World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

History of Zimbabwe

Article Id: WHEBN0000014114
Reproduction Date:

Title: History of Zimbabwe  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Colonial history of Southern Rhodesia, History of Zimbabwe, Kingdom of Zimbabwe, History of Africa, Kingdom of Mutapa
Collection: History of Zimbabwe
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

History of Zimbabwe

Part of a series on the
History of Zimbabwe
Coat of arms of Zimbabwe
Ancient history
Mapungubwe Kingdom c.1075–1220
Zimbabwe Kingdom c.1220–1450
Mutapa Kingdom c.1450–1760
Torwa dynasty c.1450–1683
White settlement pre-1923
Rozwi Empire c.1684–1834
Matabeleland 1838–1894
Rudd Concession 1888
BSA Company rule 1890–1923
First Matabele War 1893–1894
Second Matabele War 1896–1897
World War I involvement 1914–1918
Colony of Southern Rhodesia 1923–1980
World War II involvement 1939–1945
Malayan Emergency
Federation with Northern
Rhodesia and Nyasaland
Rhodesian Bush War 1964–1979
Rhodesia under UDI 1965–1979
Zimbabwe-Rhodesia June–Dec 1979
Dec 1979
British Dependency 1979–1980
Zimbabwe 1980–present
Gukurahundi 1982–1987
Second Congo War 1998–2003
Zimbabwe portal

Following the Lancaster House Agreement there was a transition to majority rule in 1980; the United Kingdom ceremonially granted Zimbabwe independence on 18 April that year. In the 2000s Zimbabwe's economy began to deteriorate due to various factors, including mismanagement and corruption, the imposition of sanctions, such as among others the Zimbabwe Democracy and Economic Recovery Act of 2001, following the switch from Willing Buyer, Willing Seller to Fast Track land reform. Economic instability led several members of the military to try to overthrow the government in a coup d'état in 2007. Prior to independence as Zimbabwe, the nation had been known by several names: Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia, and Zimbabwe-Rhodesia.


  • Pre-Colonial era (1000–1887) 1
  • Colonial era (1888–1965) 2
  • Independence and the 1980s 3
  • 1990s 4
    • The economy during the 1980s and 1990s 4.1
  • 1999 to 2000 5
  • 2002 6
  • 2003–2005 7
  • 2006 to 2007 8
    • Deterioration of the educational system 8.1
  • 2008 9
    • 2008 elections 9.1
    • Marange diamond fields massacre 9.2
  • 2009 10
  • See also 11
  • References 12
  • Literature 13
  • External links 14

Pre-Colonial era (1000–1887)

Zimbabwean history can be tracked as far back as perhaps the first Bantu speakers to arrive in present-day Zimbabwe were the makers of early Iron Age pottery belonging to the Silver Leaves or Matola tradition, third to fifth centuries A.D.,[1] found in southeast Zimbabwe. This tradition was part of the eastern stream[2] of Bantu expansion (sometimes called Kwale)[3] which originated west of the Great Lakes, spreading to the coastal regions of southeastern Kenya and north eastern Tanzania, and then southwards to Mozambique, south eastern Zimbabwe and Natal.[4] More substantial in numbers in Zimbabwe were the makers of the Ziwa and Gokomere ceramic wares, of the fourth century A.D.[3] Their early Iron Age ceramic tradition belonged to the highlands facies of the eastern stream,[5] which moved inland to Malawi and Zimbabwe. Imports of beads have been found at Gokomere and Ziwa sites, possibly in return for gold exported to the coast.

A later phase of the Gokomere culture was the Zhizo in southern Zimbabwe. Zhizo communities settled in the Shashe-Limpopo area in the tenth century. Their capital there was Schroda (just across the Limpopo River from Zimbabwe). Many fragments of ceramic figurines have been recovered from there, figures of animals and birds, and also fertility dolls. The inhabitants produced ivory bracelets and other ivory goods. Imported beads found there and at other Zhizo sites, are evidence of trade, probably of ivory and skins, with traders on the Indian Ocean coast.[6][7][8]

Pottery belonging to a western stream of Bantu expansion (sometimes called Kalundu) has been found at sites in northeastern Zimbabwe, dated from the seventh century.[9] (The western stream originated in the same area as the eastern stream: both belong to the same style system, called by Phillipson[10] the Chifumbadze system, which has general acceptance by archaeologists.) The terms eastern and western streams represent the expansion of the Bantu speaking peoples in terms of their culture. Another question is the branches of the Bantu languages which they spoke. It seems that the makers of the Ziwa/Gokomere wares were not the ancestral speakers of the Shona languages of today's Zimbabwe, who did not arrive in there until around the tenth century, from south of the Limpopo river, and whose ceramic culture belonged to the western stream. The linguist and historian Ehret believes that in view of the similarity of the Ziwa/Gokomere pottery to the Nkope of the ancestral Nyasa language speakers, the Ziwa/Gokomere people spoke a language closely related to the Nyasa group. Their language, whatever it was, was superseded by the ancestral Shona languages, although Ehret says that a set of Nyasa words occur in central Shona dialects today.[11]

The evidence that the ancestral Shona speakers came from South Africa is that the ceramic styles associated with Shona speakers in Zimbabwe from the thirteenth to the seventeenth centuries can be traced back to western stream (Kalunndu) pottery styles in South Africa. The Ziwa/Gokomere and Zhizo traditions were superseded by Leopards Kopje and Gumanye wares of the Kalundu tradition from the tenth century.[12]

Although the western stream Kalundu tradition was ancestral to Shona ceramic wares, the closest relationships of the ancestral Shona language according to many linguists[13][14][15][16][17] were with a southern division of eastern Bantu – such languages as the southeastern languages (Nguni, Sotho-Tswana, Tsonga), Nyasa and Makwa. While it may well be the case that the people of the western stream spoke a language belonging to a wider Eastern Bantu division, it is a puzzle which remains to be resolved that they spoke a language most closely related to the languages just mentioned, all of which are today spoken in southeastern Africa.

