Flag Coat of arms
Cum Deo pro Patria et Libertate! (Historically latin)
"With the help of God for Homeland and Freedom!"
Anthem: Himnusz
Location of  Hungary  (dark green)

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]

and largest city
Official languages Hungarian
Ethnic groups (2011[1])
Demonym Hungarian
Government Unitary parliamentary
constitutional republic
 -  President János Áder
 -  Prime Minister Viktor Orbán
 -  Speaker of the National Assembly László Kövér
Legislature Országgyűlés
(National Assembly)
 -  Principality of Hungary 895[2] 
 -  Christian Kingdom 25 December 1000[3] 
 -  Golden Bull of 1222 24 April 1222 
 -  Ottoman occupation
of Buda
29 August 1541 
 -  Hungarian Revolution 15 March 1848 
 -  Austro-Hungarian Compromise 20 March 1867 
 -  Treaty of Trianon 4 June 1920 
 -  Third Republic 23 October 1989 
 -  Joined the European Union 1 May 2004 
 -  Total 93,030[4] km2 (109th)
35,919 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 0.74%
 -  2014 estimate 9,877,365[5] (84th)
 -  2011 census 9,937,628[6]
 -  Density 107.2/km2 (94th)
279.0/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2014 estimate
 -  Total $202.356 billion[7] (57th)
 -  Per capita $20,455[7] (49th)
GDP (nominal) 2014 estimate
 -  Total $137.228 billion[7] (58th)
 -  Per capita $13,872[7] (57th)
Gini (2013) 28.0[8]
HDI (2013) Increase 0.831[9]
very high · 37th
Currency Forint (HUF)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Date format yyyy/mm/dd
Drives on the right
Calling code +36
Patron saint Saint Stephen
ISO 3166 code HU
Internet TLD .hua
a. Also .eu as part of the European Union.

Hungary (OECD, the Visegrád Group, and the Schengen Area. The official language is Hungarian, which is the most widely spoken non-Indo-European language in Europe.[11]

Following centuries of successive habitation by Celts, Romans, Huns, Slavs, Gepids, and Avars, the foundation of Hungary was laid in the late 9th century by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád in the Honfoglalás ("homeland-conquest"). His great-grandson Stephen I ascended to the throne in 1000 CE, converting the country to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a middle power within the Western world.[12] Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526 and about 150 years of partial Ottoman occupation (1541–1699), Hungary came under Habsburg rule, and later formed a significant part of the Austro–Hungarian Empire (1867–1918).

Hungary's current borders were first established by the Treaty of Trianon (1920) after World War I, when the country lost 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, and 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Following the interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary came under the influence of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a four-decade long communist dictatorship (1947–1989). The country gained widespread international attention regarding the Revolution of 1956 and the seminal opening of its previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989, which accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc.

On 23 October 1989, Hungary again became a democratic parliamentary republic, and is today an upper-middle income country with a very high Human Development Index.[13][14] Hungary is a popular tourist destination attracting 10.675 million tourists a year (2013).[15] It is home to the largest thermal water cave system[16] and the second largest thermal lake in the world (Lake Hévíz), the largest lake in Central Europe (Lake Balaton), and the largest natural grasslands in Europe (the Hortobágy National Park).


  • History 1
    • Before 895 1.1
    • Medieval Hungary 895–1526 1.2
      • Age of Árpádian kings 1.2.1
      • Age of elected kings 1.2.2
      • Decline of Hungary (1490–1526) 1.2.3
    • Ottoman wars 1526–1699 1.3
    • From the 18th century to World War I 1.4
      • The Period of Reforms 1.4.1
      • Revolution and War of Independence 1.4.2
      • Austria–Hungary 1867–1918 1.4.3
      • World War I 1914–1918 1.4.4
    • Between the World Wars 1918–1941 1.5
    • World War II 1941–1945 1.6
    • Communist era 1947–1989 1.7
      • Kádár era 1956–1988 1.7.1
    • Third Hungarian Republic 1989–present 1.8
  • Geography 2
    • Climate 2.1
  • Governance 3
    • Political parties 3.1
      • Parliamentary parties 3.1.1
    • Foreign relations 3.2
    • Administrative divisions 3.3
    • Military 3.4
  • Economy 4
  • Education 5
  • Science and technology 6
    • Hungarian inventions 6.1
  • Transport 7
  • Demographics 8
    • Languages 8.1
    • Ethnic groups 8.2
    • Religion 8.3
    • Urbanization 8.4
  • Culture 9
    • Architecture 9.1
    • Music 9.2
    • Literature 9.3
    • Cuisine 9.4
    • Recreation 9.5
    • Folk art 9.6
    • Porcelain 9.7
    • Sport 9.8
      • Football 9.8.1
  • See also 10
  • References 11
  • External links 12


Before 895

Italian fresco depicting a Hungarian warrior shooting backwards

The Roman Empire conquered the territory west of the Danube between 35 and 9 BC. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century Pannonia was part of the Roman Empire, located within part of later Hungary's territory. In 41–54 CE, a Roman legion of about 600 men settled in the Pannonian region; this settlement was named Aquincum. In the neighborhood of the military settlement a civil city grew gradually and in 106 CE Aquincum became the focal point of the commercial life of this area and the capital city of the Pannonian Inferior region. This area now corresponds to the Óbuda district of Budapest with the Roman ruins now forming part of the modern Aquincum museum.[17] Later came the Huns, who built a powerful empire. After Hunnish rule, the Germanic Ostrogoths, Lombards, and Gepids, and the polyethnic Avars, had a presence in the Carpathian Basin.[18]

In the late 9th century the land was inhabited mainly by Slavic peoples and Avars.[19] On the eve of the arrival of the Hungarians, East Francia, the First Bulgarian Empire and Great Moravia ruled the territory of the Carpathian Basin. Additionally, the Avars formed a significant part of the population of the Carpathian Basin at the end of the 9th century; both contemporary sources[20][21] and a growing number of archaeological evidence suggest that groups of the Avars survived the disintegration of their empire.

The freshly unified [23] According to linguists, they originated from an ancient Uralic-speaking population that formerly inhabited the forested area between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains.[24]

Medieval Hungary 895–1526

As a federation of united tribes, Hungary was established in 895, some 50 years after the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843, before the unification of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. Initially, the rising Principality of Hungary ("Western Tourkia" in medieval Greek sources)[25] was a state consisting of a semi-nomadic people. It accomplished an enormous transformation into a Christian realm during the 10th century.[26]

This state was well-functioning and the nation's military power allowed the Hungarians to conduct successful fierce campaigns and raids from Constantinople to as far as today's Spain.[26] The Hungarians defeated no fewer than three major East Frankish Imperial Armies between 907 and 910.[27] A later defeat at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955 signaled a provisory end to most campaigns on foreign territories, at least towards the West.

Age of Árpádian kings

King Saint Stephen, the first King of Hungary, converted the nation to Christianity
The Holy Crown (Szentkorona), one of the key symbols of Hungary

The year 972 marked the date when the ruling prince (Hungarian: fejedelem) Géza of the Árpád dynasty officially started to integrate Hungary into the Christian Western Europe.[28] His first-born son, Saint Stephen I, became the first King of Hungary after defeating his pagan uncle Koppány, who also claimed the throne. Under Stephen, Hungary was recognized as a Catholic Apostolic Kingdom.[29] Applying to Pope Sylvester II, Stephen received the insignia of royalty (including probably a part of the Holy Crown of Hungary, currently kept in the Hungarian Parliament) from the papacy.

