World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Intelligence quotient

Article Id: WHEBN0000014892
Reproduction Date:

Title: Intelligence quotient  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: The Mismeasure of Man, Race and intelligence, WikiProject Sociology/Cleanup listing, Flynn effect, High IQ society
Collection: Intelligence, Intelligence by Type, Intelligence Tests, Psychometrics
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Intelligence quotient

hites, saying:

The APA journal that published the statement, American Psychologist, subsequently published eleven critical responses in January 1997, several of them arguing that the report failed to examine adequately the evidence for partly genetic explanations.

Dynamic assessment

A notable and increasingly influential[141][142] alternative to the wide range of standard IQ tests originated in the writings of psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) of his most mature and highly productive period of 1932-1934. The notion of the zone of proximal development that he introduced in 1933, roughly a year before his death, served as the banner for his proposal to diagnose development as the level of actual development that can be measured by the child's independent problem solving and, at the same time, the level of proximal, or potential development that is measured in the situation of moderately assisted problem solving by the child.[143] The maximum level of complexity and difficulty of the problem that the child is capable to solve under some guidance indicates the level of potential development. Then, the difference between the higher level of potential and the lower level of actual development indicates the zone of proximal development. Combination of the two indexes—the level of actual and the zone of the proximal development—according to Vygotsky, provides a significantly more informative indicator of psychological development than the assessment of the level of actual development alone.[144][145]

The ideas on the zone of development were later developed in a number of psychological and educational theories and practices. Most notably, they were developed under the banner of dynamic assessment that focuses on the testing of learning and developmental potential[146][147][148] (for instance, in the work of Reuven Feuerstein and his associates,[149] who has criticized standard IQ testing for its putative assumption or acceptance of "fixed and immutable" characteristics of intelligence or cognitive functioning). Grounded in developmental theories of Vygotsky and Feuerstein, who maintained that human beings are not static entities but are always in states of transition and transactional relationships with the world, dynamic assessment received also considerable support in the recent revisions of cognitive developmental theory by Joseph Campione, Ann Brown, and John D. Bransford and in theories of multiple intelligences by Howard Gardner and Robert Sternberg.[150]

Classification

IQ classification is the practice by IQ test publishers of designating IQ score ranges as various categories with labels such as "superior" or "average."[151] IQ classification was preceded historically by attempts to classify human beings by general ability based on other forms of behavioral observation. Those other forms of behavioral observation are still important for validating classifications based on IQ tests.

High IQ societies

There are social organizations, some international, which limit membership to people who have scores as high as or higher than the 98th percentile on some IQ test or equivalent. Mensa International is perhaps the best known of these. There are other groups requiring a score above the 99th percentile.

