathan has overseen the privatisation of Nigeria's power sector with the end goal being the establishment of an efficient and reliable power supply infrastructure for the Nigerian population. The Power Holding Company of Nigeria, which acted as the nation's electricity provider, has been broken up into 15 firms, with Nigeria handing over control of state electricity assets to 15 private bidding companies.[32] The Nigerian government contracted for the services of CPCS Transcom Limited, a Canada-based consulting firm specialising in transportation and energy infrastructure projects, to act as the transaction adviser for the handover of state electricity assets.[33]

Youth Enterprise with Innovation in Nigeria

On 11 October 2011, President Jonathan launched the Youth Enterprise with Innovation in Nigeria (YOUWIN) Initiative which he stated would be an innovative business plan competition that harnesses the creative energies of young people between the ages of 18 and 35. The YOUWIN Initiative is expected to create between 40,000 to 50,000 sustainable jobs by 2014.[34]

Lead poisoning incident

In January 2013, Jonathan reportedly promised $4 million to assist in cleaning up villages that have been affected by a lead poisoning incident. Over 400 children have died and Human Rights Watch said that releasing the funds "could be lifesaving for countless children."[35]

Transformation Agenda

In 2011, President Jonathan launched the Transformation Agenda. The Transformation Agenda is based on a summary of how the Federal Government hopes to deliver projects, programmes, and key priority policies, from 2011 to 2015 coordinated by the National Planning Commission (NPC).[36]

On 11 September 2013, President Jonathan sacked the creator and coordinator of the Transformation Agenda, Shamsudeen Usman, the Minister of National Planning. He was sacked along with eight other cabinet ministers amid a rift in the People's Democratic Party (PDP).[37]

Foreign policy

According to President Jonathan, Nigeria's foreign policy was reviewed to reflect a "citizen-focused" approach, designed to "accord this vision of defending the dignity of humanity the highest priority" and connect foreign policy to domestic policy, while placing a greater emphasis on economic diplomacy.[38]

2015 presidential campaign and elections

On 31 March 2015, Jonathan conceded the election to challenger Muhammadu Buhari, who was sworn in to succeed him on 29 May 2015.[39] Jonathan said in a statement he issued on 31 March 2015 that "Nobody’s ambition is worth the blood of any Nigerian".[40]

Security challenges

On 26 August 2011, after the UN building in Abuja was bombed by Boko Haram, Jonathan announced that it was an attack not merely on Nigeria, but on the international community. He told reporters that "we would work together with the UN and other world leaders to ensure that terrorism is brought under control."[41]

In response to the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta's attack on an oil pipeline on 4 February 2012 in Bayelsa,[42] the Senate President David Mark stated that the security situation in the country was "intolerable".[43]

On 14 May 2013, Jonathan declared a state of emergency in three northeastern Nigerian states, Borno, Yobe, and Adamawa to curtail the activities of Boko Haram.[44] Although initially offering amnesty, by June 2013 he ordered for 20-year jail terms for anyone found to be in support of Boko Haram.[45]

On 16 January 2014, it was reported that Jonathan had sacked his military high command in response to their inability to end the Islamist-led insurgency in Northern Nigeria.[46]

Jonathan's administration was heavily criticized for its failure to bring back the over 200 schoolgirls abducted by Boko Haram. Many demonstrations called for the government to be more responsive; Jonathan asked that demonstrators focus on blaming Boko Haram itself for the abductions.[47] Jonathan initially denied that there had been any abduction at all, but then later signaled his government would do a prisoner release in exchange for the kidnapped girls. Discussions then took place in Paris with foreign ministers from France, Britain, the United States and Israel, where he agreed no deals should be struck with terrorists. He then called off the exchange at the last minute on 24 May 2014. This about-turn reportedly enraged Boko Haram leaders.[48]

National politics

World Cup 2010

In 2010 after the Nigerian football team failed to progress beyond the group stage at FIFA World Cup in South Africa, Jonathan declared a two-year ban on the country's national football team from all international competitions and ordered an audit into the way the funds allocated for the team were spent.[49] FIFA, the world football governing body, resisted the investigation and stated that it would expel Nigeria from world football if the government interfered. FIFA called for advice from Amos Adamu, the director general of Nigeria’s National Sports Commission, who was sacked in the wake of a corruption scandal.[50] After the world governing body threatened to suspend $8 million due to Nigeria for its participation in the World Cup,[50] Jonathan bowed to pressure and lifted the ban.[51]