By 1006, Stephen had consolidated his power, and started sweeping reforms to convert Hungary into a Western feudal state. The country switched to using the Latin language, and until as late as 1844, Latin remained the official language of Hungary. Hungary became a powerful kingdom.[30] Ladislaus I extended Hungary's frontier in Transylvania and invaded Croatia in 1091.[31][32][33][34] The Croatian campaign culminated in the Battle of Gvozd Mountain in 1097 and a personal union of Croatia and Hungary in 1102, ruled by Coloman i.e. Könyves Kálmán.[35]

The most powerful and wealthiest king of the Árpád dynasty was Béla III, who disposed of the equivalent of 23 tonnes of pure silver a year. This exceeded the income of the French king (estimated at 17 tonnes) and was double the receipts of the English Crown.[36]

Andrew II issued the Diploma Andreanum which secured the special privileges of the Transylvanian Saxons and is considered the first Autonomy law in the world.[37] He led the Fifth Crusade to the Holy Land in 1217, setting up the largest royal army in the history of Crusades. His Golden Bull of 1222 was the first constitution in Continental Europe. The lesser nobles also began to present Andrew with grievances, a practice that evolved into the institution of the parliament (parlamentum publicum).

In 1241–1242, the kingdom received a major blow with the Mongol (Tatar) Invasion. Up to half of Hungary's then population of 2,000,000 were victims of the invasion.[38] King Béla IV let Cumans and Jassic people into the country, who were fleeing the Mongols.[39] Over the centuries they were fully assimilated into the Hungarian population.[40]

As a consequence, after the Mongols retreated, King Béla ordered the construction of hundreds of stone castles and fortifications, to defend against a possible second Mongol invasion. The Mongols returned to Hungary in 1285, but the newly built stone-castle systems and new tactics (using a higher proportion of heavily armed knights) stopped them. The invading Mongol force was defeated[41] near Pest by the royal army of Ladislaus IV of Hungary. As with later invasions, it was repelled handily, the Mongols losing much of their invading force.

Age of elected kings

A map of lands ruled by Louis the Great
Western conquests of Matthias Corvinus
The Gothic-Renaissance Hunyad Castle in Transylvania (now Romania), built by King Charles I of Hungary

The Kingdom of Hungary reached one of its greatest extent during the Árpádian kings, yet royal power was weakened at the end of their rule in 1301. After a destructive period of interregnum (1301–1308), the first Angevin king, Charles I of Hungary – a bilineal descendant of the Árpád dynasty – successfully restored royal power, and defeated oligarch rivals, the so-called "little kings". The second Angevin Hungarian king, Louis the Great (1342–1382), led many successful military campaigns from Lithuania to Southern Italy (Kingdom of Naples), and was also King of Poland from 1370. After King Louis died without a male heir, the country was stabilized only when Sigismund of Luxembourg (1387–1437) succeeded to the throne, who in 1433 also became Holy Roman Emperor. Sigismund was also (in several ways) a bilineal descendant of the Árpád dynasty.

The first Hungarian Bible translation was completed in 1439. For half a year in 1437, there was an antifeudal and anticlerical peasant revolt in Transylvania, the Budai Nagy Antal Revolt, which was strongly influenced by Hussite ideas.

From a small noble family in Transylvania, John Hunyadi grew to become one of the country's most powerful lords, thanks to his outstanding capabilities as a mercenary commander. He was elected governor then regent. He was a successful crusader against the Ottoman Turks, one of his greatest victories being the Siege of Belgrade in 1456.

The last strong king of medieval Hungary was the Renaissance king Matthias Corvinus (1458–1490), son of John Hunyadi. His election was the first time that a member of the nobility mounted to the Hungarian royal throne without dynastic background. He was a successful military leader and an enlightened patron of the arts and learning.[42] His library, the Bibliotheca Corviniana, was Europe's greatest collection of historical chronicles, philosophic and scientific works in the 15th century, and second only in size to the Vatican Library. The library is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[43]

The serfs and common people considered him a just ruler because he protected them from excessive demands from and other abuses by the magnates.[44] Under his rule, in 1479, the Hungarian army destroyed the Ottoman and Wallachian troops at the Battle of Breadfield. Abroad he defeated the Polish and German imperial armies of Frederick at Breslau (Wrocław). Matthias' mercenary standing army, the Black Army of Hungary, was an unusually large army for its time, and it conquered parts of Austria, Vienna (1485) and parts of Bohemia.

Decline of Hungary (1490–1526)

King Matthias died without lawful sons, and the Hungarian magnates procured the accession of the Pole Vladislaus II (1490–1516), supposedly because of his weak influence on Hungarian aristocracy.[42] Hungary's international role declined, its political stability shaken, and social progress was deadlocked.[45] In 1514, the weakened old King Vladislaus II faced a major peasant rebellion led by György Dózsa, which was ruthlessly crushed by the nobles, led by John Zápolya.

The resulting degradation of order paved the way for Ottoman pre-eminence. In 1521, the strongest Hungarian fortress in the South, Nándorfehérvár (the Hungarian name of Belgrade, Serbia), fell to the Turks. The early appearance of Protestantism further worsened internal relations in the country.

Ottoman wars 1526–1699

Ottoman ravage in Hungary, 16th century
Painting commemorating the Siege of Eger, a major victory against the Ottomans

After some 150 years of wars with the Hungarians and other states, the Ottomans gained a decisive victory over the Hungarian army at the Battle of Mohács in 1526, where King Louis II died while fleeing. Amid political chaos, the divided Hungarian nobility elected two kings simultaneously, John Zápolya and Ferdinand I of the Habsburg dynasty.

With the conquest of Buda by the Turks in 1541, Hungary was divided into three parts and remained so until the end of the 17th century. The north-western part, termed as Royal Hungary, was annexed by the Habsburgs who ruled as Kings of Hungary. The eastern part of the kingdom became independent as the Principality of Transylvania, under Ottoman (and later Habsburg) suzerainty. The remaining central area, including the capital Buda, was known as the Pashalik of Buda.

The vast majority of the seventeen and nineteen thousands Ottoman soldiers in service in the Ottoman fortresses in the territory of Hungary were Orthodox and Muslim Balkan Slavs instead of ethnic Turkish people.[46] Orthodox Southern Slavs were also acting as akinjis and other light troops intended for pillaging in the territory of present-day Hungary.[47]

In 1686, the Holy League's army, containing over 74,000 men from various nations, reconquered Buda from the Turks. After some more crushing defeats of the Ottomans in the next few years, the entire Kingdom of Hungary was removed from Ottoman rule by 1718. The last raid into Hungary by the Ottoman vassals Tatars from Crimea took place in 1717.[48] The constrained Habsburg Counter-Reformation efforts in the 17th century reconverted the majority of the kingdom to Catholicism.

The ethnic composition of Hungary was fundamentally changed as a consequence of the prolonged warfare with the Turks. A large part of the country became devastated, population growth was stunted, and many smaller settlements perished.[49] The Austrian-Habsburg government settled large groups of Serbs and other Slavs in the depopulated south and settled Germans (called Danube Swabians) in various areas, but Hungarians were not allowed to settle or re-settle in the south of the Great Plain.[50]

From the 18th century to World War I

Francis II Rákóczi, leader of the uprising against Habsburg rule in 1703–11

Between 1703 and 1711, there was a large-scale uprising led by Francis II Rákóczi, who after the dethronement of the Habsburgs in 1707 at the Diet of Ónod, took power provisionally as the Ruling Prince of Hungary for the wartime period, but refused the Hungarian Crown and the title "King". The uprisings lasted for years. After 8 years of war with the Habsburg Empire, the Hungarian Kuruc army lost the last main battle at Trencsén (1708).[51]

The Period of Reforms

Count István Széchenyi offered one year's income to establish the Hungarian Academy of Sciences

During the Napoleonic Wars and afterwards, the Hungarian Diet had not convened for decades.[52] In the 1820s, the Emperor was forced to convene the Diet, which marked the beginning of a Reform Period (1825–1848, Hungarian: reformkor).