References

  1. ^ Stern 1914, pp. 48–58 (1912 original German edition by Stern); 70–84 (1914 English translation by Whipple)
  2. ^ Gottfredson 2009, pp. 31–32
  3. ^ Neisser, Ulrich (1997). "Rising Scores on Intelligence Tests". American Scientist 85: 440–447. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  4. ^ Hunt 2011, p. 5 "As mental testing expanded to the evaluation of adolescents and adults, however, there was a need for a measure of intelligence that did not depend upon mental age. Accordingly the intelligence quotient (IQ) was developed. ... The narrow definition of IQ is a score on an intelligence test ... where 'average' intelligence, that is the median level of performance on an intelligence test, receives a score of 100, and other scores are assigned so that the scores are distributed normally about 100, with a standard deviation of 15. Some of the implications are that: 1. Approximately two-thirds of all scores lie between 85 and 115. 2. Five percent (1/20) of all scores are above 125, and one percent (1/100) are above 135. Similarly, five percent are below 75 and one percent below 65."
  5. ^ Markus Jokela, G. David Batty, Ian J. Deary, Catharine R. Gale, Mika Kivimäki (2009). "Low Childhood IQ and Early Adult Mortality: The Role of Explanatory Factors in the 1958 British Birth Cohort". PEDIATRICS 124 (3): e380 – e388.  
  6. ^ Deary Ian J., Batty G. David (2007). "Cognitive epidemiology". J Epidemiol Community Health 61 (5): 378–384.  
  7. ^ a b  
  8. ^ Johnson, Wendy; Turkheimer, Eric; Gottesman, Irving I.; Bouchard Jr., Thomas J. (2009). "Beyond Heritability: Twin Studies in Behavioral Research". Current Directions in Psychological Science 18 (4): 217–220.  
  9. ^ Turkheimer, Eric (Spring 2008). "A Better Way to Use Twins for Developmental Research". LIFE Newsletter (Max Planck Institute for Human Development): 2–5. Retrieved 29 June 2010. 
  10. ^ Devlin, B.; Daniels, Michael; Roeder, Kathryn (1997). "The heritability of IQ". Nature 388 (6641): 468–71.  
  11. ^ Terman 1916, p. 79 "What do the above IQ's imply in such terms as feeble-mindedness, border-line intelligence, dullness, normality, superior intelligence, genius, etc.? When we use these terms two facts must be born in mind: (1) That the boundary lines between such groups are absolutely arbitrary, a matter of definition only; and (2) that the individuals comprising one of the groups do not make up a homogeneous type."
  12. ^ Wechsler 1939, p. 37 "The earliest classifications of intelligence were very rough ones. To a large extent they were practical attempts to define various patterns of behavior in medical-legal terms."
  13. ^ Bulmer, M. (1999). The development of Francis Galton's ideas on the mechanism of heredity. Journal of the History of Biology, 32(3), 263-292. Cowan, R. S. (1972). Francis Galton's contribution to genetics. Journal of the History of Biology, 5(2), 389-412. See also Burbridge, D. (2001). Francis Galton on twins, heredity and social class. British Journal for the History of Science, 34(3), 323-340.
  14. ^ Fancher, R. E. (1983). Biographical origins of Francis Galton's psychology. Isis, 74(2), 227-233.
  15. ^ Kaufman 2009, p. 21 "Galton's so-called intelligence test was misnamed."
  16. ^ Gillham, Nicholas W. (2001). "Sir Francis Galton and the birth of eugenics". Annual Review of Genetics 35 (1): 83–101.  
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Kaufman 2009
  18. ^ Nicolas, S., Andrieu, B., Croizet, J.-C., Sanitioso, R. B., & Burman, J. T. (2013). Sick? Or slow? On the origins of intelligence as a psychological object. Intelligence, 41(5), 699-711. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2013.08.006 (This is an open access article, made freely available by Elsevier.)
  19. ^
  20. ^ Wallin, J. E. W. (1911). "The new clinical psychology and the psycho-clinicist". Journal of Educational Psychology 2 (3): 121–32.  
  21. ^ Richardson, John T. E. (2003). "Howard Andrew Knox and the origins of performance testing on Ellis Island, 1912-1916". History of Psychology 6 (2): 143–70.  
  22. ^ Kennedy, Carrie H.; McNeil, Jeffrey A. (2006). "A history of military psychology". In Kennedy, Carrie H.; Zillmer, Eric. Military Psychology: Clinical and Operational Applications. New York: Guilford Press. pp. 1–17.  
  23. ^ Katzell, Raymond A.; Austin, James T. (1992). "From then to now: The development of industrial-organizational psychology in the United States". Journal of Applied Psychology 77 (6): 803–35.  
