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Title: Itgb4  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (medicine), EIF6, ITGAD, Integrin, CD49a
Collection: Clusters of Differentiation
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Integrin, beta 4

PDB rendering based on 1qg3.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols  ; CD104
External IDs GeneCards:
RNA expression pattern
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)
RefSeq (protein)
Location (UCSC)
PubMed search

Integrin, beta 4 (ITGB4) also known as CD104 (Cluster of Differentiation 104), is a human gene.[1] Integrins are heterodimers composed of alpha and beta subunits, that are noncovalently associated transmembrane glycoprotein receptors. Different combinations of alpha and beta polypeptides form complexes that vary in their ligand-binding specificities. Integrins mediate cell-matrix or cell-cell adhesion, and transduced signals that regulate gene expression and cell growth. This gene encodes the integrin beta 4 subunit, a receptor for the laminins. This subunit tends to associate with alpha 6 subunit and is likely to play a pivotal role in the biology of invasive carcinoma. Mutations in this gene are associated with epidermolysis bullosa with pyloric atresia. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene.[1]


  • Interactions 1
  • See also 2
  • References 3
  • Further reading 4
  • External links 5


ITGB4 has been shown to interact with Collagen, type XVII, alpha 1,[2][3] EIF6[4] and Erbin.[5]

See also


  1. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: ITGB4 integrin, beta 4". 
  2. ^ Aho, S; Uitto J (Feb 1998). "Direct interaction between the intracellular domains of bullous pemphigoid antigen 2 (BP180) and beta 4 integrin, hemidesmosomal components of basal keratinocytes". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (UNITED STATES) 243 (3): 694–9.  
  3. ^ Schaapveld, R Q; Borradori L; Geerts D; van Leusden M R; Kuikman I; Nievers M G; Niessen C M; Steenbergen R D; Snijders P J; Sonnenberg A (Jul 1998). "Hemidesmosome formation is initiated by the beta4 integrin subunit, requires complex formation of beta4 and HD1/plectin, and involves a direct interaction between beta4 and the bullous pemphigoid antigen 180". J. Cell Biol. (UNITED STATES) 142 (1): 271–84.  
  4. ^ Biffo, S; Sanvito F; Costa S; Preve L; Pignatelli R; Spinardi L; Marchisio P C (Nov 1997). "Isolation of a novel beta4 integrin-binding protein (p27(BBP)) highly expressed in epithelial cells". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 272 (48): 30314–21.  
  5. ^ Favre, B; Fontao L; Koster J; Shafaatian R; Jaunin F; Saurat J H; Sonnenberg A; Borradori L (Aug 2001). "The hemidesmosomal protein bullous pemphigoid antigen 1 and the integrin beta 4 subunit bind to ERBIN. Molecular cloning of multiple alternative splice variants of ERBIN and analysis of their tissue expression". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 276 (35): 32427–36.  

