Indian wild orange

Citrus indica
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Citrus
Species: C. indica
Binomial name
Citrus indica

Citrus indica is a species of Citrus known by the common name Indian wild orange.[1][2] It is native to India.


This wild orange plant is likely one of the ancestors of today's cultivated citrus fruits, if not the main one.[2] It is considered to be the most "primitive" citrus.[3] It can be used as a rootstock for cultivated citrus.[3]

Recent searches of the plant's reported home range confirmed its presence only in Meghalaya, where it grows in the Garo Hills.[2]


This species is used for medicinal and spiritual purposes by the Garo people. The fruit is used to treat jaundice and stomach conditions in humans and animals, and it is used to treat smallpox. It is also applied to dead bodies to remove their ghosts.[3]

Conservation status

This plant is considered to be an endangered species.[2] Threats to the species have included habitat destruction caused by slash-and-burn (jhum) activity.[3] This plant requires a specific microclimate,[2] and appropriate habitat is limited. The Nokrek Biosphere Reserve is an important site for the species, and its presence inspired the creation of the National Citrus Gene Sanctuary within the reserve.[4]


  1. ^ .Citrus indica USDA Germplasm Resources Information Network.
  2. ^ a b c d e Malik, S. K., R. Chaudhury, O. P. Dhariwal and R. K. Kalia. (2006). Montr.: wild endangered species of northeastern India.C. macroptera Tanaka and Citrus indicaCollection and characterization of Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 53 1485-93.
  3. ^ a b c d Laskar, M. A., M. Hynniewta and C.S. Rao. (2009). Tanaka — An endangered progenitor species.Citrus indicaIn vitro propagation of Indian Journal of Biotechnology 8 311-16.
  4. ^ Borah, A. Local citrus goes global. Down to Earth January 31, 2009.
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