World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0007531626
Reproduction Date:

Title: Halchidhoma  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Maricopa people, Pima people, Indigenous languages of Arizona, Paiute, Halchidhoma traditional narratives
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


The Halchidhoma (Maricopa: Xalychidom Piipaa or Xalychidom Piipaash -'people who live toward the water') are an Indian tribe now living mostly on the Salt River reservation, but formerly native to the area along the lower Colorado River in California and Arizona when first contacted by Europeans. In the early nineteenth century, under pressure from their hostile Mohave and Quechan neighbors, they moved to the middle Gila River, where some merged with the Maricopa, and others went on to Salt River and maintained an independent identity.

The Halchidhoma currently speak the Maricopa language.


  • History 1
  • Population 2
  • Language 3
  • Modern relationship with Maricopa 4
  • References 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7


The Halchidhoma entered written history in 1604-1605, when a Spanish expedition coming overland from New Mexico under Juan de Oñate encountered the "Alebdoma" on the lower Colorado River, below its junction with the Gila River. When the Jesuit missionary-explorer Eusebio Francisco Kino returned to the river in 1700, the Halchidhoma had moved to a portion of the river 100 miles farther north.

A system of military alliances and traditional hostilities seems to have prevailed among the relatively warlike tribes of the lower Colorado and Gila rivers. This may account for the Halchidhoma's move during the seventeenth century. The Halchidhoma were part of an alliance that also included the Maricopa and Cocopa, among others, and was opposed by the Quechan and Mohave. In the 1820s, the Halchidhoma were finally driven from the Colorado River. They took refuge with the Maricopa on the middle Gila River. In the following decades, some continued on to Lehi on the Salt River and maintained a separate identity, while others stayed and became assimilated to the Maricopa. The territory on the Colorado River vacated by the Halchidhoma was subsequently occupied by the Chemehuevi.


Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. (See Population of Native California.) The Franciscan missionary-explorer Francisco Garcés estimated the Halchidhoma population in 1776 as 2,500. Alfred L. Kroeber (1925:883) put the 1770 population of the Halchidhoma at 1,000.


Historical records indicate that there once was a separate Halchidhoma language within the Yuman family, in the River Yuman subdivision. Due to war and conflict with European settlers, the Halchidhoma settled in with the Maricopa people, in their current location around the Greater Phoenix metro area. The Halchidhoma currently identify themselves with the Maricopa tribe,[1] and many live in Lehi, which is a small community within the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community on the south banks of the Salt River. They continue to speak what they refer to as the Halchidhoma language.[2]

Modern relationship with Maricopa

Halchidhoma people in the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community nearly universally identify themselves in English as Maricopa, although both groups testify that they are separate, maintaining separate languages and identities (Kelly 1972:264).


  • Kelly, Marsha C. 1972. The Society That Did Not Die. In Ethnohistory, Vol. 19, No. 3. (Summer, 1972), pp. 261–265. Duke University Press.
  • Kroeber, A. L. 1925. Handbook of the Indians of California. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin No. 78. Washington, D.C.
  • Spier, Leslie. 1933. Yuman Tribes of the Gila River. University of Chicago Press.

See also


  1. ^ Kelly, Marsha C. 1972. The Society That Did Not Die. In Ethnohistory, Vol. 19, No. 3. (Summer, 1972), pp. 261–265. Duke University Press.
  2. ^ Halchidhoma - MultiTree
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.