After the Shona speaking people moved into the present day Zimbabwe many different dialects developed over time in the different parts of the country. Among these was Kalanga.

It is believed that Kalanga speaking societies first emerged in the middle Limpopo valley in the 9th century before moving on to the Zimbabwean highlands. The Zimbabwean plateau eventually became the centre of subsequent Kalanga states. The Kingdom of Mapungubwe was the first in a series of sophisticated trade states developed in Zimbabwe by the time of the first European explorers from Portugal. They traded in gold, ivory and copper for cloth and glass. From about 1250 until 1450, Mapungubwe was eclipsed by the Kingdom of Zimbabwe. This Kalanga state further refined and expanded upon Mapungubwe's stone architecture, which survives to this day at the ruins of the kingdom's capital of Great Zimbabwe. From circa 1450–1760, Zimbabwe gave way to the Kingdom of Mutapa. This Kalanga state ruled much of the area that is known as Zimbabwe today, and parts of central Mozambique. It is known by many names including the Mutapa Empire, also known as Mwenemutapa was known for its gold trade routes with Arabs and the Portuguese. However, Portuguese settlers destroyed the trade and began a series of wars which left the empire in near collapse in the early 17th century.[18] As a direct response to Portuguese aggression in the interior, a new Kalanga state emerged called the Rozwi Empire. Relying on centuries of military, political and religious development, the Rozwi (which means "destroyers") removed the Portuguese from the Zimbabwe plateau by force of arms. The Rozwi continued the stone building traditions of the Zimbabwe and Mapungubwe kingdoms while adding guns to its arsenal and developing a professional army to protect its trade routes and conquests. Around 1821, the Zulu general Mzilikazi of the Khumalo clan successfully rebelled from King Shaka and created his own clan, the Ndebele. The Ndebele fought their way northwards into the Transvaal, leaving a trail of destruction in their wake and beginning an era of widespread devastation known as the Mfecane. When Dutch trekboers converged on the Transvaal in 1836, they drove the tribe even further northward. By 1838, the Rozwi Empire, along with the other petty Shona states were conquered by the Ndebele and reduced to vassaldom.

After losing their remaining South African lands in 1840, Mzilikazi and his tribe permanently settled the southwest of present-day Zimbabwe in what became known as kraals, similar to those of Shaka, which was stable enough to repel further Boer incursions. Mzilikazi died in 1868 and, following a violent power struggle, was succeeded by his son, Lobengula.

Colonial era (1888–1965)

In the 1880s, the British arrived with Cecil Rhodes's British South Africa Company. In 1898, the name Southern Rhodesia was adopted.[19] In 1888, British colonialist Cecil Rhodes obtained a concession for mining rights from King Lobengula of the Ndebele peoples.[20] Cecil Rhodes presented this concession to persuade the government of the United Kingdom to grant a royal charter to his British South Africa Company (BSAC) over Matabeleland, and its subject states such as Mashonaland. Rhodes sought permission to negotiate similar concessions covering all territory between the Limpopo River and Lake Tanganyika, then known as 'Zambesia'. In accordance with the terms of aforementioned concessions and treaties,[21] Cecil Rhodes promoted the colonisation of the region's land, with British control over labour as well as precious metals and other mineral resources.[22] In 1895 the BSAC adopted the name 'Rhodesia' for the territory of Zambesia, in honour of Cecil Rhodes. In 1898 'Southern Rhodesia' became the official denotation for the region south of the Zambezi,[23] which later became Zimbabwe. The region to the north was administered separately by the BSAC and later named Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia).

The Shona staged unsuccessful revolts (known as Chimurenga) against encroachment upon their lands, by clients of BSAC and Cecil Rhodes in 1896 and 1897. Following the failed insurrections of 1896–97 the Ndebele and Shona groups became subject to Rhodes's administration thus precipitating European settlement en masse which led to land distribution disproportionately favouring Europeans, displacing the Shona, Ndebele, and other indigenous peoples.

Southern Rhodesia stamp: princesses Elizabeth and Margaret on the 1947 royal tour of South Africa

Southern Rhodesia became a self-governing British colony in October 1923, subsequent to a 1922 referendum. Rhodesians served on behalf of the United Kingdom during World War II, mainly in the East African Campaign against Axis forces in Italian East Africa.

