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Huaihai Campaign

Huaihai Campaign
Part of the Chinese Civil War

PLA troops, supported by M5 Stuart light tanks, engage ROC army lines
Date 6 November 1948 – 10 January 1949
Location Shandong, Jiangsu, Anhui, Henan
Result Decisive Communist victory
Communists occupy areas north of Yangtse River

Republic of China

Communist Party

Commanders and leaders
800,000 combatants 6,510,000 combatants
660,000 regulars,[1] 400,000 irregulars[2]
5,450,000 armed peasants[3]
Casualties and losses
~555,000 (including non-combat losses; 327,000 of which surrendered) 134,000

Huaihai Campaign (Chinese: 淮海戰役; pinyin: HuáihǎiZhànyì) or Battle of Hsupeng (simplified Chinese: 徐蚌会战; traditional Chinese: 徐蚌會戰; pinyin: XúbèngHuìzhàn, also Battle of Xu-Beng) was a military action during 1948 and 1949 that was the decisive battle of the Chinese Civil War. It was one of the few conventional battles of the war. 550,000 troops of the Republic of China (led by Kuomintang) were surrounded in Xuzhou (Hsuchow) and destroyed by the communist People's Liberation Army (PLA). This campaign is one of the three campaigns that marked the end of Nationalist dominance in northern China, the other two campaigns being Liaoshen and Pingjin.


  • ROC army deployment 1
  • PLA strategy 2
  • The three phases of the battle 3
    • Phase 1 3.1
    • Phase 2: 23 November to 6 January 3.2
    • Phase 3 3.3
  • Aftermath and consequences 4
    • Casualties 4.1
    • Films 4.2
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

ROC army deployment

After [4]

PLA strategy

[4] The Huaihai campaign had begun.

The three phases of the battle

Communist forces' campaigns during November 1948 up to January 1949, the northern one being the Ping-Jin Campaign, and the southern one being the Huai-Hai Campaign.

The Huaihai Campaign is usually divided into three main phases.

Phase 1

As ROC 6th and 7th armies started retreating to Xuzhou by crossing the grand canal, they were behind their original schedule. Lieutenant General [4]

Phase 2: 23 November to 6 January

With the 7th army gone, east of [4]

Phase 3

On December 15, the day which the 12th army was wiped out, the 16th army under General [4]

Aftermath and consequences

Because the majority of Chiang Kai-shek's Whampoa troops were lost during this campaign, his position in the ROC government was greatly weakened. Chiang's old political rivals such as Vice President Li Zongren and Defense Minister Bai Chongxi attacked him on his policies and forced him to resign 11 days later. The military strength of the communists were now dominant in North and Central China, and poised to conquer the entire country; the loss of ROC government's best troops and majority of their American equipment meant that they could no longer effectively defend the Yangtze river delta from further communist attacks. The American government under President Harry S. Truman completely lost faith in the corrupt ROC government, therefore refused to give any further military and financial aid, and hastened the collapse of ROC regime on the mainland.


Some experts say the actual casualty of communist army definitely surpasses the official number of 133,000; the names of a lot of soldiers killed in action were not recorded in Huaihai Campaign Museum, which has only some 30,000 names. One veteran launched a personal investigation into the casualty count after he discovered the official martyr number of his village was reduced to 40 in 1996 from 59 in 1995. He eventually discovered 83 soldiers killed in action from his village.[5]


In the 1980s, the CCP made three epic war movies called the Three Great Campaigns to commemorate their victories and propagate the view that they created a new China based on communism. The 2007 film Assembly was also based on the Huaihai Campaign. More recently the Shanghai Film Studio (上海电影制片厂) [6] made the 2009 film, The Founding of a Republic to commemorate the 60th year of the CCP; there was a scene dedicated to this campaign.

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^ 群众路线:中国共产党赶考路上的生命线
  3. ^ Lung Ying-tai, dajiang dahai 1949, Commonwealth Publishing Press, Taipei, 2009, p.184
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Bjorge, Gary. Moving the Enemy: Operational Art in the Chinese PLA’s Huai Hai Campaign (PDF). Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: Combat Studies Institute Press. 
  5. ^ 淮海战役实际阵亡人数是纪念馆数据的4倍?
  6. ^

External links

  • 粟裕與淮海戰役

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