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Haplogroup O-M175

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Haplogroup O-M175

Haplogroup O-M175

Possible time of origin 28,000-41,000 years BP (Scheinfeldt 2006)
Possible place of origin Southeast or East Asia
Ancestor NO
Descendants O-MSY2.2, O-M268, O-M122
Defining mutations M175, P186, P191, P196

In molecular evolution, a haplogroup (from the Greek: ἁπλούς, haploûs, "onefold, single, simple") is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor having the same single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation in all haplotypes. Haplogroup O-M175 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup of Southeast Asian and East Asian lineage. It descends from Haplogroup NO.

Contents

  • Origins 1
  • Distribution 2
    • Paragroup O-M175 2.1
  • O-F75 3
    • O-MSY2.2 3.1
    • O-M268 3.2
  • O-M122 4
  • Languages families and genes 5
  • Phylogenetics 6
    • Phylogenetic history 6.1
      • Original Research Publications 6.1.1
    • Phylogenetic trees 6.2
  • See also 7
    • Genetics 7.1
    • Y-DNA O subclades 7.2
    • Y-DNA backbone tree 7.3
  • References 8
    • Footnotes 8.1
    • Works cited 8.2
  • References 9
  • External links 10

Origins

Haplogroup O-M175 is a descendant haplogroup of Haplogroup NO-M214, and first appeared according to different theories, either in Southeast Asia (see Rootsi 2006, TMC ?, Shi 2005, and Bradshaw ?) or East Asia (see ISOGG 2012) between 28,000 and 41,000 years before present according to Scheinfeldt 2006 or between 23,000 and 32,000 years before present according to Yan et al. 2013.[1]

Haplogroup O-M175 is one of NO-M214's two branches. The other is Haplogroup N, which is common throughout North Eurasia.

Distribution

This haplogroup appears in 80-90% of most of populations in East Asia and Southeast Asia, and it is almost exclusive to that region: M175 is almost nonexistent in Western Siberia, Western Asia, Europe, Africa, or the Americas, where its presence may be the result of recent migrations. Notably, certain subclades of Haplogroup O-M175 do achieve significant frequencies among some populations of South Asia, Central Asia, and Oceania.

Among the subbranches of Haplogroup O-M175 are O-MSY2.2, O-M268, and O-M122.

Paragroup O-M175

Paragroup O-M175 lineages, which belong to Haplogroup O-M175 but do not display any of the later mutations that define the major subclades O-MSY2.2, O-M268, and O-M122, can be detected at a low frequency among some modern populations of Central Asia and East Asia. A broad survey of Y-chromosome variation among populations of central Eurasia found haplogroup O-M175(xM119,M95,M122) in a significant minority of Koreans (Wells 2001). However, nearly all of these Korean O-M175(xM119,M95,M122) Y-chromosomes may belong to Haplogroup O-M176,[Footnote 1] and later studies do not support the finding of Paragroup O-M175(Xue 2005, Kim 2011). O-M175(xM119,M95,M122) Y-chromosomes that have been found among these populations might therefore belong to Haplogroup O-MSY2.2*(xM119), Haplogroup O-M268*(xM95,M176), or Haplogroup O-M176.

O-F75

O1-MSY2.2 and O2-M268 share a common ancestor, O-F75, approximately 23,400 [95% CI 21,600 to 25,300] YBP.[1][1]. O-F75, in turn, coalesces to a common ancestor with O3-M122 approximately 24,700 [95% CI 23,000 to 26,500] YBP.[1] Thus, O-F75 existed as a single haplogroup parallel to O3-M122 for a duration of approximately 1,300 years (or anywhere from 0 to 4,900 years considering the 95% CIs and assuming that the phylogeny is correct) before breaking up into its two extant descendant haplogroups, O1-MSY2.2 and O2-M268.

O-MSY2.2

O-M268

O-M122

Found frequently among populations of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and culturally Austronesian regions of Oceania, with a moderate distribution in Central Asia (Shi 2005).

Languages families and genes

The following is a phylogenetic tree of language families and their corresponding vanDriem 2011).
"Proto- Asiatic" (O-M175) 
 Northern Asiatic (O-M122
 Sino-Tibetan (O-M134

 Sinitic (O-M117


 Tibeto-Burman 


 Hmong–Mien (O-M7


 Hmong (Miao) 


 She (Ratliff 1998) 



 Mien (Yao) 



 Southern Asiatic (Austric

 Austroasiatic (O-M95

 Munda 


 Mon–Khmer 


 Austro-Tai (O-M119
 Austronesian 

 Formosan 


 Malayo-Polynesian 


 Tai–Kadai 

 Kadai [Footnote 2] 