In 1953, in the face of African opposition,[24] Britain consolidated the two colonies of Rhodesia with Nyasaland (now Malawi) in the ill-fated Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland which was dominated by Southern Rhodesia. Growing African nationalism and general dissent, particularly in Nyasaland, persuaded Britain to dissolve the Union in 1963, forming three colonies. As colonial rule was ending throughout the continent and as African-majority governments assumed control in neighbouring Northern Rhodesia and in Nyasaland, the white-minority Rhodesia government led by Ian Smith made a Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) from the United Kingdom on 11 November 1965. The United Kingdom deemed this an act of rebellion, but did not re-establish control by force. The white-minority government declared itself a "republic" in 1970. A civil war ensued, with Joshua Nkomo's ZAPU and Robert Mugabe's ZANU using assistance from the governments of Zambia and Mozambique. Although Smith's declaration was not recognised by the United Kingdom nor any other power, Southern Rhodesia dropped the designation 'Southern', and claimed nation status as the Republic of Rhodesia in 1970.[25][26]

Independence and the 1980s

Zimbabwe Rhodesia gained official independence as Zimbabwe on 18 April 1980. The government held independence celebrations in Rufaro stadium in Salisbury, the capital. Lord Christopher Soames, the last Governor of Southern Rhodesia, watched as Charles, Prince of Wales, gave a farewell salute and the Rhodesian Signal Corps played "God Save the Queen". Many foreign dignitaries also attended, including Prime Minister Indira Gandhi of India, President Shehu Shagari of Nigeria, President Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia, President Seretse Khama of Botswana, and Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser of Australia, representing the Commonwealth of Nations. Bob Marley sang 'Zimbabwe', a song he wrote, at the government's invitation in a concert at the country's independence festivities.[27][28]

President Shagari pledged $15 million at the celebration to train Zimbabweans in Zimbabwe and expatriates in Nigeria. Mugabe's government used part of the money to buy newspaper companies owned by South Africans, increasing the government's control over the media. The rest went to training students in Nigerian universities, government workers in the Administrative Staff College of Nigeria in Badagry, and soldiers in the Nigerian Defence Academy in Kaduna. Later that year Mugabe commissioned a report by the BBC on press freedom in Zimbabwe. The BBC issued its report on 26 June, recommending the privatisation of the Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation and its independence from political interests.[29][30] See also: Foreign relations of Zimbabwe

Mugabe's government changed the capital's name from Salisbury to Harare on 18 April 1982 in celebration of the second anniversary of independence.[31] The government renamed the main street in the capital, Jameson Avenue, in honour of Samora Machel, President of Mozambique.

The new Constitution provided for a non-executive President as Head of State with a Prime Minister as Head of Government. Reverend Canaan Banana served as the first President. In government amended the Constitution in 1987 to provide for an Executive President and abolished the office of Prime Minister. The constitutional changes came into effect on 1 January 1988 with Robert Mugabe as President. The bicameral Parliament of Zimbabwe had a directly elected House of Assembly and an indirectly elected Senate, partly made up of tribal chiefs. The Constitution established two separate voters rolls, one for the black majority, who had 80% of the seats in Parliament, and the other for whites and other ethnic minorities, such as Coloureds, people of mixed race, and Asians, who held 20%. The government amended the Constitution in 1986, eliminating the voter rolls and replacing the white seats with seats filled by nominated members. Many white MPs joined ZANU which then reappointed them. In 1990 the government abolished the Senate and increased the House of Assembly's membership to include members nominated by the President.

Prime Minister Mugabe kept Peter Walls, the head of the army, in his government and put him in charge of integrating the Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA), Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA), and the Rhodesian Army. While Western media outlets praised Mugabe's efforts at reconciliation with the white minority, tension soon developed.[32] On 17 March 1980, after several unsuccessful assassination attempts Mugabe asked Walls, "Why are your men trying to kill me?" Walls replied, "If they were my men you would be dead."[33] BBC news interviewed Walls on 11 August 1980. He told the BBC that he had asked British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher to annul the 1980 election prior to the official announcement of the result on the grounds that Mugabe used intimidation to win the election. Walls said Thatcher had not replied to his request. On 12 August British government officials denied that they had not responded, saying Antony Duff, Deputy Governor of Salisbury, told Walls on 3 March that Thatcher would not annul the election.[34]

Minister of Information Nathan Shamuyarira said the government would not be "held ransom by racial misfits" and told "all those Europeans who do not accept the new order to pack their bags." He also said the government continued to consider taking "legal or administrative action" against Walls. Mugabe, returning from a visit with United States President Jimmy Carter in New York City, said, "One thing is quite clear—we are not going to have disloyal characters in our society." Walls returned to Zimbabwe after the interview, telling Peter Hawthorne of Time magazine, "To stay away at this time would have appeared like an admission of guilt." Mugabe drafted legislation that would exile Walls from Zimbabwe for life and Walls moved to South Africa.[35][36]

Ethnic divisions soon came back to the forefront of national politics. Tension between ZAPU and ZANU erupted with guerrilla activity starting again in Matabeleland in south-western Zimbabwe. Nkomo (ZAPU) left for exile in Britain and did not return until Mugabe guaranteed his safety. In 1982 government security officials discovered large caches of arms and ammunition on properties owned by ZAPU, accusing Nkomo and his followers of plotting to overthrow the government. Mugabe fired Nkomo and his closest aides from the cabinet. Seven MPs, members of the Rhodesian Front, left Smith's party to sit as "independents" on 4 March 1982, signifying their dissatisfaction with his policies.[31] As a result of what they saw as persecution of Nkomo and his party, PF-ZAPU supporters, army deserters began a campaign of dissidence against the government. Centring primarily in Matabeleland, home of the Ndebeles who were at the time PF-ZAPU's main followers, this dissidence continued through 1987. It involved attacks on government personnel and installations, armed banditry aimed at disrupting security and economic life in the rural areas, and harassment of ZANU-PF members.[37]

Because of the unsettled security situation immediately after independence and democratic sentiments, the government kept in force a "state of emergency". This gave the government widespread powers under the "Law and Order Maintenance Act," including the right to detain persons without charge which it used quite widely. In 1983 to 1984 the government declared a curfew in areas of Matabeleland and sent in the army in an attempt to suppress members of the Ndebele tribe. The pacification campaign, known as the Gukuruhundi, or strong wind, resulted in at least 20,000 civilian deaths perpetrated by an elite, North Korean-trained brigade, known in Zimbabwe as the Gukurahundi.