Count István Széchenyi, one of the most prominent statesmen of the country, recognized the urgent need of modernization and his message got through. The Hungarian Parliament was reconvened in 1825 to handle financial needs. A liberal party emerged and focused on providing for the peasantry. Lajos Kossuth – a famous journalist at that time – emerged as leader of the lower gentry in the Parliament. A remarkable upswing started as the nation concentrated its forces on modernization even though the Habsburg monarchs obstructed all important liberal laws relating to civil and political rights and economic reforms. Many reformers (Lajos Kossuth, Mihály Táncsics) were imprisoned by the authorities.

Revolution and War of Independence

On 15 March 1848, mass demonstrations in Pest and Buda enabled Hungarian reformists to push through a list of 12 demands. Under governor and president Lajos Kossuth and the first Prime Minister, Lajos Batthyány, the House of Habsburg was dethroned.

The Habsburg Ruler and his advisors skillfully manipulated the Croatian, Serbian and Romanian peasantry, led by priests and officers firmly loyal to the Habsburgs, and induced them to rebel against the Hungarian government, though the Hungarians were supported by the vast majority of the Slovak, German and Rusyn nationalities and by all the Jews of the kingdom, as well as by a large number of Polish, Austrian and Italian volunteers.[53] In July 1849 the Hungarian Parliament proclaimed and enacted the first laws of ethnic and minority rights in the world. Many members of the nationalities gained the coveted highest positions within the Hungarian Army, like General János Damjanich, an ethnic Serb who became a Hungarian national hero through his command of the 3rd Hungarian Army Corps or Józef Bem, who was Polish and also became a national hero in Hungary.

Lajos Kossuth, Regent-President during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848

Initially, the Hungarian forces (Honvédség) defeated Austrian armies. To counter the successes of the Hungarian revolutionary army, Habsburg Emperor Franz Joseph I asked for help from the "Gendarme of Europe", Czar Nicholas I, whose Russian armies invaded Hungary. This made Artúr Görgey surrender in August 1849. The leader of the Austrian army, Julius Jacob von Haynau, became governor of Hungary for a few months, and ordered the execution of the 13 Martyrs of Arad, leaders of the Hungarian army, and Prime Minister Batthyány in October 1849. Lajos Kossuth escaped into exile.

Following the war of 1848 – 1849, the whole country was in "passive resistance".

Austria–Hungary 1867–1918

Territories of the Kingdom of Hungary and the Kingdom of Croatia (green parts) within the Austro-Hungarian Empire

Because of external and internal problems, reforms seemed inevitable and major military defeats of Austria forced the Habsburgs to negotiate the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, by which the dual Monarchy of Austria–Hungary was formed. This Empire had the second largest area in Europe (after the Russian Empire), and it was the third most populous (after Russia and the German Empire). The two realms were governed separately by two parliaments from two capital cities, with a common monarch and common external and military policies. Economically, the empire was a customs union. The old Hungarian Constitution was restored, and Franz Joseph I was crowned as King of Hungary.

The era witnessed impressive economic development. The formerly backward Hungarian economy became relatively modern and industrialized by the turn of the 20th century, although agriculture remained dominant until 1890. In 1873, the old capital Buda and Óbuda were officially united with Pest,[54] thus creating the new metropolis of Budapest.

Many of the state institutions and the modern administrative system of Hungary were established during this period.

World War I 1914–1918

Hungarian built dreadnought battleship SMS Szent István in World War I

After the Assassination in Sarajevo, the Hungarian prime minister István Tisza and his cabinet tried to avoid the outbreak and escalating of a war in Europe, but their diplomatic efforts were unsuccessful.

Austria–Hungary drafted 9 million (fighting forces: 7.8 million) soldiers in World War I (over 4 million from the Kingdom of Hungary) on the side of Germany, Bulgaria and Turkey. The troops raised in the Kingdom of Hungary spent little time defending the actual territory of Hungary, with the exceptions of the Brusilov Offensive in June 1916, and a few months later, when the Romanian army made an attack into Transylvania, both of which were repelled. In comparison of the total army, Hungary's loss ratio was more than any other nations of Austria-Hungary.

The Central Powers conquered Serbia. Romania declared war. The Central Powers conquered Southern Romania and the Romanian capital Bucharest. In 1916 Emperor Franz Joseph died, and the new monarch Charles IV sympathized with the pacifists. With great difficulty, the Central powers stopped and repelled the attacks of the Russian Empire.

The Eastern front of the Allied (Entente) Powers completely collapsed. The Austro-Hungarian Empire then withdrew from all defeated countries. On the Italian front, the Austro-Hungarian army made no progress against Italy after January 1918. Despite great Eastern successes, Germany suffered complete defeat on the more important Western front.

By 1918, the economic situation had deteriorated (strikes in factories were organized by leftist and pacifist movements) and uprisings in the army had become commonplace. In the capital cities, the Austrian and Hungarian leftist liberal movements (the maverick parties) and their leaders supported the separatism of ethnic minorities. Austria-Hungary signed a general armistice in Padua on 3 November 1918.[55] In October 1918, Hungary's union with Austria was dissolved.

Between the World Wars 1918–1941

With the Treaty of Trianon, Hungary lost 72% of its territory, its sea ports and 3,425,000 ethnic Hungarians[56][57]
  Majority Hungarian areas (according to the 1910 census) detached from Hungary
Miklós Horthy, Regent of the Kingdom of Hungary (1920–1944)

The success of the 1918 Aster Revolution in Budapest brought Mihály Károlyi to power as prime minister and later as president of the first republic of Hungary. Károlyi ordered the full disarmament of the Hungarian Army, leaving Hungary without any national defence.

Romania took control of Transylvania and other parts of eastern Hungary, Czechoslovakia took control of the northern parts (also known as Upper Hungary), and a joint Serbian and French Army took control of the southern parts. These territories had majority populations of the respective occupying nations, but territories were occupied further than the ethnic boundaries, and so each had a significant Hungarian population as well. The post-War Entente backed the subsequent annexations of these territories.

In March 1919, the Communists took power in Hungary. In April, Béla Kun proclaimed the Hungarian Soviet Republic. Kun's government, like its immediate predecessor, proved to be short-lived. Despite some initial military successes against the Czechoslovakian Army, the Romanian Army defeated Kun's troops and took Budapest, ousting his regime.

On 4 June 1920, the Treaty of Trianon was signed, which established new borders for Hungary. Hungary lost 71% of its territory and 66% of its population. About one-third of the ethnic Hungarian population (3.4 of 10 million Hungarians) became minorities in neighboring countries. The new borders separated Hungary's industrial base from its sources of raw materials, and Hungary also lost its only sea port at Fiume (today Rijeka). The revision of the Treaty of Trianon rose to the top of Hungary's political agenda. Some wanted to restore the full pre-Trianon area, others only the ethnic Hungarian majority territories.

Rightist Hungarian military forces, led by the former Austro-Hungarian Admiral Miklós Horthy, entered Budapest in the wake of the Romanian Army's departure and filled the vacuum of state power. In January 1920, elections were held for a unicameral assembly. Admiral Horthy was elected Regent, thereby formally restoring the monarchy to Hungary. However, there would be no more kings of Hungary despite attempts by the former Habsburg ruler Charles IV to return to his former seat of power. Horthy ruled as Regent until 16 October 1944. Hungary remained a parliamentary democracy, but after 1932, autocratic tendencies gradually returned as a result of Nazi influence and the Great Depression.