Removal of fuel subsidy

On 13 December 2011, the 2012 fiscal year's budget removed any provisions for the existing fuel subsidy.[52] According to a poll carried out by the Alliance for Credible Elections (ACE- Nigeria), 80% of Nigerians opposed the plan to remove the fuel subsidy.[53]

On 1 January 2012, the Jonathan administration announced the start of a controversial plan to end fuel subsidies.[54] The government followed the advice of international experts that claimed the fuel subsidy ($8 billion per year, or 25% of the government annual budget[55]) was not sustainable. Brookings Institution, a think tank, praised the government's move, arguing that the subsidy crowds out other development spending, like education, and that it discourages investment in the country's economic lifeblood, the oil sector.[56]

Many prominent Nigerians spoke out against the removal of fuel subsidy by the Jonathan administration. Former Petroleum Minister Professor Tam David-West has spoken out and expressed concern that the planned removal of the fuel subsidy will squeeze the economy, increase inflation, and hurt both businesses and the public.[57]

A former military Head of State and a former Minister for Petroleum & Natural Resources, General Buhari, urged President Jonathan not to remove the fuel subsidy and to tackle corruption.[58]

General Yakubu Gowon, another former military Head of State, warned the government that the country's infrastructure should be revived before fuel subsidy removal steps were taken.[59]

Former military president Gen. Ibrahim Babangida joined millions of Nigerians protesting against the removal of the fuel subsidy by the Jonathan administration, saying that the action is ill-timed.[60]

Following the Nigeria Labour Congress' warning that the country faces many strikes, the country unions followed up with strikes that were matched with civil protests from 9–13 January 2012. Protesters and groups called for President Jonathan to resign over the removal of fuel subsidies.[61][62] After five days of national protests and strikes, on 16 January, Jonathan announced that the pump price of petroleum would be 97 naira per litre compared with a post-subsidy level of 147 naira.[63]

Renaming of the University of Lagos

In May 2012, President Jonathan changed the name of the University of Lagos to the Moshood Abiola University in honour of the late MKO Abiola. The action drew attention from critics; among them were pro-Abiola advocates and parties involved with the university.[64][65][66] Some critics cited that the President did not submit an appropriate bill to the legislature for the change; that the University's brand name should not be tampered with. The UNILAG Alumni Association commented that although they do not have prejudice against MKO Abiola, they were concerned "that neither the Governing Council nor the University Senate nor any other stakeholder was consulted before the change was announced."[67] Bola Tinubu congratulated Jonathan for taking action, but urged him to "do it right", adding that "we must be careful not to localise or sectionalise MKO". The President has attempted to regularise the renaming of the school by submitting a bill for an amendment of the University's establishing law to the legislature.

Same Sex Marriage Prohibition Act

In January 2014, Jonathan signed into law the Same Sex Marriage Prohibition Act after it was passed by the

Political offices
Preceded by
Diepreye Alamieyeseigha
Governor of Bayelsa State
Succeeded by
Timipre Sylva
Preceded by
Atiku Abubakar
Vice President of Nigeria
Succeeded by
Namadi Sambo
Preceded by
Umaru Yar'Adua
President of Nigeria
Succeeded by
Muhammadu Buhari
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Umaru Yar'Adua
Chairperson of the Economic Community of West African States
Succeeded by
Alassane Ouattara
Party political offices
Preceded by
Umaru Yar'Adua
People's Democratic Party nominee for President of Nigeria
2011, 2015
Most recent
  • Ayoade, John A., and Adeoye A. Akinsanya, eds. Nigeria's Critical Election, 2011 (Lexington Books; 2012)