ZANU-PF increased its majority in the 1985 elections, winning 67 of the 100 seats. The majority gave Mugabe the opportunity to start making changes to the constitution, including those with regard to land restoration. Fighting did not cease until Mugabe and Nkomo reached an agreement in December 1987 whereby ZAPU became part of ZANU-PF and the government changed the constitution to make Mugabe the country's first executive president and Nkomo one of two vice-presidents.


Elections in March 1990 resulted in another overwhelming victory for Mugabe and his party, which won 117 of the 120 election seats. Election observers estimated voter turnout at only 54% and found the campaign neither free nor fair, though balloting met international standards. Unsatisfied with a de facto one-party state, Mugabe called on the ZANU-PF Central Committee to support the creation of a de jure one-party state in September 1990 and lost. The government began further amending the constitution. The judiciary and human rights advocates fiercely criticised the first amendments enacted in April 1991 because they restored corporal and capital punishment and denied recourse to the courts in cases of compulsory purchase of land by the government. The general health of the civilian population also began to significantly flounder and by 1997 25% of the population of Zimbabwe had been infected by HIV, the AIDS virus.

During the 1990s students, trade unionists, and workers often demonstrated to express their discontent with the government. Students protested in 1990 against proposals for an increase in government control of universities and again in 1991 and 1992 when they clashed with police. Trade unionists and workers also criticised the government during this time. In 1992 police prevented trade unionists from holding anti-government demonstrations. In 1994 widespread industrial unrest weakened the economy. In 1996 civil servants, nurses, and junior doctors went on strike over salary issues.

On 9 December 1997 a national strike paralysed the country. Mugabe was panicked by demonstrations by Zanla ex-combatants, war veterans, who had been the heart of incursions 20 years earlier in the Bush War. He agreed to pay them large gratuities and pensions, which proved to be a wholly unproductive and unbudgeted financial commitment. The discontent with the government spawned draconian government crackdowns which in turn started to destroy both the fabric of the state and of society. This in turn brought with it further discontent within the population. Thus a vicious downward spiral commenced.[38]

Although many whites had left Zimbabwe after independence, mainly for neighbouring South Africa, those who remained continued to wield disproportionate control of some sectors of the economy, especially agriculture. In the late-1990s whites accounted for less than 1% of the population but owned 70% of arable land. Mugabe raised this issue of land ownership by white farmers. In a calculated move, he began forcible land redistribution, which brought the government into headlong conflict with the International Monetary Fund. Amid a severe drought in the region, the police and military were instructed not to stop the invasion of white-owned farms by the so-called 'war veterans' and youth militia. This has led to a mass migration of White Zimbabweans out of Zimbabwe. At present almost no arable land is in the possession of white farmers; the country has also experienced a debilitating food shortage with the exodus of its White minority, turning the "breadbasket of Africa" into one of Africa's most food insecure states.

The economy during the 1980s and 1990s

The economy was run along corporatist lines with strict governmental controls on all aspects of the economy. Controls were placed on wages, prices and massive increases in government spending resulting in significant budget deficits. This experiment met with very mixed results and Zimbabwe fell further behind the first world and unemployment. Some market reforms in the 1990s were attempted. A 40 per cent devaluation of the Zimbabwean dollar was allowed to occur and price and wage controls were removed. These policies also failed at that time. Growth, employment, wages, and social service spending contracted sharply, inflation did not improve, the deficit remained well above target, and many industrial firms, notably in textiles and footwear, closed in response to increased competition and high real interest rates. The incidence of poverty in the country increased during this time.

1999 to 2000

However, Zimbabwe began experiencing a period of considerable political and economic upheaval in 1999. Opposition to President Mugabe and the ZANU-PF government grew considerably after the mid-1990s in part due to worsening economic and human rights conditions.[39] The Morgan Tsvangirai.

The MDC's first opportunity to test opposition to the Mugabe government came in February 2000, when a referendum was held on a draft constitution proposed by the government. Among its elements, the new constitution would have permitted President Mugabe to seek two additional terms in office, granted government officials immunity from prosecution, and authorised government seizure of white-owned land. The referendum was handily defeated. Shortly thereafter, the government, through a loosely organised group of war veterans, sanctioned an aggressive land redistribution program often characterised by forced expulsion of white farmers and violence against both farmers and farm employees.

Parliamentary elections held in June 2000 were marred by localised violence, and claims of electoral irregularities and government intimidation of opposition supporters. Nonetheless, the MDC succeeded in capturing 57 of 120 seats in the National Assembly.