World War II 1941–1945

Kingdom of Hungary, 1941–44

The Germans and Italians granted Hungary a part of southern Czechoslovakia and Subcarpathia in the First Vienna Award of 1938. In early 1939 Hungary occupied the rest of Subcarpathia and, following the Slovak–Hungarian War, part of eastern Slovakia. Northern Transylvania was occupied following the Second Vienna Award of 1940. In 1941, the Hungarian army took part in the invasion of Yugoslavia, regaining some more territories. On 22 June 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union under Operation Barbarossa. On 26 June, unidentified planes bombed the regained cities of Kassa, Munkács, and Rahó; as a response the next day Prime Minister László Bárdossy declared war on the Soviet Union, and formally entered World War II on the side of the Axis Powers. In late 1941, the Hungarian troops on the Eastern Front experienced success at the Battle of Uman.[58]

In 1943, after the Hungarian Second Army suffered extremely heavy losses at the River Don, the Hungarian government sought to negotiate a surrender with the Allies. On 19 March 1944, as a result of this duplicity, German troops occupied Hungary in what was known as Operation Margarethe. As the front reached Hungary, Miklós Horthy made a token effort to disengage Hungary from the war on 15 October 1944, but he was replaced by a puppet government under the pro-German Prime Minister Ferenc Szálasi of the Arrow Cross Party.[58]

Jewish women being arrested on Wesselényi Street in Budapest during The Holocaust, ca. 20–22 October 1944

The newly established fascist regime pledged all the country's capabilities in service of the German war machine. By October 1944, the Eastern Front was moving towards the river Tisza. Although the German and Hungarian troops experienced success at the Battle of Debrecen, it only delayed the advancing Soviet armies. By the end of December the soviets encircled the capital city - beginning the two months long Battle of Budapest.

During the Holocaust in Hungary and especially during the period of German occupation in May–June 1944, the fascist Arrow Cross Party and Hungarian police deported nearly 440,000 Jews, most to Auschwitz extermination camp, and nearly all were murdered.[59] The Swedish Diplomat Raoul Wallenberg managed to save a considerable number of Hungarian Jews by giving them Swedish passports.[60] Rudolf Kastner (original spelling Kasztner), one of the leaders of the Hungarian Aid and Rescue Committee, negotiated with senior SS officers such as Adolf Eichmann to allow a number of Jews to escape in exchange for money, gold, and diamonds.[61][62][63] Other diplomats also organized false papers and safe houses for Jews in Budapest and hundreds of Hungarian people were executed by the Arrow Cross Party for sheltering Jews.

The Széchenyi Chain Bridge and the Buda Castle in ruins after World War II (1946)

The war left Hungary devastated, destroying over 60% of the economy and causing significant loss of life. As many as 280,000[64][65] Hungarians were raped, murdered and executed or deported for slave labor by Czechoslovaks,[66][67][68][69][70][71] Soviet Red Army troops,[72][73][74] and Yugoslavs.[75]

On 13 February 1945, the Hungarian capital city surrendered unconditionally, two months later the last German troops were pushed out of Hungary, and the Soviet occupation was complete. After the war and by the agreement between the Czechoslovakian president Edvard Beneš and Joseph Stalin, expulsions of 200,000 Hungarians from Czechoslovakia and 70,000 Slovaks from Hungary started. 202,000 (two thirds) of the ethnic Germans were also expelled to Germany pursuant to article XIII of the Potsdam Protocol of 2 August 1945.[76]

All the territories regained with the Vienna Awards and during World War II were again lost by Hungary with the Paris Peace Treaty in 1947.

Communist era 1947–1989

A destroyed Soviet tank in Budapest during the 1956 Revolution; Time's Man of the Year for 1956 was the Hungarian Freedom Fighter[77]

Following the fall of Nazi Germany, Soviet troops occupied the entire country with the goal of forming Hungary into a communist satellite state of the Soviet Union. The Soviet leadership selected Mátyás Rákosi to helm the Stalinization of the country; his government's policies of militarization, industrialization, collectivization, and war compensation led to a severe decline in living standards. In imitation of Stalin's KGB, the Rákosi government established a secret political police, the ÁVH, to enforce the new regime. The purges that followed saw approximately 350,000 officials and intellectuals were imprisoned or executed from 1948 to 1956.[78] Many freethinkers and democrats were secretly arrested and taken to inland or foreign concentration camps without any judicial sentence. According to some estimates some 600,000 Hungarians were deported to Soviet labor camps, and at least 200,000 died in captivity.[79]

After Stalin's death in 1953, the Soviet Union pursued a program of destalinization that was inimical to Rákosi, leading to the latter's deposition from the premiership. The following political cooling saw the ascent of Imre Nagy to the premiership and the growing interest of students and intellectuals in political life. Nagy promised market liberalization and political openness, while Rákosi opposed both vigorously. Rákosi eventually managed to discredit Nagy and replace him with the more hard-line Ernő Gerő. Hungary joined the Warsaw Pact in May 1955 as societal dissatisfaction with the regime swelled. Following Soviet soldiers and secret police firing on peaceful demonstrations and rallies throughout the country on 23 October 1956, protesters took the streets in Budapest, inciting the 1956 Revolution. In an effort to quell the chaos, Nagy resumed the premiership, promised free elections, and pulled Hungary from the Warsaw Pact.

Nonetheless the violence continued as revolutionary militias sprung up against the Soviet Army and the ÁVH; the roughly 3,000-strong resistance fought Soviet tanks using Molotov cocktails and machine pistols. Though the preponderance of the Soviets was immense, they suffered heavy losses, and by 30 October, most Soviet troops had withdrawn from Budapest to garrison the Hungarian countryside. For a time, the Soviet leadership was unsure how to respond to developments in Hungary, but soon decided to intervene to prevent Hungary from breaking away from the Soviet bloc. On November 4 reinforcements of more than 150,000 troops and 2,500 tanks entered the country from Soviet Union.[80] Nearly 20,000 Hungarians were killed resisting the intervention while an additional 21,600 were imprisoned afterwards for political reasons with 13,000 interned and 230 brought to trial and executed. Nagy was captured, only to be executed later in 1958. Because borders had been briefly open, nearly a quarter of a million people fled the country by the time the revolution was suppressed.[81]

Kádár era 1956–1988

János Kádár, General Secretary of MSZMP, the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party (1956–1988)

After a brief period of Soviet military occupation, János Kádár, Nagy's former Minister of State, was chosen by the Soviet leadership to act as the head of the new government. Kádár quickly normalized the situation. In 1963, the government granted a general amnesty and released the majority of those imprisoned for their active participation in the uprising. Kádár proclaimed a new policy line, according to which the people were no longer compelled to profess loyalty to the party if they tacitly accepted the Socialist regime as a fact of life. In many speeches, he described this as, "Those who are not against us are with us." Kádár introduced new planning priorities in the economy, such as allowing farmers significant plots of private land within the collective farm system (háztáji gazdálkodás). The living standard rose as consumer good and food production took precedence over military production, which was reduced to one-tenth of the pre-revolutionary level.

This was followed in 1968 by the New Economic Mechanism (NEM), which introduced free-market elements into Socialist command economy. From the 1960s through the late 1980s, Hungary was often referred to as "the happiest barrack" within the Eastern bloc. During the latter part of the Cold War Hungary's GDP per capita was fourth only to East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and the Soviet Union itself.[82] As a result of this relatively high standard of living, a more liberalised economy, a less censored press, and less restricted travel rights, Hungary was generally considered one of the more liberal countries in which to live in Eastern Europe during communism. In the 1980s, however, living standards steeply declined yet again due to a worldwide recession to which communism was unable to respond.[83] By the time Kádár died in 1989, the Soviet Union was in steep decline and a younger generation of reformists saw liberalization as the solution to economic and social issues.

Third Hungarian Republic 1989–present

Hungary acceded to the European Union in 2004.

Hungarian history since the fall of communism has been marked by turbulent shifts in the political landscape. In 1989, reformers within the Communist Party agreed to "round table" talks with notable opposition leaders, laying the groundwork for multi-party democracy and a free market economy. That May, Hungary began taking down its barbed wire fence along the Austrian border – the first tear in the Iron Curtain — and in the first free elections in 1990, the centre-right Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF) led by József Antall won an overwhelming majority in the Parliament with a clear mandate.