Further reading

  • Lipscomb EA, Mercurio AM (2006). "Mobilization and activation of a signaling competent alpha6beta4integrin underlies its contribution to carcinoma progression". Cancer Metastasis Rev. 24 (3): 413–23.  
  • Sonnenberg A, Linders CJ, Modderman PW, et al. (1990). "Integrin recognition of different cell-binding fragments of laminin (P1, E3, E8) and evidence that alpha 6 beta 1 but not alpha 6 beta 4 functions as a major receptor for fragment E8". J. Cell Biol. 110 (6): 2145–55.  
  • Tamura RN, Rozzo C, Starr L, et al. (1990). "Epithelial integrin alpha 6 beta 4: complete primary structure of alpha 6 and variant forms of beta 4". J. Cell Biol. 111 (4): 1593–604.  
  • Hogervorst F, Kuikman I, van Kessel AG, Sonnenberg A (1991). "Molecular cloning of the human alpha 6 integrin subunit. Alternative splicing of alpha 6 mRNA and chromosomal localization of the alpha 6 and beta 4 genes". Eur. J. Biochem. 199 (2): 425–33.  
  • Vogel BE, Tarone G, Giancotti FG, et al. (1990). "A novel fibronectin receptor with an unexpected subunit composition (alpha v beta 1)". J. Biol. Chem. 265 (11): 5934–7.  
  • Suzuki S, Naitoh Y (1990). "Amino acid sequence of a novel integrin beta 4 subunit and primary expression of the mRNA in epithelial cells". EMBO J. 9 (3): 757–63.  
  • Hogervorst F, Kuikman I, von dem Borne AE, Sonnenberg A (1990). "Cloning and sequence analysis of beta-4 cDNA: an integrin subunit that contains a unique 118 kd cytoplasmic domain". EMBO J. 9 (3): 765–70.  
  • Kajiji S, Tamura RN, Quaranta V (1989). "A novel integrin (alpha E beta 4) from human epithelial cells suggests a fourth family of integrin adhesion receptors". EMBO J. 8 (3): 673–80.  
  • Hemler ME, Crouse C, Sonnenberg A (1989). "Association of the VLA alpha 6 subunit with a novel protein. A possible alternative to the common VLA beta 1 subunit on certain cell lines". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (11): 6529–35.  
  • Vidal F, Aberdam D, Miquel C, et al. (1995). "Integrin beta 4 mutations associated with junctional epidermolysis bullosa with pyloric atresia". Nat. Genet. 10 (2): 229–34.  
  • Mainiero F, Pepe A, Wary KK, et al. (1995). "Signal transduction by the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin: distinct beta 4 subunit sites mediate recruitment of Shc/Grb2 and association with the cytoskeleton of hemidesmosomes". EMBO J. 14 (18): 4470–81.  
  • Clarke AS, Lotz MM, Mercurio AM (1995). "A novel structural variant of the human beta 4 integrin cDNA". Cell Adhes. Commun. 2 (1): 1–6.  
  • Weeks BS, Desai K, Loewenstein PM, et al. (1993). "Identification of a novel cell attachment domain in the HIV-1 Tat protein and its 90-kDa cell surface binding protein". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (7): 5279–84.  
  • Iacovacci S, Gagnoux-Palacios L, Zambruno G, et al. (1997). "Genomic organization of the human integrin beta4 gene". Mamm. Genome 8 (6): 448–50.  
  • Mainiero F, Murgia C, Wary KK, et al. (1997). "The coupling of alpha6beta4 integrin to Ras-MAP kinase pathways mediated by Shc controls keratinocyte proliferation". EMBO J. 16 (9): 2365–75.  
  • Pulkkinen L, Kurtz K, Xu Y, et al. (1997). "Genomic organization of the integrin beta 4 gene (ITGB4): a homozygous splice-site mutation in a patient with junctional epidermolysis bullosa associated with pyloric atresia". Lab. Invest. 76 (6): 823–33.  
  • van Leusden MR, Kuikman I, Sonnenberg A (1997). "The unique cytoplasmic domain of the human integrin variant beta4E is produced by partial retention of intronic sequences". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 235 (3): 826–30.  
  • von Bredow DC, Nagle RB, Bowden GT, Cress AE (1997). "Cleavage of beta 4 integrin by matrilysin". Exp. Cell Res. 236 (1): 341–5.  
  • Biffo S, Sanvito F, Costa S, et al. (1997). "Isolation of a novel beta4 integrin-binding protein (p27(BBP)) highly expressed in epithelial cells". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (48): 30314–21.  
  • Pulkkinen L, Kim DU, Uitto J (1998). "Epidermolysis bullosa with pyloric atresia: novel mutations in the beta4 integrin gene (ITGB4)". Am. J. Pathol. 152 (1): 157–66.  
  • Hughes AE, Bradley DT, Campbell M, Lechner J, Dash DP, Simpson DA, Willoughby CE (2011). "Mutation Altering the miR-184 Seed Region Causes Familial Keratoconus with Cataract". The American Journal of Human Genetics 32 (8): 691–7.  

External links

  • GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Epidermolysis Bullosa with Pyloric Atresia
  • ITGB4 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
  • ITGB4 Info with links in the Cell Migration Gateway

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.

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