Presidential elections were held in March 2002. In the months leading up to the poll, ZANU-PF, with the support of the army, security services, and especially the so-called 'war veterans', – very few of whom actually fought in the

  • Background Note: Zimbabwe
  • Monomotapa

External links

  • Davoodi, Schoresch & Sow, Adama: Democracy and Peace in Zimbabwe in: EPU Research Papers: Issue 12/08, Stadtschlaining 2008
  • Maguwu, Farai: Land Reform, Famine and Environmental Degradation in Zimbabwe in: EPU Research Papers: Issue 06/07, Stadtschlaining 2007


  1. ^ Huffman, T.N. (2007). Handbook to the Iron Age. University of KwaZulu-Natal Press. p. 123. 
  2. ^ Phillipson, D.W. (1985). "An Archaeological Reconsideration of Bantu Expansion". Muntu 2: 69–84. 
  3. ^ a b Huffman. Handbook to the Iron Age. 
  4. ^ Phillipson, D.W. (2995). African Archaeology 3rd ed. Cambridge. pp. pp250 ff. 
  5. ^ Phillipson, D.W. "An Archaeological Reconsideration of Bantu Expansion". pp. 77–8. 
  6. ^ P. Mitchell and G. Whitelaw (2005). "The Archaeology of Southernmost Africa from c. 2000 bp to the Early 1800s: a Review of Recent Research". Journal of African History 46: 209–241.  
  7. ^ Phillipson, D.W. (1989). Bantu-Speaking People in Southern Africa' in Obenga (ed), Les Peuples Bantu. Paris. p. 156. 
  8. ^ Mapungubwe: A Living Legacy. Mapungubwe Institute for Strategic Reflection. 2011. 
  9. ^ Phillipson (1989). Bantu-Speaking People in Southern Africa. p. 156. 
  10. ^ Phillipson, 1985. "An Archaeological Reconsideration of Bantu Expansion". pp. 69–84. 
  11. ^ Ehret, C. (2001). An African Classical Age. University Press of Virginia. p. 239. 
  12. ^ Huffman (2007). Handbook to the Iron Age. 
  13. ^ Ehret. An African Classical Age. 
  14. ^ Bastin Y, Coupez A, Mann M (1999). "Continuity and divergence in the Bantu languages: perspectives from a lexicostatistic study". Annales, Sciences humaines 162: 315–317 (the S languages). 
  15. ^ Guthrie, M. (1967–71). Comparative Bantu: an introduction to the comparative linguistics and prehistory of the Bantu languages. Gregg International. 
  16. ^ K. Rexová, Y. Bastin and D. Frynta (2006). "Cladistic analysis of Bantu Languages". Naturwissenschaften.  
  17. ^ Holden, C.J. (2002). "Bantu language trees reflect the spread of farming across sub- Saharan Africa,". Proc. R. Soc. Lond: 793–799. 
  18. ^ Hall, Martin; Stephen W. Silliman (2005). Historical Archaeology. Wiley Blackwell. pp. 241–244.  
  19. ^ "So Who Was Shaka Zulu- Really?". The Odyssey. Retrieved 14 December 2008. 
  20. ^ Hensman, Howard. Cecil Rhodes: A Study of a Career. p. 106–107.
  21. ^ Parsons, Neil. A New History of Southern Africa, Second Edition, 1993. London: Macmillan. pp. 178–181.
  22. ^ Bryce, James. Impressions of South Africa. p. 170.
  23. ^ (1) (1956). p. 78."III The Northern Rhodesia JournalA Country in Search of a Name." "". Gray, J. A. (1956). Retrieved 14 December 2008. 
  24. ^ Parsons (1993). p. 292.
  25. ^ Judd, Denis. Empire: The British Imperial Experience from 1765 to the Present. p. 372.
  26. ^ Parsons (1993). pp. 318–320.
  27. ^ Williams, Lizzie (2005). Africa Overland. pp. 169–170. 
  28. ^ Pakenham, Thomas (1992). Scramble for Africa: White Man's Conquest of the Dark Continent from 1876 to 1912. p. 669. 
  29. ^ Abegunrin, Olayiwola (2003). Nigerian Foreign Policy Under Military Rule, 1966–1999. p. 89. 
  30. ^ Kalley, Jacqueline Audrey (1999). Southern African Political History: A Chronology of Key Political Events from Independence to Mid-1997. p. 711. 
  31. ^ a b Kalley, Jacqueline Audrey (1999). Southern African Political History: A Chronology of Key Political Events from Independence to Mid-1997. p. 718. 
  32. ^ Walls: "We will make it work" TIME magazine and CNN
  33. ^ Raymond, Walter John. Dictionary of Politics: Selected American and Foreign Political and Legal Terms, 1992. Page 557.
  34. ^ Kalley, Jacqueline Audrey. Southern African Political History: A chronological of key political events from independence to mid-1997, 1999. Page 711-712.
  35. ^ Zanu-PF's Walls 'manhunt' backfires Dispatch
  36. ^ A soldier faces his critics TIME magazine and CNN
  37. ^ "HISTORY OF ZIMBABWE". History World. 4 May 2007. 
  38. ^ "From Corporatism to Liberalization in Zimbabwe: Economic Policy Regimes and Political Crisis, 1980–97".  
  39. ^ "REPORT: Policing the State – an evaluation of 1,981 political arrests in Zimbabwe: 2000–2005".  
  40. ^ a b Wines, Michael (9 May 2007). "Opposition Splits While Zimbabwe Slips".  
  41. ^ Sturcke, James (1 April 2005). "Mugabe's party wins Zimbabwe election".  
  42. ^ a b "Background Note: Zimbabwe".  