Further reading

  • Goodluck Official Website
  • Goodluck4President

External links

  1. ^ a b Lawson Heyford, "Jonathan: A Colossus at 49", The Source (Lagos), 11 December 2006.
  2. ^ Max Siollun (1 April 2015). "How Goodluck Jonathan lost the Nigerian election". 
  3. ^ Profile: Goodluck Jonathan. Al
  5. ^ "Jonathan Did Not Finish his PhD Course -Obasanjo Speaks on Buhari’s Certificate Saga". 
  6. ^ "Obasanjo Speaks On Buhari’s Certificate Saga". 
  7. ^ "Profile: Goodluck Jonathan". BBC News. 6 May 2010. Retrieved 6 May 2010. 
  8. ^ "Profile: Goodluck Jonathan, Nigeria's unlikely leader". BBC. 22 February 2010. Retrieved 22 February 2010. 
  9. ^ a b "Profiles". 
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^ "Following Nigeria President’s Threats, Website Downgrades Goodluck Jonathan’s Net Worth To $10M". 14 October 2014. 
  13. ^ "The man Goodluck Ebele Jonathan". 
  14. ^ "Jonathan’s Wife Not Probed For Money Laundering". PM news. 21 March 2011. 
  15. ^ "No case against Jonathan Wife — EFCC". Vanguard. September 9, 2011. 
  16. ^ "Nigeria anti-graft agency dismisses reports it investigated president's wife". Trust. 9 September 2011. 
  17. ^ "Profile: Nigeria's Goodluck Jonathan". BBC News. 11 September 2013. 
  18. ^ "'"Nigeria's Goodluck Jonathan 'is acting president. BBC News. 25 February 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2010. 
  19. ^ "Jonathan Redeploys Aondoakaa". 
  20. ^ "Seven-point agenda alive – Jonathan – Daily Trust". 
  21. ^ story on newly sworn President JonathanNews Agency of NigeriaPresident,Commander-In-Chief.aspx
  22. ^ "Nigeria swears in new president". Al Jazeera. 6 May 2010. Retrieved 6 May 2010. 
  23. ^ "NASS confirms Sambo as vice president". Punch Newspaper
  24. ^ "National Assembly confirms Sambo as Vice President", Liberty News
  25. ^ "Goodluck Jonathan Defeats Atiku in PDP Presidential Primary". 
  26. ^ "Goodluck Jonathan sworn in as Nigerian president". The Guardian (London). 29 May 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2012. 
  27. ^ Nuhu Ribadu for President 2011 :: Official Website. (15 April 2011).
  28. ^ CNN report on the 2011 general election in Nigeria. CNN.
  29. ^ "Nigeria's Jonathan declared winner of election". Reuters. 18 April 2011. 
  30. ^ Roadmap for Power Sector Reform. (PDF).
  31. ^ "Reforming Nigeria". Foreign Affairs. March–April 2014. 
  32. ^ Nigeria takes next step in power privatization. Reuters.
  33. ^ (PHCN). Nigeria Electricity Privatisation.
  34. ^ "Nigeria: Government Launches YOUWIN to Curb Unemployment". 
  35. ^ McNeil, Jr., Donald (29 January 2013). "Nigeria: Money Promised to Clean Up Lead That Killed Hundreds of Children". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 February 2013. 
  36. ^ "Transformation Agenda" (PDF). 
  37. ^ "Nigeria's Goodluck Jonathan sacks ministers amid PDP splits". BBC News. 11 September 2013. 
  38. ^ "President Jonathan on Review of Nigeria's Foreign Policy". 
  39. ^ "Cabinet minister: Nigerian president concedes to Buhari". MSN News. 31 March 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2015. 
  40. ^
  41. ^ "Nigerian leader vows to fight terrorism after UN attack". BBC News. 28 August 2011. 
  42. ^ "Nigerian Militant Group MEND Says It Attacked Eni Pipeline". 
  43. ^ "Nigeria's security situation 'intolerable': senate president". 
  44. ^ Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan declares emergency in 3 states. Retrieved 4 June 2013
  45. ^ Nigeria orders 20-year jail term for Boko Haram support. Retrieved 4 June 2013
  46. ^ Nigeria's President Goodluck Jonathan sacks military chiefs
  47. ^ Blame Boko Haram for the abduction of Chibok girls - Jonathan. Retrieved 24 May 2014
  48. ^ "Nigerian government 'called off deal' to free kidnapped girls". Nigeria Sun. Retrieved 27 May 2014. 
  49. ^ "World Cup 2010: Nigerian president bans football team from international competition for two years". Telegraph. 30 June 2010. 
  50. ^ a b "Free-for-all and corruption in African football shames Fifa". The Guardian. 24 October 2010. 
