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Health in Mozambique

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Title: Health in Mozambique  
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Subject: Health in Mozambique, Health in the Republic of the Congo, Health in Zambia, Health in Botswana, Health in Cape Verde
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Health in Mozambique

Mozambique faces a number of ongoing health challenges.

Health infrastructure

Public expenditure on health was at 2.7% of the GDP in 2004, whereas private expenditure on health was at 1.3% in the same year.[1] Health expenditure per capita was 42 US$ (PPP) in 2004.[1] In the early 21st century there were 3 physicians per 100,000 people in the country.[1]

Water supply and sanitation

About 47% of the Mozambican population has access to an improved water source, and 17% has access to adequate sanitation.[2] Consequences on living conditions are multiple, ranging from poor health to lower productivity due to the time needed to fetch water.

Urban (38% of
the population)
Rural (62% of
the population)
Water Broad definition 77% 29% 47%
House connections N/A N/A N/A
Sanitation Broad definition 38% 5% 18%
Sewerage N/A N/A N/A

Source: Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation of WHO and UNICEF [2]

Health status

Life expectancy

The 2014 CIA estimated average life expectancy in Mozambique was 52.60 years.[3]

Fertility rate

IN 2009, there were an average of 5.5 births per woman.[1]

Endemic diseases


In Mozambique, malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality especially among children.[4] The disease represents around 45% of all cases in outpatient visits, approximately 56% of inpatient at paediatric clinics and around 26% of all hospital deaths.[5] According to the Demographic Health Survey 2011, the prevalence of malaria among children under five years is 46.3% in rural areas compared to 16.8% in urban areas.[6]

Malaria is endemic throughout Mozambique with seasonal peaks during and after the rainy season, which is between November and December.[7] The seasonal intensity of transmission varies depending on the amount of rain and air temperature.[8]


The official prevalence of HIV in Mozambique in 2011 was 11.5% for the population in the age range between 15 and 49 years. For the southern parts of the country - Maputo and Gaza provinces, and the city of Maputo itself - the official figures are more than twice as high as the national average. In 2011 the health authorities estimated about 1.7 million Mozambicans were HIV-positive, of whom 600,000 were in need of anti-retroviral treatment.[9]

As per December 2011 240,000 were receiving such treatment, increasing to 416,000 in March 2014 according to the health authorities. According to the 2011 UNAIDS Report, the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Mozambique seems to be leveling off.[10]

Maternal and child healthcare

In June 2011, the United Nations Population Fund released a report on the State of the World's Midwifery. It contained new data on the midwifery workforce and policies relating to newborn and maternal mortality for 58 countries. The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Mozambique is 550. This is compared with 598.8 in 2008 and 385 in 1990. The under 5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 147 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5s mortality is 29. The aim of this report is to highlight ways in which the Millennium Development Goals can be achieved, particularly Goal 4 – Reduce child mortality and Goal 5 – improve maternal death. In Mozambique the number of midwives per 1,000 live births is 3 and the lifetime risk of death for pregnant women 1 in 37.[11]


  1. ^ a b c d "Human Development Report 2009 – Mozambique". Retrieved 2010-05-02. 
  2. ^ a b Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation:Data Table Mozambique, retrieved on 19 August 2012
  3. ^ "CIA - The World Factbook Life Expectancy". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  4. ^ Mozambique, Disease prevention and control, Malaria. World Health Organisation, Accessed 26.06.14
  5. ^ Mozambique, Disease prevention and control, Malaria. World Health Organisation, Accessed 26.06.14
  6. ^ Mozambique, Disease prevention and control, Malaria. World Health Organisation, Accessed 26.06.14
  7. ^ Mozambique, Disease prevention and control, Malaria. World Health Organisation, Accessed 26.06.14
  8. ^ Mozambique, Disease prevention and control, Malaria. World Health Organisation, Accessed 26.06.14
  9. ^ UNAIDS World AIDS Day Report 2011.
  10. ^ UNAIDS World AIDS Day Report 2011.
  11. ^ "The State of the World's Midwifery". United Nations Population Fund. Retrieved August 2011. 
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