  43. ^ Tisdall, Simon (8 November 2005). "Zimbabwe surrounded by sound and fury, but little action".  
  44. ^ Meldrum, Andrew (29 September 2005). "Zimbabwe's economic crisis drives it back into steam age".  
  45. ^ "Zimbabwe: End harassment, torture and intimidation of opposition activists" (PDF).  
  46. ^ "'"Zimbabwe inflation 'incalculable. London:  
  47. ^ Meldrum, Andrew (10 May 2007). "Zimbabweans face power cuts for up to 20 hours a day".  
  48. ^ Wines, Michael (2 May 2007). "How Bad Is Inflation in Zimbabwe?".  
  49. ^ "Corn Up Nearly 700 Percent in Zimbabwe".  
  50. ^ McGreal, Chris (1 October 2007). "Zimbabwe runs out of bread".  
  51. ^ "Zimbabwe: Column – Mary Revesai". All Africa. 7 May 2007. 
  52. ^ "Trip to Africa enlightens".  
  53. ^ McVeigh, Tracy (22 April 2007). "'"Now Zimbabwe can see end of the road for its 'brutal old man.  
  54. ^ Evans, Ian (7 December 2007). "President leaves behind a people left paralysed by their poverty".  
  55. ^ McGreal, Chris (2 October 2007). "Bakeries close their doors as collapse in wheat production adds to crisis".  
  56. ^ "US Imposes Sanctions on 39 Zimbabweans".  
  57. ^ Castle, Stephen (9 December 2007). "Mugabe's Presence Hijacks European-African Meeting".  
  58. ^ Bevan, Stephen (18 November 2007). "Thousands of teachers abandon Zimbabwe".  
  59. ^ "Zimbabwe: Education – 30 Years Backwards And Still Declining".  
  60. ^ "Zimbabwe's opposition party claims early election lead", Associated Press (International Herald Tribune), 30 March 2008.
  61. ^ "Zimbabwe presidential candidates confirmed", AFP, 15 February 2008.
  62. ^ "Mugabe accused of election-rigging plan", CNN, 23 March 2008.
  63. ^ a b MacDonald Dzirutwe, "Zim heads for run-off", Reuters (IOL), 2 May 2008.
  64. ^ "Zimbabwe opposition rejects run-off", Al Jazeera, 10 April 2008.
  65. ^ "Runoff OK, says Zimbabwe ruling party". CNN. 4 April 2008. Archived from the original on 5 April 2008. Retrieved 4 April 2008. 
  66. ^ "Zim run-off set for June 27", Sapa-Associated Press (IOL), 16 May 2008.
  67. ^ "Zimbabwe MDC never accepted run-off vote", Al Jazeera, 10 May 2008.
  68. ^ "Tsvangirai to run in second round", BBC News, 10 May 2008.
  69. ^ "12 'violent' MDC supporters held: Africa: Zimbabwe: News24". Retrieved 23 June 2008. 
  70. ^ Tendai Maphosa. "VOA News – Zimbabwe Sets Date for Runoff Amid Increasing Violence". Retrieved 23 June 2008. 
  71. ^ Daily Mail Reporter (21 May 2008). "'"Mugabe tells Zimbabwe opposition: You are to blame for political violence after branding MDC 'evil. Mail Online (London). Retrieved 23 June 2008. 
  72. ^ Angus Shaw, "Zimbabwe opposition leader pulling out of election", Associated Press, 22 June 2008.
  73. ^ "UN impasse irks Zimbabwe opposition", Al Jazeera, 28 June 2008.
  74. ^ "Mugabe begins new term as criticism of one-man election mounts", AFP, 29 June 2008.
  75. ^ "Zimbabwe: President Mugabe Wins Run-Off, Sworn in", The Zimbabwe Guardian (, 29 June 2008.
  76. ^ "President Sworn in, Appeals for Unity", The Herald (, 30 June 2008.
  77. ^ "UN move against Zimbabwe blocked", Al Jazeera, 28 June 2008.
  78. ^ MACFARQUHAR, NEIL (14 May 1999). "2 Vetoes Quash U.N. Sanctions on Zimbabwe". New York Times. Retrieved 12 July 2008. 
  79. ^ United Nations Security Council Verbotim Report 5933. S/PV/5933 page 7. 11 July 2008. Retrieved 14 July 2008.
  80. ^ "African call for Zimbabwe unity". London: BBC News. 1 July 2008. Retrieved 1 July 2008. 
  81. ^ "Rivals sign Zimbabwe power-share deal". 16 September 2008. Retrieved 3 February 2011. 
  82. ^, Power-sharing deal signed in Zimbabwe Archived August 15, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  83. ^ "Zimbabwe power-sharing deal signed". MSNBC. 15 September 2008. Retrieved 3 February 2011. 
  84. ^ a b "Government looking for land for mass burial, after killing 78 miners". SW Radio Africa via ZWnews. 11 December 2008. Retrieved 12 December 2008. 
  85. ^ "Zimbabwe meets diamond trade standards", IRIN, 30 June 2010.
  86. ^ McGreal, Chris (11 December 2008). "Bodies pile up as Mugabe wages war on diamond miners". Retrieved 10 January 2009. 
  87. ^ Dixon, Robyn (4 December 2008). "Zimbabwe's deadly diamond fever". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 12 December 2008. 
  88. ^ Dugger, Celia W. (31 January 2009). "Opposition Party to Join Zimbabwe's Government -". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 May 2010. 
  89. ^ "Tsvangirai sworn in Zimbabwe PM".  
  90. ^ "'"Zimbabwe PM and wife 'in crash. London: BBC News. 6 March 2009. Retrieved 6 March 2009. 
  91. ^ "Zimbabwe PM wife dies". Zimbabwe Metro News. 6 March 2009. Retrieved 6 March 2009. 


