World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests

Article Id: WHEBN0008134661
Reproduction Date:

Title: Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of ecoregions in India, Himalayan subtropical pine forests, Ecoregions of India, Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests, Fambong Lho Wildlife Sanctuary
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests

Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests
Sal forest in Chitwan National Park
Biome Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests
Borders Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests, Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands, Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests and Himalayan subtropical pine forests
Bird species 343[1]
Mammal species 148[1]
Area 38,200 km2 (14,700 sq mi)
Countries Bhutan, India and Nepal
Habitat loss 81.553%[1]
Protected 6.77%[1]

The Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests is an ecoregion that extends from the middle hills of central Nepal through Darjeeling into Bhutan and also into the Indian State of Uttar Pradesh. It represents the east-west-directed band of subtropical broadleaf forest at an altitude of between 500 to 1,000 m (1,600 to 3,300 ft) along the Outer Himalayan Range, and includes several forest types traversing an east to west moisture gradient.[2]


The ecoregion covers an area of 38,200 km2 (14,700 sq mi) and is bisected by the Kali Gandaki River, which has gouged the world's deepest river valley through the Himalayan Range. It forms a critical link in the chain of interconnected Himalayan ecosystems, where altitudinal connectivity between the habitat types is important for ecosystem function. The soil is composed of alluvium deposited over the ages by the rivers that drain this young mountain range.[2]

At lower elevations, the ecoregion is flanked by the Terai-Duar savannas and grasslands. Above 1,000 m (3,300 ft), it yields to the Himalayan subtropical pine forests.

Rainfall varies from east to west, but annual rainfall can be as much as 2,000 mm (79 in). The Himalayas capture moisture from the monsoons that sweep in from the Bay of Bengal, and most of this rainfall is expended in the eastern Himalayas. Therefore, the western Himalayas are drier, a trend reflected in the timberline that declines from 4,000 m (13,000 ft) in the east to about 3,500 m (11,500 ft) in the west.[2]

Protected areas

Eight protected areas extend into this ecoregion covering 2,710 km2 (1,050 sq mi), which is about 7% of the ecoregion's area:[2]

Two high-priority Tiger Conservation Units (TCU) extend across adjacent ecoregions:[3]

  • Chitwan-Parsa-Valmiki TCU covers a 3,549 km2 (1,370 sq mi) huge block of alluvial grasslands and subtropical moist deciduous forests;
  • Bardia-Banke TCU covers 1,518 km2 (586 sq mi).


The ecoregion hosts a broad range of plant communities, based on its complex topography, differing soils, and variations in rainfall from the drier west to the more humid east. Its location on the south slope of the Himalaya allows the intermingling of plants and animals from the Indomalayan and Palearctic ecozones. The main forest types include Dodonaea scrub, subtropical dry evergreen forests of Olea cuspidata, northern dry mixed deciduous forests, dry Siwalik sal (Shorea robusta) forests, moist mixed deciduous forests, subtropical broadleaf wet hill forests, northern tropical semi-evergreen forests, and northern tropical wet evergreen forests.


Several mammals native to the ecoregion are threatened, including the Bengal tiger, Indian elephant, smooth-coated otter, clouded leopard, gaur, Sumatran serow, Irrawaddy squirrel, and particoloured flying squirrel. The endemic golden langur is distributed in a small range and limited to the broadleaf forest north of the Brahmaputra River. The bird fauna is very rich with more than 340 species. The chestnut-breasted partridge is endemic; the globally threatened white-winged wood duck and five hornbill species are found here.[2]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d Hoekstra, J. M.; Molnar, J. L.; Jennings, M.; Revenga, C. ; Spalding, M. D.; Boucher, T. M.; Robertson, J. C.; Heibel, T. J.; Ellison, K. (2010). Molnar, J. L., ed. The Atlas of Global Conservation: Changes, Challenges, and Opportunities to Make a Difference.  
  2. ^ a b c d e Rawat, G. S., Wikramanayake, E. D. (2002) Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests In: Wikramanayake, E. D. (ed.) Terrestrial ecoregions of the Indo-Pacific: a conservation assessment. Island Press
  3. ^ Wikramanayake, E.D., Dinerstein, E., Robinson, J.G., Karanth, K.U., Rabinowitz, A., Olson, D., Mathew, T., Hedao, P., Connor, M., Hemley, G., Bolze, D. (1999) Where can tigers live in the future? A framework for identifying high-priority areas for the conservation of tigers in the wild. In: Seidensticker, J., Christie, S., Jackson, P. (eds.) Riding the Tiger. Tiger Conservation in human-dominated landscapes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. hardback ISBN 0-521-64057-1, paperback ISBN 0-521-64835-1

External links

  • "Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. 
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.