The MDF advocated a gradual transition towards open markets, but the economic changes of the early 1990s resulted in declining living standards for most people in Hungary. In 1991 most state subsidies were removed, leading to a severe recession exacerbated by the fiscal austerity necessary to reduce inflation and stimulate investment. The Hungarian Socialist Party (MSzP), consisting in large part of former communists such as its leader Gyula Horn, won the 1994 elections and formed a coalition government with the Free Democrats (SzDSz). The tide turned yet again four years later with the center-right Fidesz winning its first mandate under Viktor Orbán's leadership.

During this period, all four main political parties advocated economic liberalization and closer ties with the West. Hungary joined NATO in 1999, followed almost immediately thereafter by its involvement in the Yugoslav Wars. In 1998, the European Union began negotiations with Hungary on full membership. In a 2003 national referendum, 85% voted in favor of Hungary acceding to the European Union, which followed on 1 May 2004.

Fidesz lost the 2002 election and MSzP and SzDSz formed a coalition government for the second time. MSzP was the first government to be reelected since communist rule in the subsequent 2006 election, but turmoil ensued when a speech by Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány was leaked to the media that May. Extensive protests followed in Budapest and other cities, exacerbated by the fiftieth anniversary of the 1956 Revolution. Gyurcsány resigned from office in 2009. The 2008 global financial crisis caused a severe recession in the economy of Hungary. Following the resignation of Gyurcsány, Gordon Bajnai and the Socialists formed a technocratic minority government, which was externally supported by SZDSZ.

The 2010 election saw the current Prime Minister Viktor Orbán's alliance of Fidesz and Christian Democrats win a supermajority in Parliament. Though Orbán had led the government from 1998 to 2002, his second premiership has been decidedly more conservative. Using its supermajority, the new government adopted a new constitution in 2012 that modified several aspects of the institutional and legal framework in Hungary. These changes have been the target of international criticism.[84] Fidesz won a second supermajority in the 2014 election under new electoral laws.[85]


A flock of Racka sheep in the Fertő-Hanság National Park

Hungary's geography has traditionally been defined by its two main waterways, the Danube and Tisza rivers. The common tripartite division of the country into three sections—Dunántúl ("beyond the Danube", Transdanubia), Tiszántúl ("beyond the Tisza"), and Duna-Tisza köze ("between the Danube and Tisza")—is a reflection of this. The Danube flows north-south right through the center of contemporary Hungary, and the entire country lies within its drainage basin.

Transdanubia, which stretches eastward from the center of the country toward Austria, is a primarily hilly region with a terrain varied by low mountains. These include the very eastern stretch of the Alps, Alpokalja, in the west of the country, the Transdanubian Mountains in the central region of Transdanubia, and the Mecsek Mountains and Villány Mountains in the south. The highest point of the area is the Írott-kő in the Alps, at 882 metres (2,894 ft). The Little Hungarian Plain (Kisalföld) is found in northern Transdanubia. Lake Balaton and Lake Hévíz, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest thermal lake in the world, respectively, are in Transdanubia as well.

The Duna-Tisza köze and Tiszántúl are characterized mainly by the Great Hungarian Plain (Alföld), which stretches across most of the eastern and southeastern areas of the country. To the north of the Plain are the foothills of the Carpathians in a wide band near the Slovakian border. The Kékes at 1,014 m or 3,327 ft is the tallest mountain in Hungary and is found here.

Phytogeographically, Hungary belongs to the Central European province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the WWF, the territory of Hungary belongs to the ecoregion of Pannonian mixed forests.

Hungary has 10 national parks, 145 minor nature reserves and 35 landscape protection areas.


Hungary has a continental climate,[86] with hot summers with low overall humidity levels but frequent rainshowers and mildly cold snowy winters. Average annual temperature is 9.7 °C (49.5 °F). Temperature extremes are about 41.9 °C (107.4 °F) on 20 July 2007 at Kiskunhalas in the summer and −35 °C (−31.0 °F) on 16 February 1940 Miskolc-Görömbölytapolca in the winter. Average high temperature in the summer is 23 to 28 °C (73 to 82 °F) and average low temperature in the winter is −3 to −7 °C (27 to 19 °F). The average yearly rainfall is approximately 600 mm (23.6 in). A small, southern region of the country near Pécs enjoys a reputation for a Mediterranean climate, but in reality it is only slightly warmer than the rest of the country and still receives snow during the winter.

Hungary is ranked sixth in an environmental protection index by GW/CAN.[87]


The Hungarian Parliament in Budapest

Hungary is a Országgyűlés, or National Assembly, every four years. Up until 2012, 386 MPs were elected to the National Assembly in two rounds of voting guaranteeing proportional representation with an election threshold of 5%. In 2012, the new Constitution lowered the number of MPs to 199 and instituted a first-past-the-post election with a single round.

The Prime Minister (miniszterelnök) serves as the head of government and is elected by the National Assembly. Therefore, traditionally, the Prime Minister is the leader of the party with the most seats in parliament. The Prime Minister selects Cabinet ministers and has the exclusive right to dismiss them. Cabinet nominees must appear before consultative open hearings before one or more parliamentary committees, survive a vote in the National Assembly, and be formally approved by the President.

The President of the Republic (köztársasági elnök or less formally: államelnök or államfő) serves as the head of state and is elected by the National Assembly every five years. The President has a largely ceremonial role. He receives foreign heads of state and formally nominates the Prime Minister at the recommendation of the National Assembly. He is also the Commander-in-Chief of the country's armed forces. Importantly, the President may veto a piece of legislation or send it to the 15-member Constitutional Court for review.

The Hungarian government operates according to its Basic Law, which was adopted by the governing parties two-thirds majority in 2012 but based on the post-war Constitution of West Germany.

Political parties

Since the fall of communism Hungary has had a multi-party system. The current political landscape in Hungary is dominated by the conservative Fidesz, who have a supermajority, and two medium-sized parties, the left-wing Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) and nationalist Jobbik.

Parliamentary parties

Steadily Fidesz SMCs (inset shows Budapest)
Steadily MSZP SMCs
Name Ideology MPs MEPs
Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Union
Fidesz – Magyar Polgári Szövetség
Fidesz Conservatism
National conservatism
117 11
Hungarian Socialist Party
Magyar Szocialista Párt
MSZP Social democracy 29 2
Jobbik (Movement for a Better Hungary)
Jobbik Magyarországért Mozgalom
Jobbik Hungarian nationalism
Political radicalism
23 3
Christian Democratic People's Party
Kereszténydemokrata Néppárt
KDNP Christian democracy
National conservatism
Social conservatism
16 1
Politics Can Be Different
Lehet Más a Politika
LMP Green liberalism 5 1
Democratic Coalition
Demokratikus Koalíció
DK Social liberalism 4 2
Together 2014
Együtt 2014
E14 Social democracy
Social liberalism
3 0
Dialogue for Hungary
Párbeszéd Magyarországért
PM Green liberalism 1 1
Hungarian Liberal Party
Magyar Liberális Párt
MLP Liberalism 1 0

Foreign relations

Since 1990, Hungary's top foreign policy goal has been achieving integration into Western economic and security organizations. Hungary joined the Partnership for Peace program in 1994 and has actively supported the IFOR and SFOR missions in Bosnia. Hungary was invited to join both the NATO and the European Union in 1997. It became a member of NATO in 1999, and a member of the EU in 2004. Hungary took on the presidency of the Council of the European Union for half a year in 2011.