 Kam–Tai 

 Kam–Sui 


 Tai 







Phylogenetics

Phylogenetic history

Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012
O-M175 26 VII 1U 28 Eu16 H9 I O* O O O O O O O O O O
O-M119 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H9 H O1* O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a
O-M101 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H9 H O1a O1a1 O1a1a O1a1a O1a1 O1a1 O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a
O-M50 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H10 H O1b O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2
O-P31 26 VII 1U 33 Eu16 H5 I O2* O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2
O-M95 26 VII 1U 34 Eu16 H11 G O2a* O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a1 O2a1
O-M88 26 VII 1U 34 Eu16 H12 G O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1a O2a1a
O-SRY465 20 VII 1U 35 Eu16 H5 I O2b* O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b
O-47z 5 VII 1U 26 Eu16 H5 I O2b1 O2b1a O2b1 O2b1 O2b1a O2b1a O2b1 O2b1 O2b1 O2b1 O2b1
O-M122 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3* O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3
O-M121 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3a O3a O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1a O3a1a
O-M164 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3b O3b O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a1b O3a1b
O-M159 13 VII 1U 31 Eu16 H6 L O3c O3c O3a3a O3a3a O3a3 O3a3 O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a
O-M7 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H7 L O3d* O3c O3a3b O3a3b O3a4 O3a4 O3a3b O3a3b O3a3b O3a2b O3a2b
O-M113 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H7 L O3d1 O3c1 O3a3b1 O3a3b1 - O3a4a O3a3b1 O3a3b1 O3a3b1 O3a2b1 O3a2b1
O-M134 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e* O3d O3a3c O3a3c O3a5 O3a5 O3a3c O3a3c O3a3c O3a2c1 O3a2c1
O-M117 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e1* O3d1 O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a5a O3a5a O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a2c1a O3a2c1a
O-M162 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e1a O3d1a O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a5a1 O3a5a1 O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a2c1a1 O3a2c1a1

Original Research Publications

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.

  • α Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 and Kaladjieva 2001
  • β Underhill 2000
  • γ Hammer 2001
  • δ Karafet 2001
  • ε Semino 2000
  • ζ Su 1999
  • η Capelli 2001

Phylogenetic trees

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup O subclades is based on the YCC 2008 tree (Karafet 2008) and subsequent published research.

  • O (M175, P186, P191, P196)
    • O-MSY2.2 (MSY2.2)
      • O-M119 (M119)
        • O-P203.2 (M307.2/P203.2)
        • O-M50 (M50, M103, M110)
    • O-P31 (P31, M268)
      • O-F1462
        • O-PK4
          • O-M95 (M95)
            • O-M88 (M88, M111)
      • O-M176 (M176/SRY465, P49, 022454)
        • O-47z (47z)
    • O-M122 (M122, P198)
      • O-P93 (M324, P93, P197, P198, P199, P200)
        • O-M121 (M121, P27.2)
        • O-M164 (M164)
        • O-P201 (P201/021354)
        • O-002611 (002611)
        • O-M300 (M300)
        • O-M333 (M333)

See also

Genetics

Y-DNA O subclades

Y-DNA backbone tree

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
  • Minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome (ver. 10-Jun-2014)PDF[n 1]
MRC Y-ancestor
A00 A0'1'2'3'4
A0 A1'2'3'4
A1 A2'3'4
A2'3 A4=BCDEF
A2 A3 B CDEF
DE CF
D E C F
GHIJKLT
G HIJKLT
H IJKLT
IJ KLT (K)
I J LT(K1) K (K2)
L T MPS (K2b) X (K2a)
MS P NO
M S QR N O
Q R
  1. ^ van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91.  

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ O-M175(xM119,M95,M122) is sometimes incorrectly called "O*".
  2. ^ The outlier Kadai branch is called "Kra" by Thai linguist Weera Ostapirat and "Geyang" by Chinese linguists.