  24. ^ Kevles, D. J. (1968). "Testing the Army's Intelligence: Psychologists and the Military in World War I". The Journal of American History 55 (3): 565–81.  
  25. ^ Lubinski, D. (2004). "Introduction to the special section on cognitive abilities: 100 years after Spearman's (1904) '"General Intelligence," Objectively Determined and Measured'". Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 86 (1): 96–111.  
  26. ^ Carroll, J.B. (1993). Human cognitive abilities: A survey of factor-analytic studies. New York: Cambridge University Press.  
  27. ^ Das, J.P., Kirby, J., & Jarman, R.F. (1975). "Simultaneous and successive synthesis: An alternative model for cognitive abilities". Psychological Bulletin 82: 87–103.  
  28. ^ Das, J.P. (2000). "A better look at intelligence". Current Directions in Psychological Science 11: 28–33.  
  29. ^ Naglieri, J.A., & Das, J.P. (2002). "Planning, attention, simultaneous, and successive cognitive processes as a model for assessment". School Psychology Review 19: 423–442. 
  30. ^ Urbina 2011, Table 2.1 Major Examples of Current Intelligence Tests
  31. ^ Flanagan & Harrison 2012, chapters 8-13, 15-16 (discussing Wechsler, Stanford-Binet, Kaufman, Woodcock-Johnson, DAS, CAS, and RIAS tests)
  32. ^ Mussen, Paul Henry (1973). Psychology: An Introduction. Lexington (MA): Heath. p. 363.  
  33. ^
  34. ^  
  35. ^
  36. ^  
  37. ^ Naglieri, J. A.; Bornstein, B. T. (2003). "Intelligence and Achievement: Just how Correlated are they?". Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 21 (3): 244–260.  
  38. ^ Mackintosh 2011, p. 169 "after the age of 8–10, IQ scores remain relatively stable: the correlation between IQ scores from age 8 to 18 and IQ at age 40 is over 0.70."
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Neisser, Ulric et al. (February 1996). "Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns". American Psychologist 52 (2): 77–101, 85. Retrieved 20 March 2014. 
  40. ^  
  41. ^  
  42. ^ Kaufman 2009, Figure 5.1 IQs earned by preadolescents (ages 12–13) who were given three different IQ tests in the early 2000s
  43. ^ Kaufman 2013, Figure 3.1 "Source: A. S. Kaufman. IQ Testing 101 (New York: Springer, 2009). Adapted with permission."
  44. ^ Ulric Neisser, James R. Flynn, Carmi Schooler, Patricia M. Greenfield, Wendy M. Williams, Marian Sigman, Shannon E. Whaley, Reynaldo Martorell, Richard Lynn, Robert M. Hauser, David W. Grissmer, Stephanie Williamson, Sheila Nataraj Kirby, Mark Berends, Stephen J. Ceci, Tina B. Rosenblum, Matthew Kumpf, Min-Hsiung Huang, Irwin D. Waldman, Samuel H. Preston, John C. Loehlin (1998). Neisser, Ulric, ed. The Rising Curve: Long-Term Gains in IQ and Related Measures. APA Science Volume Series. Washington (DC): American Psychological Association.  
  45. ^ a b  
  46. ^ Flynn, James R. (2009). What Is Intelligence: Beyond the Flynn Effect (expanded paperback ed.). Cambridge:  
  47. ^ Flynn, James R. (1984). "The mean IQ of Americans: Massive gains 1932 to 1978.". Psychological Bulletin 95 (1): 29–51.  
  48. ^ Flynn, James R. (1987). "Massive IQ gains in 14 nations: What IQ tests really measure.". Psychological Bulletin 101 (2): 171–91.  
  49. ^ Zhou, Xiaobin; Grégoire, Jacques; Zhu, Jianjin (2010). "The Flynn Effect and the Wechsler Scales". In Weiss, Lawrence G.; Saklofske, Donald H.; Coalson, Diane; Raiford, Susan. WAIS-IV Clinical Use and Interpretation: Scientist-Practitioner Perspectives. Practical Resources for the Mental Health Professional. Alan S. Kaufman (Foreword). Amsterdam: Academic Press.  
  50. ^  
  51. ^  
  52. ^ Desjardins, Richard; Warnke, Arne Jonas (2012). "Ageing and Skills". OECD Education Working Papers.  
  53. ^ International Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 35, Issue 3, June 2006. See reprint of Leowontin's 1974 article "The analysis of variance and the analysis of causes" and 2006 commentaries: http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/content/35/3.toc
  54. ^ Plomin, R.; Pedersen, N. L.; Lichtenstein, P.; McClearn, G. E. (1994). "Variability and stability in cognitive abilities are largely genetic later in life". Behavior Genetics 24 (3): 207–15.  
  55. ^ Bouchard, T.; Lykken, D.; McGue, M; Segal, N.; Tellegen, A (1990). "Sources of human psychological differences: the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart". Science 250 (4978): 223–8.  