Hungary also has improved its often frosty neighborly relations by signing basic treaties with Romania, Slovakia, and Ukraine. These renounce all outstanding territorial claims and lay the foundation for constructive relations. However, the issue of ethnic Hungarian minority rights in Romania, Slovakia and Serbia periodically causes bilateral tensions to flare up. Hungary was a signatory to the OSCE follow-on documents since 1989, and served as the OSCE's chairman-in-Office in 1997. Hungary's record of implementing CSCE Helsinki Final Act provisions, including those on reunification of divided families, remains among the best in Central and Eastern Europe. Hungary has been a member of the United Nations since December 1955.

Administrative divisions

Administratively, Hungary is divided into 19 counties (megye, plural megyék). In addition, the capital (főváros), Budapest, is independent of any county government. The counties and the capital are the 20 NUTS third-level units of Hungary. The counties are further subdivided into 198 ridings (járás, plural járások) as of 1 January 2013. There are also 23 towns with county rights (singular megyei jogú város), sometimes known as "urban counties" in English (although there is no such term in Hungarian). The local authorities of these towns have extended powers, but these towns belong to the territory of the respective county instead of being independent territorial units.

Since 1996, the counties and City of Budapest have been grouped into 7 regions for statistical and development purposes. These seven regions constitute NUTS' second-level units of Hungary. They are: Central Hungary, Central Transdanubia, Northern Great Plain, Northern Hungary, Southern Transdanubia, Southern Great Plain, Western Transdanubia.

Population Region
Bács-Kiskun Kecskemét 524,841 Southern Great Plain
Baranya Pécs 391,455 Southern Transdanubia
Békés Békéscsaba 361,802 Southern Great Plain
Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Miskolc 684,793 Northern Hungary
Capital City of Budapest Budapest 1,744,665 Central Hungary
Csongrád Szeged 421,827 Southern Great Plain
Fejér Székesfehérvár 426,120 Central Transdanubia
Győr-Moson-Sopron Győr 449,967 Western Transdanubia
Hajdú-Bihar Debrecen 565,674 Northern Great Plain
Heves Eger 307,985 Northern Hungary
Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok Szolnok 386,752 Northern Great Plain
Komárom-Esztergom Tatabánya 311,411 Central Transdanubia
Nógrád Salgótarján 201,919 Northern Hungary
Pest Budapest 1,237,561 Central Hungary
Somogy Kaposvár 317,947 Southern Transdanubia
Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg Nyíregyháza 552,000 Northern Great Plain
Tolna Szekszárd 231,183 Southern Transdanubia
Vas Szombathely 257,688 Western Transdanubia
Veszprém Veszprém 353,068 Central Transdanubia
Zala Zalaegerszeg 287,043 Western Transdanubia


Hungarian special forces soldiers (KMZ)
JAS 39s of the Hungarian Air Force

The Military of Hungary, or "Hungarian Armed Forces", currently has two branches, the "Hungarian Ground Force" and the "Hungarian Air Force". The Hungarian Ground Force (or Army) is known as the "Corps of Homeland Defenders" (Honvédség). This term was originally used to refer to the revolutionary army established by Lajos Kossuth and the National Defence Committee of the Revolutionary Hungarian Diet in September 1848 during the Hungarian Revolution.

Hussar: A type of irregular light horsemen was already well established by the 15th century in medieval Hungary. Hussar (huszár) refers to a number of types of light cavalry created in Hungary[88] in the 15th century and used throughout Europe and even in America since the 18th century. Some modern military units retain the title 'hussar' for reasons of tradition.

In 1997, Hungary spent about 123 billion HUF ($560 million) on defense. Hungary became a member of NATO on 12 March 1999. Hungary provided airbases and support for NATO's air campaign against Serbia and has provided military units to serve in Kosovo as part of the NATO-led KFOR operation. Hungary sent a 300-strong logistics unit to Iraq in order to help the US occupation with armed transport convoys, though public opinion opposed the country's participation in the war. One soldier was killed in action because of a roadside bomb in Iraq. The parliament refused to extend the one-year mandate of the logistics unit, and all troops had returned from Iraq by mid-January 2005.

Hungarian troops are still in Afghanistan as of early 2014 to assist in peace-keeping and de-talibanization. Hungary will most probably replace its old GAZ 4x4 vehicles with the modern Iveco LMV types. Hungarian forces deploy the Gepárd anti-materiel rifle, which is a heavy 12.7 mm (0.50 in) portable gun. This equipment is also in use by the Turkish and Croatian armed forces, among other armies.

New transport helicopter purchases are on the list before. Most probably this will happen before 2015.

In a significant move for modernization, Hungary decided in 2001 to buy 14 JAS 39 Gripen fighter aircraft (the contract includes 2 dual-seater airplanes and 12 single-seaters as well as ground maintenance facilities, a simulator, and training for pilots and ground crews) for 210 billion HUF (about 800 million EUR). Five Gripens (3 single-seaters and 2 two-seaters) arrived in Kecskemét on 21 March 2006, expected to be transferred to the Hungarian Air Force on 30 March. 10 or 14 more aircraft of this type might follow up in the coming years.

Hungary has one of the heaviest and most qualified warship battalion in East-Central Europe, only Hungary operates river-based military forces of the surrounding NATO-members. The Home Defence Pyrotechnician and Warship Battalion of the Hungarian Defence Forces based in Újpest Port, on the River Danube, Budapest. In the 2000s (decade), the army bought new minesweepers, restored or retired the old ones. On national holidays warships come along the River Danube in Budapest.[89][90][91]

According to the 2014 Global Peace Index, Hungary is one of the world's most peaceful countries (21st on the list).

Royal castle – Budapest


Banknotes and coins of the Hungarian forint.
Hungary is a member of the Schengen Area and the EU single market.

The economy of Hungary is a medium-sized, Upper-middle-income, structurally, politically and institutionally open economy, which is part of the European Union's (EU)

  • Official site of the National Assembly
  • Chief of State and Cabinet Members
  • Hungary entry at The World Factbook
  • Hungary at UCB Libraries GovPubs.
  • Hungary at DMOZ
  • Hungary profile from the BBC News.
  • Geographic data related to Hungary at OpenStreetMap
  • History of Hungary: Primary Documents
  • History of Hungary from The Corvinus Library.
  • In The Land of Hagar: The Jews of Hungary (virtual exhibition).
  • Agricultural land use profile
  • Details on Hungary’s new Constitution

External links

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Library of Congress Country Studies.