  51. ^ "World Cup 2010: Nigerian president lifts ban on team". BBC News. 5 July 2010. 
  52. ^ "Nigeria's President Removes Petrol Subsidy". 
  53. ^ "80% Of Nigerians Oppose Subsidy Removal – Pollsters". 
  54. ^ "Nigeria fuel subsidy end raises protest fears". BBC News. 1 January 2012. 
  55. ^ "FAQ: The fuel subsidy protests in Nigeria". One. 8 February 2012. 
  56. ^ "Removal of Fuel Subsidies in Nigeria: An Economic Necessity and a Political Dilemma". Brookings. 10 January 2012. 
  57. ^ "Subsidy removal will choke economy, says David-West". 
  58. ^ "Buhari to Jonathan – Leave Subsidy, Tackle Graft". 
  59. ^ "Gowon to Jonathan: don’t remove subsidy now". 
  60. ^ "IBB: Deregulation Ill-timed". 
  61. ^ "Protests in Lagos, Ibadan Over Removal of Subsidy". 
  62. ^ "Subsidy Removal – CNPP Calls for Jonathan's Resignation". 
  63. ^ "Nigeria Cuts Fuel Prices After Strike, Protests". 
  64. ^ Soyinka, Wole. "Goodluck Jonathan's Gift Horse By Wole Soyinka". Daily Post. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  65. ^ Babalola, Afe. "Renaming UNILAG is illegal and unconstitutional (2)". Punch. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  66. ^ Various (1 June 2012). "Tinubu, Fayemi, others reject UNILAG renaming". Punch. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  67. ^ Sahara Reporters (30 May 2012). "UNILAG Alumni Association rejects institution's name change by Jonathan". Information Nigeria. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  68. ^ a b "The simple reason Nigeria just banned gay marriage and gay meetings". Business Insider. 14 January 2014. 
  69. ^ Associated Press (13 January 2014) Nigeria's president signs law imposing up to 14 years' jail for gay relationships The Guardian. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  70. ^ "Nigeria's president signs law imposing up to 14 years' jail for gay relationships". The Guardian. 13 January 2014. Retrieved 10 February 2014. 
  71. ^ "Nigeria’s religious leaders welcome controversial anti-gay law". 
  72. ^ Jonathan Begged Me To Blame North For October 1 Blasts', Henry Okah Claims"'". 
  73. ^ "Okah Lied over Oct 2010 Bombing". 
  74. ^ "Jonathan denies allegations that he masterminded Independence Day bombings". 
  75. ^ "Henry Okah: Nigerian oil militant jailed for 24 years". BBC. March 26, 2013. 
  76. ^ "Nigeria's Jonathan claims assassination plot". MailOnline. 9 January 2015. 


In January 2013, Okah was found guilty by a South African court of 13 terrorism-related charges and sentenced to 24 years in jail.[75] In January 2015, Jonathan stated that due to his refusal to award MEND a higher share of the oil wealth, Okah bombed Abuja with the purpose of assassinating him.[76]

The Nigerian Presidency has denied the allegations of terrorism leveled against President Jonathan. A media statement was issued on 2 May 2012, acknowledging the accusations from Okah. The statement went on to say that: "The Presidency categorically affirms that these allegations are false in their entirety and without any factual foundation." The Presidency also expressed no interest in commenting further for the time being, but planned to "make a full representation on the matter to the court when the trial opens."[73][74]

[72] During his South African magistrate court trial on 2 May 2012, MEND's (Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta) former leader,


[68] but according to a poll, 92% of Nigerians supported the ban.[71] His decision and the law itself have been described as controversial,[70] bill stipulates that those who withhold the details of LGBT individuals face prison terms of up to 5 years.LGBT Within a short period, the federal police department compiled a list of 168 gay people who would subsequently be jailed. Within days, 38 lesbian and gay people were already jailed, with arrests beginning during Christmas. The anti-[69] Penalties can be up to 14 years in prison for gay marriages and up to 10 years for other violations of the law.[68]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.