World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Hopper (food)

Article Id: WHEBN0001658711
Reproduction Date:

Title: Hopper (food)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Thrissur, Asian cuisine, Hopper, Tamil cuisine, Putu mayam, Culture of Sri Lanka, List of Sinhala words of Tamil origin, Kottu, Lunu miris
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Hopper (food)

Appam (Malayalam: അപ്പം, Tamil: ஆப்பம்) is a pancake made with fermented rice batter and coconut milk. It is a popular food in South Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. It is also very popular in Sri Lanka where it is commonly referred by it anglicized name as Hopper. It is eaten most frequently for breakfast or dinner. It is called Chitau (ଚିତାଉ) Pitha in Oriya, Paddu or Gulle Eriyappa in Kodava. It is known as ආප්ප (Appa) in Sinhala and Arpone (အာ​ပုံမုန့်) in Burmese.

It is a staple diet and a cultural synonym of the Nasranis (also known as Saint Thomas Christians or Syrian Christians) of Kerala, India. According to Gil Marks "Each of the three separate Indian Jewish communities - Cochin, Mumbai, Calcutta - counts in its culinary repertoire grain dishes called appam."[1]


"The Story of our Food", a book written by K. T. Achaya, an eminent Indian food scientist and food historian, states that Appam and Idiyappam were already known in ancient Tamil country around 1st century AD, as per references in Tamil Sangam literature.[2]


  • Plain hoppers (Vella Appam)
bowl-shaped thin pancakes made from fermented rice flour. They derive their shape from the small Appachatti in which they are cooked. They are fairly neutral in taste and mostly served with some spicy condiment or curry. These hoppers are made from a batter using rice, yeast, salt and a little sugar. After the mixture has stood for a couple of hours, it can be fried in the appachatti with a little oil. In south-central Kerala, it is mostly served with Kadala (Chickpea) curry mutton or vegetable stew or egg roast.
  • Kallappam
Another form of Appam, where "Kallu" (Malayalam/Tamil) means toddy is added to the fresh batter to kick start the fermentation.
  • Egg hoppers
the same as plain hoppers, but an egg is broken into the pancake as it cooks
  • Milk hoppers (Palappam)
have a spoonful of thick coconut milk/coconut cream added to the doughy centre. When cooked, the centre is firm to the touch but remains soft inside and is sweeter as a result of the coconut milk.
crispy pancakes cooked with a generous amount of palm treacle. Some people also like to add some jaggery just before serving to make it extra sweet.
  • String hopper (Noolputtu)
Or idiyappam (pronounced [iʈijapːam]), is made from rice noodles curled into flat spirals. It is served for breakfast with a thin fish or chicken curry, containing only one or two pieces of meat, a dhal (lentil) dish, and a spicy sambol or fresh chutney. String hoppers are made from steamed rice flour made into a dough with water and a little salt, and forced through a mould similar to those used for pasta to make the strings. They are cooked by steaming. These hoppers can be bought ready-made. The Indian and Sri Lankan population eats String Hoppers for breakfast or dinner. There are many variations to this, depending on the type of flour used etc. This simple dish can be adapted into other foods such as String Hopper Biriyani, by adding scrambled eggs or vegetables.[3] Another example is located in Kerala, 'Idiyappam' Paaya(Goat Leg Soup made using Coconut).
  • Pesaha appam
(also called INRI appam or indri appam) is made by Nasrani Christians in Kerala during Pesaha (Passover). This type of appam is dipped in syrup or Pesaha Pal (Passover Coconut Milk) before being served.[4]
  • Acchappam
A deep fried rose cookie made with rice. A signature Syrian Christian food as per K.T.Achaya [5]
which owes its origins to Kerala. This is made with rice flour, jaggery, clarified butter ghee. Unni appam is a variation in which mashed plantain is added to the batter. The batter made out of rice flour, jaggery and plantain is poured into a vessel called Appakarai or Appakaram, which has ghee heated to a high temperature. The appams take the shape of small cups, and are fried until deep brown. Both neyyappam and unni appam are eaten as snacks. This is festive sweet, made on Gokulashtami - the birthday of Hindu deity, Krishna. It is also a common prasadam in Kerala temples.Also a signature Syrian Christian food as per K.T.Achaya [5]
  • Vattayappam
is made from rice flour, sugar, and coconut. The dish is made by steam-cooking the batter, and is very similar to the Bánh bò from Vietnam.

The presence of Tamils in Malaysia has over the years led to the popularity of the appam. Appam is the term used for a steamed cup-cake sized dessert made from rice flour that is eatened with shredded fresh coconut. The string hopper (local name: putu mayam) is also popular among Malaysians. Sold by street vendors on modified motorbikes, the string hoppers are eaten with grated palm sugar (gula Melaka) and shredded fresh coconut. Malaysian Indians tend to make their own and eat it with either curry or dhal dish.

See also

Food portal
  • List of fermented foods


External links

  • Traditional Appam Recipe
  • Coconut Appam Recipe
  • Appam:Hoppers – Jaffna Tamil Recipe
  • STRING HOPPER MAKER 2008 Thayabi Products Inc
  • Nadia Chitau Pitha of orissa & more
  • Pal Appam Recipe – Maya Kaimal
  • Pesaha/Indri Appam and Paal –
  • Breakfast Pleasures on a Weekend Morning –
  • Suriani Kitchen by Lathika George (Recipes and recollections from the Syrian Christians of Kerala)


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.