  1. ^ a b c 2011 Hungary Census Report
  2. ^ Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 1, Scholastic Library Pub., 2006, p. 581
  3. ^ University of British Columbia. Committee for Medieval Studies, Studies in medieval and renaissance history, Committee for Medieval Studies, University of British Columbia, 1980, p. 159
  4. ^ "Hungary". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 27 March 2,014. 
  5. ^ "Population by type of settlement - annually".  
  6. ^ Hungarian Central Statistical Office Census Data 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
  7. ^ a b c d "Hungary". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 16 March 2014. 
  8. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income (source: SILC)". Eurostat Data Explorer. Retrieved 13 August 2013. 
  9. ^ "Human Development Report 2012". United Nations. 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2013. 
  10. ^ "Geography ::Hungary". Retrieved 31 August 2011. 
  11. ^ Globally speaking: motives for adopting English vocabulary in other languages – Google Books. Google Books. Retrieved 20 September 2010. 
  12. ^ Kristó Gyula – Barta János – Gergely Jenő: Magyarország története előidőktől 2000-ig (History of Hungary from the prehistory to 2000), Pannonica Kiadó, Budapest, 2002, ISBN 963-9252-56-5, p. 687, pp. 37, pp. 113 ("Magyarország a 12. század második felére jelentős európai tényezővé, középhatalommá vált."/"By the 12th century Hungary became an important European constituent, became a middle power.", "A Nyugat részévé vált Magyarország.../Hungary became part of the West"), pp. 616–644
  13. ^ Country and Lending Groups | Data. Retrieved on 2014-08-11.
  14. ^ United Nations Development Programme: Human Development Report, 2014 [1]
  15. ^ "UNWTO World Tourism Barometer". World Tourism Organization. Retrieved 20 August 2014. 
  16. ^ "Search – Global Edition – The New York Times". International Herald Tribune. 29 March 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009. 
  17. ^ "Aquincum". Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  18. ^ "The Avar Khaganate". 31 May 2007. Retrieved 20 September 2009. 
  19. ^ A Country Study: Hungary. Federal Research Division,  
  20. ^ For example, the Abbot Regino of Prüm mentions the plains of the Pannons and the Avars; Kristó, Gyula op. cit. (1993) pp. 96.
  21. ^ a b A Country Study: Hungary. Federal Research Division,  
  22. ^ Encyclopedia Americana 24.. 370: Grolier Incorporated. 2000. 
  23. ^ a b "Magyar (Hungarian) migration, 9th century". Retrieved 20 September 2009. 
  24. ^ Origins and Language. Source: U.S. Library of Congress.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  25. ^ Peter B. Golden, Nomads and their neighbours in the Russian steppe: Turks, Khazars and Qipchaqs, Ashgate/Variorum, 2003. "Tenth-century Byzantine sources, speaking in cultural more than ethnic terms, acknowledged a wide zone of diffusion by referring to the Khazar lands as 'Eastern Tourkia' and Hungary as 'Western Tourkia.'" Carter Vaughn Findley, The Turks in the World History, Oxford University Press, 2005, p. 51, citing Peter B. Golden, 'Imperial Ideology and the Sources of Political Unity Amongst the Pre-Činggisid Nomads of Western Eurasia,' Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi 2 (1982), 37–76.
  26. ^ a b Stephen Wyley (30 May 2001). "The Magyars of Hungary". Archived from the original on 21 October 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009. 
  27. ^ Peter Heather, Empires and Barbarians, Pan Macmillan, 2011
  28. ^ Attila Zsoldos, Saint Stephen and his country: a newborn kingdom in Central Europe: Hungary, Lucidus, 2001, p. 40
  29. ^ Asia Travel Europe. "Hungaria Travel Information | Asia Travel Europe". Retrieved 21 November 2008. 
  30. ^ James Minahan, One Europe, many nations: a historical dictionary of European national groups, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000, p. 310
  31. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 2002. Retrieved 18 November 2012. 
  32. ^ "Marko Marelic: The Byzantine and Slavic worlds". 
  33. ^ "Hungary in American History Textbooks". 
  34. ^ "Hungary, facts and history in brief". 
  35. ^ Ladislav Heka (October 2008). "Hrvatsko-ugarski odnosi od sredinjega vijeka do nagodbe iz 1868. s posebnim osvrtom na pitanja Slavonije" [Croatian-Hungarian relations from the Middle Ages to the Compromise of 1868, with a special survey of the Slavonian issue]. Scrinia Slavonica (in Croatian) (Hrvatski institut za povijest – Podružnica za povijest Slavonije, Srijema i Baranje) 8 (1): 152–173.  
  36. ^ A concise history of Hungary – Google Books. Google Books. Retrieved 20 September 2009. 
  37. ^ "" (PDF). Retrieved 25 November 2010. 
  38. ^ The Mongol invasion: the last Arpad kings, Encyclopædia Britannica – "The country lost about half its population, the incidence ranging from 60 percent in the Alföld (100 percent in parts of it) to 20 percent in Transdanubia; only parts of Transylvania and the northwest came off fairly lightly."
  39. ^ Autonomies in Europe and Hungary. (PDF). By Józsa Hévizi.
  40. ^ cs. "National and historical symbols of Hungary". Retrieved 20 September 2009. 
  41. ^ Pál Engel, Tamás Pálosfalvi, Andrew Ayton: The Realm of St. Stephen: A History of Medieval Hungary, 895–1526, I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd, London, pp. 109 [2]
  42. ^ a b "Hungary – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Retrieved 21 November 2008. 
  43. ^ "Hungary – The Bibliotheca Corviniana Collection: UNESCO-CI". Archived from the original on 18 March 2008. Retrieved 21 November 2008. 
  44. ^ "Hungary – Renaissance And Reformation". Retrieved 20 September 2009. 
  45. ^ "A Country Study: Hungary". Retrieved 20 September 2009. 
  46. ^ Laszlo Kontler, "A History of Hungary" p. 145
  47. ^ Inalcik Halil: "The Ottoman Empire"
  48. ^ Géza Dávid, Pál Fodor (2007). "Ransom slavery along the Ottoman borders: early fifteenth-early eighteenth centuries". BRILL. p.203. ISBN 90-04-15704-2
  49. ^ Csepeli, Gyorgy (2 June 2009). "The changing facets of Hungarian nationalism – Nationalism Reexamined | Social Research | Find Articles at BNET". Retrieved 20 September 2009. 
  50. ^ "Ch7-1" (PDF). Retrieved 20 September 2009. 
  51. ^ Paul Lendvai, The Hungarians: a thousand years of victory in defeat, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2003 Google Books
  52. ^ Peter N Stearns, The Oxford encyclopedia of the modern world, Volume 4, Oxford University Press, 2008, p. 64
  53. ^ Géza Jeszenszky: From "Eastern Switzerland" to Ethnic Cleansing, address at Duquesne History Forum, 17 November 2000, The author is former Ambassador of Hungary to the United States and was Foreign Minister in 1990 – 1994.
  54. ^ Kinga Frojimovics, Géza Komoróczy, Jewish Budapest: monuments, rites, history, Central European University Press, 1999 p.67 Google Books
  55. ^ François Bugnion, International Committee of the Red Cross, The International Committee of the Red Cross and the protection of war victims, Macmillan Education, 2003 Google Books
  56. ^ Molnar, A Concise History of Hungary, p. 262 online
  57. ^ Richard C. Frucht, Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture p. 359-360 online
  58. ^ a b J. Lee Ready (1995), World War Two. Nation by Nation, London, Cassell, page 130. ISBN 1-85409-290-1
  59. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum; Holocaust Encyclopedia". Retrieved 20 September 2009. 
  60. ^ Alfred de Zayas "Raoul Wallenberg" in Dinah Shelton Encyclopedia of Genocide (Macmillan Reference 2005, vol. 3)
  61. ^ Braham, Randolph (2004): Rescue Operations in Hungary: Myths and Realities, East European Quarterly 38(2): 173–203.
  62. ^ Bauer, Yehuda (1994): Jews for Sale?, Yale University Press.
  63. ^ Bilsky, Leora (2004): Transformative Justice: Israeli Identity on Trial (Law, Meaning, and Violence), University of Michigan Press.
  64. ^ Prauser, Steffen; Rees, Arfon (December 2004). "The Expulsion of 'German' Communities from Eastern Europe at the end of the Second World War". EUI Working Paper HEC No. 2004/1. San Domenico, Florence: European University Institute. Retrieved 2013-08-05. 
  65. ^ Tibor Cseres: Serbian vendetta in Bacska