See also

In January 2009, Morgan Tsvangirai announced that he would do as the leaders across Africa had insisted and join a coalition government as prime minister with his nemesis, President Robert Mugabe .[88] On 11 February 2009 Tsvangirai was sworn in as the Prime Minister of Zimbabwe.[89] On 6 March 2009, Tsvangirai's wife was killed in a car accident in which he was also injured. According to news reports, Mr Tsvangirai was taken to hospital with head and neck injuries.[90][91]


In November 2008 the Air Force of Zimbabwe was sent, after some police officers began refusing orders to shoot the illegal miners at Marange diamond fields.[84] Up to 150 of the estimated 30,000[85] illegal miners were shot from helicopter gunships. In 2008 some Zimbabwean lawyers and opposition politicians from Mutare claimed that Shiri was the prime mover behind the military assaults on illegal diggers in the diamond mines in the east of Zimbabwe.[86] Estimates of the death toll by mid-December range from 83 reported by the Mutare City Council, based on a request for burial ground, to 140 estimated by the (then) opposition Movement for Democratic Change - Tsvangirai party.[84][87]

Marange diamond fields massacre

[83][82] becomes deputy prime minister.Arthur Mutambara ZANU-PF and the MDC will share control of the police, Mugabe's Zanu (PF) will command the Army, and [81] On 15 September 2008, the leaders of the 14-member

Preliminary talks to set up conditions for official negotiations began between leading negotiators from both parties on 10 July, and on 22 July, the three party leaders met for the first time in Harare to express their support for a negotiated settlement of disputes arising out of the presidential and parliamentary elections. Negotiations between the parties officially began on 25 July and are currently proceeding with very few details released from the negotiation teams in Pretoria, as coverage by the media is barred from the premises where the negotiations are taking place. The talks were mediated by South African President Thabo Mbeki.

The international reaction to the second round have varied. The United States and states of the European Union have called for increased sanctions.[77] On 11 July, the United Nations Security Council voted to impose sanctions on the Zimbabwe; Russia and China vetoed.[78][79] The African Union has called for a "government of national unity."[80]

[76][75][74] Mugabe won the second round by an overwhelming margin and was sworn in for another term as President on 29 June.[73] The second round nevertheless went ahead as planned with Mugabe as the only actively participating candidate, although Tsvangirai's name remained on the ballot.[72] On 22 June 2008, Tsvangirai announced that he was withdrawing from the run-off, describing it as a "violent sham" and saying that his supporters risked being killed if they voted for him.[71][70][69] After the recount and the verification of the results, the

No official results were announced for more than a month after the first round.[63] The failure to release results was strongly criticised by the MDC, which unsuccessfully sought an order from the High Court to force their release. An independent projection placed Tsvangirai in the lead, but without the majority needed to avoid a second round. The MDC declared that Tsvangirai won a narrow majority in the first round and initially refused to participate in any second round.[64] ZANU-PF has said that Mugabe will participate in a second round;[65] the party alleged that some electoral officials, in connection with the MDC, fraudulently reduced Mugabe's score, and as a result a recount was conducted.

Because of Zimbabwe's dire economic situation the election was expected to provide President Mugabe with his toughest electoral challenge to date. Mugabe's opponents were critical of the handling of the electoral process, and the government was accused of planning to rig the election; Human Rights Watch said that the election was likely to be "deeply flawed".[62] After the first round, but before the counting was completed, Jose Marcos Barrica, the head of the Southern African Development Community observer mission, described the election as "a peaceful and credible expression of the will of the people of Zimbabwe."

Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai (MDC-T), and Simba Makoni, an independent.[61] As no candidate received an outright majority in the first round, a second round was held on 27 June 2008 between Tsvangirai (with 47.9% of the first round vote) and Mugabe (43.2%). Tsvangirai withdrew from the second round a week before it was scheduled to take place, citing violence against his party's supporters. The second round went ahead, despite widespread criticism, and led to victory for Mugabe.

2008 elections


The educational system in Zimbabwe which was once regarded as among the best in Africa, has gone into crisis because of the country's economic meltdown. Almost a quarter of the teachers have quit the country, absenteeism is high, buildings are crumbling and standards plummeting. One foreign reporter witnessed hundreds of children at Hatcliffe Extension Primary School in Epworth, 12 miles west of Harare, writing in the dust on the floor because they had no exercise books or pencils. The high school exam system unravelled in 2007. Examiners refused to mark examination papers when they were offered just Z$79 a paper, enough to buy three small candies. Corruption has crept into the system and may explain why in January 2007 thousands of pupils received no marks for subjects they had entered, while others were deemed "excellent" in subjects they had not sat. Various disused offices and storerooms have been turned into makeshift brothels at the University of Zimbabwe in Harare by students and staff who have turned to prostitution to make ends meet. Students are destitute following the institution's refusal in July to re-open their halls of residence, effectively banning students from staying on campus. Student leaders believe this was part of the administration's plan to take revenge on them for their demonstrations over deteriorating standards.[58][59]

Deterioration of the educational system

On 8 December 2007, Mugabe attended a meeting of EU and African leaders in Lisbon, prompting UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown to decline to attend. While German chancellor Angela Merkel criticised Mugabe with her public comments, the leaders of other African countries offered him statements of support.[57]