Works cited

Journals

  • Edmondson, Jerold A. (2007). Jimmy G. Harris, Somsonge Burusphat and James E. Harris, ed. "The power of language over the past: Tai settlement and Tai linguistics in southern China and northern Vietnam". Studies in Southeast Asian languages and linguistics (Bangkok, Thailand: Ek Phim Thai Co. Ltd.). 
  • van Driem, George (2011). "Rice and the Austroasiatic and Hmong-Mien Homelands". In N. J. Enfield, ed. Dynamics of Human Diversity, 361-390 (Canberra: Pacific Linguistics). 
  • Firasat, Sadaf; Khaliq, Shagufta; Mohyuddin, Aisha; Papaioannou, Myrto; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Underhill, Peter A; Ayub, Qasim (2006). "Y-chromosomal evidence for a limited Greek contribution to the Pathan population of Pakistan". European Journal of Human Genetics 15 (1): 121–6.  
  • Fornarino, Simona; Pala, Maria; Battaglia, Vincenza; Maranta, Ramona; Achilli, Alessandro; Modiano, Guido; Torroni, Antonio; Semino, Ornella; Santachiara-Benerecetti, Silvana A (2009). "Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome diversity of the Tharus (Nepal): a reservoir of genetic variation". BMC Evolutionary Biology 9: 154.  
  • Karafet, T. M.; Mendez, F. L.; Meilerman, M. B.; Underhill, P. A.; Zegura, S. L.; Hammer, M. F. (2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Research 18 (5): 830–8.  
  • Kayser, M.; Choi, Y.; Van Oven, M.; Mona, S.; Brauer, S.; Trent, R. J.; Suarkia, D.; Schiefenhovel, W.; Stoneking, M. (2008). "The Impact of the Austronesian Expansion: Evidence from mtDNA and Y Chromosome Diversity in the Admiralty Islands of Melanesia". Molecular Biology and Evolution 25 (7): 1362–74.  
  • Kim, SH; Kim, Ki-Cheol; Shin, Dong-Jik; Jin, Han-Jun; Kwak, Kyoung-Don; Han, Myun-Soo; Song, Joon-Myong; Kim, Won; Kim, Wook (2011). "High frequencies of Y-chromosome haplogroup O2b-SRY465 lineages in Korea: a genetic perspective on the peopling of Korea". Investigative Genetics 2 (10): 10.  
  • Ratliff, Martha (1998). ""Ho Ne (She) is Hmongic: One final argument. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 21.2:97-109. 
  • Rootsi, Siiri; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Baldovič, Marian; Kayser, Manfred; Kutuev, Ildus A; Khusainova, Rita; Bermisheva, Marina A; Gubina, Marina et al. (2006). "A counter-clockwise northern route of the Y-chromosome haplogroup N from Southeast Asia towards Europe". European Journal of Human Genetics 15 (2): 204–11.  
  • Scheinfeldt, L.; Friedlaender, F; Friedlaender, J; Latham, K; Koki, G; Karafet, T; Hammer, M; Lorenz, J (2006). "Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia". Molecular Biology and Evolution 23 (8): 1628–41.  
  • Shi, Hong; Dong, Yong-li; Wen, Bo; Xiao, Chun-Jie; Underhill, Peter A.; Shen, Pei-Dong; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Jin, Li; Su, Bing (2005). "Y-Chromosome Evidence of Southern Origin of the East Asian–Specific Haplogroup O3-M122". The American Journal of Human Genetics 77 (3): 408.  
  • Su, B.; Jin, Li; Underhill, Peter; Martinson, Jeremy; Saha, Nilmani; McGarvey, Stephen T.; Shriver, Mark D.; Chu, Jiayou et al. (2000). "Polynesian origins: Insights from the Y chromosome". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97 (15): 8225.  
  • Wells, R. Spencer; Yuldasheva, N.; Ruzibakiev, R.; Underhill, P. A.; Evseeva, I.; Blue-Smith, J.; Jin, L.; Su, B. et al. (August 2001). "The Eurasian heartland: a continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98 (18): 10244–9.  
  • Wen, W; Hong, S; Ling, R; Huifeng, X; Kaiyuan, L; Wenyi, Z; Bing, S; Shiheng, S et al. (2004). "The origin of Mosuo people as revealed by mtDNA and Y chromosome variation". Science China Life Sciences 47 (1): 1–10.  
  • Xue, Y.; Zerjal, T; Bao, W; Zhu, S; Shu, Q; Xu, J; Du, R; Fu, S et al. (2005). "Male Demography in East Asia: A North–South Contrast in Human Population Expansion Times". Genetics 172 (4): 2431–9.  

Websites

  • Bradshaw Foundation. "Journey of Man - The Peopling of the World". 
  • ISOGG (2012). "Y-DNA Haplogroup O and its Subclades - 2012". 
  • TMC (1998). "Genetic Findings Support 'Out of Africa' Theory". 

References

  1. ^ a b c Shi Yan, Chuan-Chao Wang, Hong-Xiang Zheng et al. (2013), "Y Chromosomes of 40% Chinese Are Descendants of Three Neolithic Super-grandfathers." E-print at arXiv:1310.3897 [q-bio.PE].
  2. ^ Hui Li, Ying Huang, Laura F. Mustavich, Fan Zhang, Jing-Ze Tan, Ling-E Wang, Ji Qian, Meng-He Gao, and Li Jin (2007), "Y chromosomes of prehistoric people along the Yangtze River." Human Genetics 122:383–388. DOI 10.1007/s00439-007-0407-2
  3. ^ Cai X, Qin Z, Wen B, Xu S, Wang Y, et al. (2011), "Human Migration through Bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum Revealed by Y Chromosomes." PLoS ONE 6(8): e24282. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024282

External links

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