World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Inductively coupled plasma

Article Id: WHEBN0000821877
Reproduction Date:

Title: Inductively coupled plasma  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Induction plasma technology, Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, Plasma (physics), Peroxide fusion, Helicon (physics)
Collection: Electrodynamics, Ion Source, Plasma Physics, Spectroscopy
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Inductively coupled plasma

Fig. 1. Picture of an analytical ICP torch

An inductively coupled plasma (ICP) is a type of plasma source in which the energy is supplied by electric currents which are produced by electromagnetic induction, that is, by time-varying magnetic fields.[1]

Contents

  • Operation 1
  • Applications 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4

Operation

There are three types of ICP geometries: planar (Fig. 2 (a)), cylindrical[2] (Fig. 2 (b)), and half-toroidal (Fig. 2 (c)).[3]

Fig. 2. Conventional Plasma Inductors

In planar geometry, the electrode is a length of flat metal wound like a spiral (or coil). In cylindrical geometry, it is like a helical spring. In half-toroidal geometry, it is toroidal solenoid cut along its main diameter to two equal halves.

When a time-varying electric current is passed through the coil, it creates a time-varying magnetic field around it, which in turn induces azimuthal electric field in the rarefied gas, leading to the formation of the figure-8 electron trajectories[3] providing a plasma generation (see Hamilton-Jacobi equation in electromagnetic fields). Argon is one example of a commonly used rarefied gas.

Applications

Plasma temperatures can range between ~6 000 Kº and ~1000 000 Kº (~1 eV - ~100 eV),[3] comparable to the surface of the sun. ICP discharges are of relatively high electron density, on the order of 1015 cm−3. As a result, ICP discharges have wide applications where a high-density plasma (HDP) is needed.

Another benefit of ICP discharges is that they are relatively free of contamination because the electrodes are completely outside the reaction chamber. By contrast, in a capacitively coupled plasma (CCP), the electrodes are often placed inside the reactor and are thus exposed to the plasma and subsequent reactive chemical species.

See also

References

  1. ^ A. Montaser and D. W. Golightly, eds. Inductively Coupled Plasmas in Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, VCH Publishers, Inc., New York, 1992.
  2. ^ Pascal Chambert and Nicholas Braithwaite. "“Physics of Radio-Frequency Plasmas”". Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2011). pp. 219–259.  
  3. ^ a b c Shun'ko, Evgeny V.; Stevenson, David E.; Belkin, Veniamin S. (2014). "Inductively Coupling PlasmaReactor With Plasma Electron Energy Controllable in the Range From ~6 to ~100 eV". IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 42 (3): 774–785.  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.