  66. ^ University of Chicago. Division of the Social Sciences, Human Relations Area Files, inc, A study of contemporary Czechoslovakia, University of Chicago for the Human Relations Area Files, inc., 1955, Citation 'In January 1947 the Hungarians complained that Magyars were being carried off from Slovakia to Czech lands for forced labor.'
  67. ^ Istvan S. Pogany, Righting wrongs in Eastern Europe, Manchester University Press ND, 1997, p.202 Google Books
  68. ^ Alfred J. Rieber, Forced migration in Central and Eastern Europe, 1939–1950, Routledge, 2000, p. 50 Google Books – "A presidential decree imposing an obligation on individuals not engaged in useful work to accept jobs served as the basis for this action. As a result, according to documentation in the ministry of foreign affairs of the USSR, approximately 50,000 Hungarians were sent to work in factories and agricultural enterprises in the Czech Republic."
  69. ^ Canadian Association of Slavists, Revue canadienne des slavistes, Volume 25, Canadian Association of Slavists., 1983
  70. ^ S. J. Magyarody, The East-central European Syndrome: Unsolved conflict in the Carpathian Basin, Matthias Corvinus Pub., 2002
  71. ^ Anna Fenyvesi, Hungarian language contact outside Hungary: studies on Hungarian as a minority language, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2005, p. 50 Google Books
  72. ^ Norman M. Naimark, The Russians in Germany: a history of the Soviet Zone of occupation, 1945–1949, Harvard University Press, 1995, p. 70 Google Books
  73. ^ László Borhi, Hungary in the Cold War, 1945–1956: between the United States and the Soviet Union, Central European University Press, 2004, p. 57 Google Books
  74. ^ Richard Bessel, Dirk Schumann, Life after death: approaches to a cultural and social history of Europe during the 1940s and 1950s, Cambridge University Press, 2003, p. 142 Google Books
  75. ^ Tibor Cseres, Titoist atrocities in Vojvodina, 1944–1945: Serbian vendetta in Bácska, Hunyadi Pub., 1993 Google Books
  76. ^ Alfred de Zayas "A Terrible Revenge" (Palgrave/Macmillan 2006)
  77. ^ "Man of the Year, The Land and the People". Time. 7 January 1957. Retrieved 9 October 2006. 
  78. ^ "Granville/ frm" (PDF). Retrieved 20 September 2009. 
  79. ^ "Hungary's 'forgotten' war victims". BBC News. 7 November 2009. Retrieved 4 February 2010. 
  80. ^ Findley, Carter V., and John Rothney. Twentieth Century World. sixth ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2006. 278.
  81. ^ "Hungary's 1956 brain drain", BBC News, 23 October 2006
  82. ^ Madison 2006, p. 185
  83. ^ Watkins, Theyer. "Economic History and the Economy of Hungary". San José State University Department of Economics. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  84. ^ "Hungary: Constitutional Change Falls Short". Retrieved 18 September 2013. 
  85. ^ "Hungary election: PM Viktor Orban heads for victory". BBC. 
  86. ^ Andrew Speedy. "Hungary". Retrieved 21 November 2008. 
  87. ^ "Hungary ranked sixth in world for environmental protection". 10 December 2007. Retrieved 29 May 2010. 
  88. ^ "Hussar".  
  89. ^ "Warships of the Hungarian Defence Forces". Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  90. ^ "Minesweepers on the River Danube, commemorating the Battle of Nándorfehérvár (1456)". Új Szó Online. Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  91. ^ "Ship register of Hungary". Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  92. ^ "World Bank Country Classification". Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  93. ^ "About Hungary". OECD. Retrieved 18 January 2010. 
  94. ^ "Hungary and the WTO". 
  95. ^ "Member States of the EU: Hungary". EU. Retrieved 18 January 2010. 
  96. ^ MTI. "hírek szünet nélkül: Kínai nagyfalat – Budapesten nyílik az első kínai befektetési támaszpont külföldön". Retrieved 7 July 2009. 
  97. ^ "The CIA World Factbook". Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  98. ^ "Hungary". Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  99. ^ Eurydice. "Compulsory Education in Europe 2013/2014". European commission. Retrieved 19 May 2014. 
  100. ^ UNESCO-UNEVOC (October 2013). "Vocational Education in Hungary". Retrieved 19 May 2014. 
  101. ^ "The Education System of Hungary". Euroguidance Hungary. 2002. Retrieved 19 May 2014. 
  102. ^ "Global Competitiveness Record 2013/2014". Retrieved 19 May 2014. 
  103. ^ Rolt and Allen, p:145
  104. ^ Conrad Matschoss: Great engineers, page:93
  105. ^ L. T. C. Rolt, John Scott Allen: The steam engine of Thomas Newcomen, page:61
  106. ^ William Chambers: Chambers's encyclopaedia p. 176
  107. ^ The Contribution of Hungarians to Universal Culture (includes inventors), Embassy of the Republic of Hungary, Damascus, Syria, 2006.
  108. ^ coach. Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  109. ^ John S. Rigden, Roger H. Stuewer: The Physical Tourist: A Science Guide for the Traveler, Birkhauser, 2009 [3]
  110. ^ a b "Techline Otto Blathy, Miksa Déri, Károly Zipernowsky". International Electrotechnical Commission. Retrieved 20 September 2009. 
  111. ^ "The World Factbook". Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  112. ^ "Eurostat - Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  113. ^ "Vital statistics, Hungarian Central Statistical Office (KSH)". Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  114. ^ a b c "Hungarian census 2011 / Országos adatok (National data) / A népesség nyelvismeret és nemek szerint (population by spoken language), A népesség anyanyelv, nemzetiség és nemek szerint (population by mother tongue and ethnicity), A népesség vallás, felekezet, és fontosabb demográfiai ismérvek szerint (population by religion, denomination and main demographical indicators) (Hungarian)". Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  115. ^ Hungarian census 2011 – final data and methodology (Hungarian)
  116. ^ "National data". Hungarian Central Office. Retrieved 2014-09-09. 
  117. ^ "Magyarország Alaptörvénye". Hungarian Parliament. Retrieved 2 August 2014. 
  118. ^ Opinion on Act CCVI/2011: Retrieved 26 March 2012.
  119. ^ "Facts and Statistics". 4 March 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  120. ^ Braham, Randolph L. A Magyarországi Holokauszt Földrajzi Enciklopediája [The Geographic Encyclopedia of the Holocaust in Hungary]. Budapest:Park Publishing, 3 vol. (2006). Vol 1, p. 91.
  121. ^ "Social values, Science and Technology" (PDF). Retrieved 22 June 2011. 
  122. ^ "General information on various student flats and building types in Budapest". Budapest Corner. Retrieved 11 December 2010. 
  123. ^ Szalipszki, p. 12
    Refers to the country as "widely considered" to be a "home of music".
  124. ^ Broughton, pp. 159–167
  125. ^ Szabolcsi, The Specific Conditions of Hungarian Musical Development
    "Every experiment, made from Hungarian antedecents and on Hungarian soil, to create a conscious musical culture (music written by composers, as different from folk music), had instinctively or consciously striven to develop widely and universally the musical world of the folk song. Folk poetry and folk music were deeply embedded in the collective Hungarian people's culture, and this unity did not cease to be effective even when it was given from and expression by individual creative artists, performers and poets."
  126. ^ "Szabolcsi". Retrieved 20 September 2009. 
  127. ^ "Sulinet: Magyar növény-e a paprika?". Retrieved 21 November 2008. 
  128. ^ "Hungary (Magyarország) – spa resorts & hotels". Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  129. ^ "Herend Porcelain Manufactory Ltd". Retrieved 20 September 2009. 
  130. ^ "Medals Per Capita". Retrieved 11 March 2014. 
  131. ^ "FIE 2009–2010 men's rankings". Retrieved 22 June 2011. 
  132. ^ "FIE 2009–2010 women's rankings". Retrieved 22 June 2011. 
  133. ^ "FIFA President: FIFA to help the Galloping Major".  
  134. ^ "Coronel Puskas, el zurdo de oro".  
  135. ^ Mackay, Duncan (13 October 2005). "Lineker tees up another nice little earner". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 17 November 2006. 
  136. ^ "Blatter unveils FIFA Puskas Award". 21 October 2009. Retrieved 22 June 2011. 
  137. ^ "Hungary 3–2 Greece: Euro champions stunned". ESPN. 24 May 2008. Retrieved 22 June 2011. 
  138. ^ "Hungary 3–1 Italy: World Champions stunned". ESPN. 22 August 2007. Retrieved 22 June 2011.