Zimbabwe's bakeries shut down in October 2007 and supermarkets warned that they would have no bread for the foreseeable future due to collapse in wheat production after the seizure of white-owned farms. The ministry of agriculture has also blamed power shortages for the wheat shortfall, saying that electricity cuts have affected irrigation and halved crop yields per acre. The power shortages are because Zimbabwe relies on Mozambique for some of its electricity and that due to an unpaid bill of $35 million Mozambique had reduced the amount of electrical power it supplies.[55] On 4 December 2007, The United States imposed travel sanctions against 38 people with ties to President Mugabe because they "played a central role in the regime's escalated human rights abuses."[56]

The regime has managed to cling to power by creating wealthy enclaves for government ministers, and senior party members. For example, Borrowdale Brook, a suburb of Harare is an oasis of wealth and privilege. It features mansions, manicured lawns, full shops with fully stocked shelves containing an abundance of fruit and vegetables, big cars and a golf club give is the home to President Mugabe's out-of-town retreat.[54]

The country used to be one of Africa's richest and is now one of its poorest. Many observers now view the country as a 'failed state'.[51][52] The settlement of the Second Congo War brought back Zimbabwe's substantial military commitment, although some troops remain to secure the mining assets under their control. The government lacks the resources or machinery to deal with the ravages of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, which affects 25% of the population. With all this and the forced and violent removal of white farmers in a brutal land redistribution program, Mugabe has earned himself widespread scorn from the international arena.[53]

The economy has shrunk by 50% from 2000 to 2007. In September 2007 the inflation rate was put at almost 8,000%, the world's highest.[46] There are frequent power and water outages.[47] Harare's drinking water became unreliable in 2006 and as a consequence dysentery and cholera swept the city in December 2006 and January 2007.[48] Unemployment in formal jobs is running at a record 80%.[49] There is widespread famine, which has been cynically manipulated by the government so that opposition strongholds suffer the most. Most recently, supplies of bread have dried up, after a poor wheat harvest, and the closure of all bakeries.[50]

Amnesty International's Africa Programme.[45]

In August 2006 runaway inflation forced the government to replace its existing currency with a revalued one. In December 2006, ZANU-PF proposed the "harmonisation" of the parliamentary and presidential election schedules in 2010; the move was seen by the opposition as an excuse to extend Mugabe's term as president until 2010.

2006 to 2007

In September 2005 Mugabe signed constitutional amendments that reinstituted a national senate (abolished in 1987) and that nationalised all land. This converted all ownership rights into leases. The amendments also ended the right of landowners to challenge government expropriation of land in the courts and marked the end of any hope of returning any land that had been hitherto grabbed by armed land invasions. Elections for the senate in November resulted in a victory for the government. The MDC split over whether to field candidates and partially boycotted the vote. In addition to low turnout there was widespread government intimidation. The split in the MDC hardened into factions, each of which claimed control of the party. The early months of 2006 were marked by food shortages and mass hunger. The sheer extremity of the siltation was revealed by the fact that in the courts, state witnesses said they were too weak from hunger to testify.[44]

Human Rights Watch said the evictions had disrupted treatment for people with HIV/Aids in a country where 3,000 die from the disease each week and about 1.3 million children have been orphaned. The operation was "the latest manifestation of a massive human rights problem that has been going on for years", said Amnesty International. As of September 2006, housing construction fell far short of demand, and there were reports that beneficiaries were mostly civil servants and ruling party loyalists, not those displaced. The government campaign of forced evictions continued in 2006, albeit on a lesser scale.[42][43]

[42] In May 2005 the government began

As Senate elections approached further opposition splits occurred. Ncube's supporters argued that the M.D.C. should field a slate of candidates; Tsvangirai's argued for a boycott. When party leaders voted on the issue, Ncube's side narrowly won, but Mr. Tsvangirai declared that as president of the party he was not bound by the majority's decision.[40] Again the opposition was weakened. As a result, the elections for a new Senate in November 2005 were largely boycotted by the opposition. Mugabe's party won 24 of the 31 constituencies where elections were held amid low voter turnout. Again, evidence surfaced of voter intimidation and fraud.

An internal party inquiry later established that aides to Tsvangirai had tolerated, if not endorsed, the violence. Divisive as the violence was, it was a debate over the rule of law that set off the party's final break-up in November 2005. These division severely weakened the opposition. In addition the government employed its own operatives to both spy on each side and to undermine each side via acts of espionage. Zimbabwean parliamentary election, 2005 were held in March 2005 in which ZANU-PF won a two-thirds majority, were again criticised by international observers as being flawed. Mugabe's political operatives were thus able to weaken the opposition internally and the security apparatus of the state was able to destabilise it externally by using violence in anti-Mugabe strongholds to prevent citizens from voting. Some voters were 'turned away' from polling station despite having proper identification, further guaranteeing that the government could control the results. Additionally Mugabe had started to appoint judges sympathetic to the government, making any judicial appeal futile. Mugabe was also able to appoint 30 of the members of parliament.[41]

Divisions within the opposition MDC had begun to fester early in the decade, after Morgan Tsvangirai (the president of the MDC) was lured into a government sting operation that videotaped him talking of Mr. Mugabe's removal from power. He was subsequently arrested and put on trial on treason charges. This crippled his control of party affairs and raised questions about his competence. It also catalysed a major split within the party. In 2004 he was acquitted, but not until after suffering serious abuse and mistreatment in prison. The opposing faction was led by Welshman Ncube who was the general secretary of the party. In mid-2004, vigilantes loyal to Mr. Tsvangirai began attacking members who were mostly loyal to Ncube, climaxing in a September raid on the party's Harare headquarters in which the security director was nearly thrown to his death.[40]

GBP 8 worth of Zimbabwean dollars in 2003
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.