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Hollandaise

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Hollandaise

Hollandaise sauce (/hɒlənˈdz/ or /ˈhɒləndz/; French: [ʔɔ.lɑ̃.dɛz]) is an emulsion of egg yolk and liquid butter, usually seasoned with lemon juice, salt, and a little white pepper or cayenne pepper. In appearance, it is light yellow and opaque, smooth and creamy. The flavor is rich and buttery, with a mild tang added by an acidic component such as lemon juice, yet not so strong as to overpower mildly-flavored foods.

Hollandaise is one[1] of the five sauces in the French haute cuisine mother sauce repertoire. It is so named because it was believed to have mimicked a Dutch sauce for the King of the Netherlands' state visit to France. Hollandaise sauce is well known as a key ingredient of Eggs Benedict, and is often paired with vegetables such as steamed asparagus.

History

There is debate as to who originally developed Hollandaise sauce. Some historians believe that it was invented in the Netherlands then taken to France by the Huguenots. A recipe for Hollandaise sauce appears in a Dutch cookbook by Carel Baten, which dates from 1593. In 1651, François Pierre La Varenne describes a sauce similar to Hollandaise in his groundbreaking cookbook Le Cuisinier François: "avec du bon beurre frais, un peu de vinaigre, sel et muscade, et un jaune d’œuf pour lier la sauce" ("with good fresh butter, a little vinegar, salt, and nutmeg, and an egg yolk to bind the sauce"). Alan Davidson notes a "sauce à la hollandoise" from François Marin's Les Dons de Comus (1758), but since that sauce included flour, bouillon, herbs, and omitted egg yolks, it may not be related to the modern Hollandaise.[2] However, Larousse Gastronomique states that, in former times fish 'à la hollandaise' was served with melted butter (implying that at one time egg yolks were not a part of the designation, Hollandaise).[3] Davidson also quotes from Harold McGee (1990), who explains that eggs are not needed at all and proper emulsification can simply be created with butter. He also states that if one does wish to use eggs they are not needed in so great a quantity as normally called for in traditional recipes.

The sauce using egg yolks and butter appeared in the 19th century. Although various sources say it was first known as "sauce Isigny" (a town in Normandy said to have been renowned for the quality of its butter), Isabella Beeton's Household Management had recipes in the first edition (1861) for "Dutch sauce, for fish" (p. 405) and its variant on the following page, "Green sauce, or Hollandaise verte". Her directions for hollandaise seem somewhat fearless:

"Put all the ingredients, except the lemon-juice, into a stew-pan; set it over the fire, and keep continually stirring. When it is sufficiently thick, take it off, as it should not boil..."

Robert Farrar Capon suggests that Hollandaise is "not one bit less a marvel than the Gothic arch, the computer chip, or a Bach Fugue."[4]

Preparation

Hollandaise requires some skill and practice to prepare. Properly made, it will be smooth and creamy with no hint of separation. The flavor will be rich and buttery, with a mild tang from the lemon juice. It is best prepared and served warm, but not hot. There are several methods for preparing a Hollandaise sauce. All methods require near-constant agitation, usually with a wire whisk.

One family of methods involves acidifying the egg yolks to aid in the formation of an emulsion, either with lemon juice or vinegar. Escoffier[5] uses a reduction of vinegar and water. Others[6][7] use lemon juice or sherry.[8] The acidified yolks are whisked gently over simmering water[9] until they thicken and lighten in color (144 °F/62 °C). Then, as with a mayonnaise,[10] the emulsion is formed by very slowly whisking melted butter into it. Use of clarified butter is common. Some varieties of this preparation use water of various volumes and temperatures.[8]

Alton Brown espouses quite a different method.[11] The yolks, without acid, are cooked as above. Then the upper pan is removed from heat and cold cubed butter (unclarified) is whisked in, a few cubes at a time. The emulsion forms as the cubes melt. The pan is returned to heat only when the emulsion cools too much to melt more cubes. Lemon is used as a finishing flavor. This method takes more time than traditional methods, but is more reliable in that it is difficult to overheat the forming emulsion.[12][13]

The above methods are known as "bain marie methods". Another family of methods uses a blender.[7][14] Yolks are placed in a blender, then - at a temperature higher than appropriate for bain marie methods - butter is drizzled into the blender. Heat from the butter cooks the yolks. Blender methods are much quicker, although temperature control is difficult. The products of blender methods may be acceptable, but are generally considered to be inferior to the products of bain marie methods.

Joy of Cooking[8] describes a preparation unlike all the above, using whole eggs, and slowly adding the egg mixture to melted butter over direct heat. It also includes variations incorporating sour cream and paprika, or cream and nutmeg.[8]

Note that in all methods the temperature must be closely controlled. Too much heat and the yolks will curdle (180 °F/82 °C) or an emulsion break (separate).[15] Too little heat and an emulsion will fail to form, or (once formed), will solidify.[15] Once the yolks are prepared, the sauce should be not much warmer than required to maintain the butter in a liquid state, that is, a little warmer than body temperature. A finished sauce may be "held" in its emulsified state for several hours by keeping it warm. Success with freezing Hollandaise has been reported,[16][17] but it is not widely practiced.

A normal ratio of ingredients is 1 egg yolk : 4-6 Tbs. (55g-85g) butter. Flavorings may include lemon juice and salt to taste.[18]

Derivatives

Being a mother sauce, Hollandaise sauce is the foundation for many derivatives created by adding or changing ingredients. The following is a non-exhaustive listing of such minor sauces.

  • The most common derivative is Sauce Béarnaise. It can be produced by replacing the acidifying agent (vinegar reduction or lemon juice) in a preparation with a strained reduction of vinegar, shallots, fresh chervil, fresh tarragon and (if to taste) crushed peppercorns.[19][20][21] Alternatively, the flavorings may be added to a standard Hollandaise. Béarnaise and its children are often used on steak or other "assertive" grilled meats and fish.
    • Sauce Choron is a variation of béarnaise without tarragon or chervil, plus added tomato purée.[21][22]
    • Sauce Foyot (a.k.a. Valois) is béarnaise with meat glaze (Glace de Viande) added.[21][23]
    • Sauce Colbert is Sauce Foyot with the addition of reduced white wine.[24]
    • Sauce Café de Paris is béarnaise with curry powder added.
    • Sauce Paloise is a version of béarnaise with mint substituted for tarragon.[25]
  • Sauce Bavaroise is hollandaise with added cream, horseradish, and thyme.[26]
  • Sauce Crème Fleurette is hollandaise with crème fraîche added.
  • Sauce Dijon, also known as Sauce Moutarde or Sauce Girondine, is hollandaise with Dijon mustard.
  • Sauce Maltaise is hollandaise to which blanched orange zest and the juice of blood orange is added.[21][27]
  • Sauce Mousseline, also known as Sauce Chantilly, is produced by folding whipped cream into hollandaise.[21][28]
    • If reduced sherry is first folded into the whipped cream, the result is Sauce Divine.
    • Madame Benoît's recipe for Mousseline uses whipped egg whites instead of whipped cream.
  • Sauce Noisette is a hollandaise variation made with browned butter (beurre noisette).[29]

Notes

References

External links

  • 1861: Project Gutenberg e-text
  • History of Sauces
  • History of Hollandaise
  • How To Make Hollandaise Sauce Step-by-step tutorial from About.com (generally good, but a glass or ceramic bowl is not recommended as they make it too difficult to control the heat)
  • Free Culinary School Podcast Episode 8 A podcast (audio) episode that talks about the proper classical technique for making Hollandaise and the science behind the method.

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