  56. ^ Bouchard, Thomas J. (2004). "Genetic Influence on Human Psychological Traits. A Survey". Current Directions in Psychological Science 13 (4): 148–51.  
  57. ^ http://www.wjh.harvard.edu/~cfc/Chabris2012a-FalsePositivesGenesIQ.pdf
  58. ^
  59. ^ a b Plomin, R; Asbury, K; Dunn, J (2001). "Why are children in the same family so different? Nonshared environment a decade later.". Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 46 (3): 225–33.  
  60. ^ (Harris 2009)
  61. ^ Pietropaolo, S.;  
  62. ^ cite doi/.2Fs00439-009-0655-4
  63. ^ C. F. Chabris, B. M. Hebert, D. J. Benjamin, J. P. Beauchamp, D. Cesarini, M. J. H. M. van der Loos, M. Johannesson, P. K. E. Magnusson, P. Lichtenstein, C. S. Atwood, J. Freese, T. S. Hauser, R. M. Hauser, N. A. Christakis and D. I. Laibson. (2011). Most reported genetic associations with general intelligence are probably false positives. Psychological Science
  64. ^ Davies, G.; Tenesa, A.; Payton, A.; Yang, J.; Harris, S. E.; Liewald, D.; Ke, X.; Hellard, S. Le; Christoforou, A. et al. (2011). "Genome-wide association studies establish that human intelligence is highly heritable and polygenic". Mol Psychiatry 16: 996–1005.  
  65. ^ B. Benyamin, B. Pourcain, O. S. Davis, G. Davies, N. K. Hansell, M. J. Brion, R. M. Kirkpatrick, R. A. Cents, S. Franic, M. B. Miller, C. M. Haworth, E. Meaburn, T. S. Price, D. M. Evans, N. Timpson, J. Kemp, S. Ring, W. McArdle, S. E. Medland, J. Yang, S. E. Harris, D. C. Liewald, P. Scheet, X. Xiao, J. J. Hudziak, E. J. de Geus, C. Wellcome Trust Case Control, V. W. Jaddoe, J. M. Starr, F. C. Verhulst, C. Pennell, H. Tiemeier, W. G. Iacono, L. J. Palmer, G. W. Montgomery, N. G. Martin, D. I. Boomsma, D. Posthuma, M. McGue, M. J. Wright, G. Davey Smith, I. J. Deary, R. Plomin and P. M. Visscher. (2013). Childhood intelligence is heritable, highly polygenic and associated with FNBP1L. Mol Psychiatry doi:10.1038/mp.2012.184 PMID 23358156
  66. ^ E. M. Tucker-Drob, M. Rhemtulla, K. P. Harden, E. Turkheimer and D. Fask. (2011). Emergence of a Gene x Socioeconomic Status Interaction on Infant Mental Ability Between 10 Months and 2 Years. Psychological Science, 22, 125-33
  67. ^ Turkheimer, E.; Haley, A.; Waldron, M.; D'Onofrio, B.; Gottesman, I. I. (2003). "Socioeconomic status modifies heritability of IQ in young children". Psychological Science 14 (6): 623–628.  
  68. ^ K. P. Harden, E. Turkheimer and J. C. Loehlin. (2005). Genotype environment interaction in adolescents' cognitive ability. Behavior Genetics, 35, [1]
  69. ^ Hanscombe, K. B.; Trzaskowski, M.; Haworth, C. M.; Davis, O. S.; Dale, P. S.; Plomin, R. (2012). "Socioeconomic Status (SES) and Children's Intelligence (IQ): In a UK-Representative Sample SES Moderates the Environmental, Not Genetic, Effect on IQ.". PLoS ONE 7: e30320.  
  70. ^ Dickens, William T.; Flynn, James R. (2001). "Heritability estimates versus large environmental effects: The IQ paradox resolved.". Psychological Review 108 (2): 346–69.  
  71. ^ Dickens, William T.; Flynn, James R. (2002). "The IQ Paradox: Still Resolved". Psychological Review 109 (4). 
  72. ^ Rae, Caroline; Digney, Alison L.; McEwan, Sally R.; Bates, Timothy C. (2003). "Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double–blind, placebo–controlled, cross–over trial".  
  73. ^ McMorris, Terry; Mielcarz, Gregorsz; Harris, Roger C.; Swain, Jonathan P.; Howard, Alan (2007). "Creatine Supplementation and Cognitive Performance in Elderly Individuals". Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition 14 (5): 517–28.  
  74. ^ Rawson, E; Lieberman, H; Walsh, T; Zuber, S; Harhart, J; Matthews, T (2008). "Creatine supplementation does not improve cognitive function in young adults". Physiology & Behavior 95 (1–2): 130–4.  
  75. ^ Jaeggi, S. M.; Buschkuehl, M.; Jonides, J.; Perrig, W. J. (2008). "From the Cover: Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105 (19): 6829–33.  
  76. ^ Sternberg, R. J. (2008). "Increasing fluid intelligence is possible after all". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105 (19): 6791–2.  
  77. ^ a b Glenn Schellenberg, E. (2004). "Music Lessons Enhance IQ". Psychological Science 15 (8): 511–4.  
  78. ^ Glenn Schellenberg, E. (2006). "Long-term positive associations between music lessons and IQ". Journal of Educational Psychology 98 (2): 457–468.  
  79. ^ Rauscher, Frances H.; Shaw, Gorden L. (1995). "Listening to Mozart enhances spatial-temporal reasoning: towards a neurophysiological basis". Neuroscience Letters 185 (1): 44–47.  
  80. ^ C. Stough, B. Kerkin, T. C. Bates and G. Mangan. (1994). Music and spatial IQ. Personality & Individual Differences, 17, [2]
  81. ^ C. F. Chabris. (1999). Prelude or requiem for the 'Mozart effect'? Nature, 400, author reply 827-828
  82. ^ Schellenberg, E. Glenn (August 2004). "Music Lessons Enhance IQ". Psychological Science 15 (8): 511–514.  
  83. ^ Schellenberg, E. Glenn (December 2011). "Music Lessons, Emotional Intelligence, and IQ". Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal 29 (2): 185–194.  
  84. ^ Fareed, M; Afzal, M. (2014). "Estimating the inbreeding depression on cognitive behavior: A population based study of child cohort". PLoS ONE 9 (10): e109585.  
  85. ^ Eppig. Christopher. Scientific American."Why is average IQ higher in some places?" 2011.
  86. ^ Kamphaus, Randy W. (2005). Clinical assessment of child and adolescent intelligence. Springer.  
  87. ^ Frey, Meredith C.; Detterman, Douglas K. (2004). "Scholastic Assessment org?". Psychological Science 15 (6): 373–8.  
  88. ^ Deary, I; Strand, S; Smith, P; Fernandes, C (2007). "Intelligence and educational achievement". Intelligence 35 (1): 13–21.  
  89. ^ a b c Schmidt, Frank L.; Hunter, John E. (1998). "The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings". Psychological Bulletin 124 (2): 262–74.  
  90. ^ Hunter, John E.; Hunter, Ronda F. (1984). "Validity and utility of alternative predictors of job performance". Psychological Bulletin 96 (1): 72–98.  
  91. ^ Warner, Molly; Ernst, John; Townes, Brenda; Peel, John; Preston, Michael (1987). "Relationships Between IQ and Neuropsychological Measures in Neuropsychiatric Populations: Within-Laboratory and Cross-Cultural Replications Using WAIS and WAIS-R". Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 9 (5): 545–62.  
  92. ^ Watkins, M; Lei, P; Canivez, G (2007). "Psychometric intelligence and achievement: A cross-lagged panel analysis". Intelligence 35 (1): 59–68.  
  93. ^ Rohde, T; Thompson, L (2007). "Predicting academic achievement with cognitive ability". Intelligence 35 (1): 83–92.  
  94. ^ Gottfredson, L. S. (2006). Social consequences of group differences in cognitive ability (Consequencias sociais das diferencas de grupo em habilidade cognitiva). In C. E. Flores-Mendoza & R. Colom (Eds.), Introducau a psicologia das diferencas individuais (pp. 433-456). Porto Allegre, Brazil: ArtMed Publishers.
  95. ^ ABC News, "Court OKs Barring High IQs for Cops", http://abcnews.go.com/US/story?id=95836
  96. ^ Detterman and Daniel, 1989.
  97. ^ Earl Hunt (July 1995). "The Role of Intelligence in Modern Society (July-Aug, 1995)". American Scientist. pp. 4 (Nonlinearities in Intelligence). Archived from the original on May 21, 2006. 
  98. ^ Coward, W. Mark; Sackett, Paul R. (1990). "Linearity of ability-performance relationships: A reconfirmation". Journal of Applied Psychology 75 (3): 297–300.  
  99. ^ Murray, Charles (1998). Income Inequality and IQ (PDF). AEI Press.  
  100. ^ Henderson, Mark (April 25, 2007). "Brains don't make you rich IQ study finds". The Times (London). Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  101. ^ "You Don't Have To Be Smart To Be Rich, Study Finds". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2014-08-26. 
  102. ^ Bowles, Samuel; Gintis, Herbert (2002). "The Inheritance of Inequality". Journal of Economic Perspectives 16 (3): 3–30.  
  103. ^ Handbook of Crime Correlates; Lee Ellis, Kevin M. Beaver, John Wright; 2009; Academic Press
  104. ^ Beaver, K. M.; Wright, J. P. (2011). "The association between county-level IQ and county-level crime rates". Intelligence 39: 22–26.  
  105. ^ "Intelligence is associated with criminal justice processing: Arrest through incarceration". Sciencedirect.com. 2013-10-31. Retrieved 2014-08-26. 
  106. ^ McDaniel, M (2006). "Estimating state IQ: Measurement challenges and preliminary correlates". Intelligence 34 (6): 607–19.  
  107. ^ Tambs, Kristian; Sundet, Jon Martin; Magnus, Per; Berg, Kåre (1989). "Genetic and environmental contributions to the covariance between occupational status, educational attainment, and IQ: A study of twins". Behavior Genetics 19 (2): 209–22.  
  108. ^ Rowe, D. C., W. J. Vesterdal, and J. L. Rodgers, "The Bell Curve Revisited: How Genes and Shared Environment Mediate IQ-SES Associations," University of Arizona, 1997
  109. ^ Kanazawa S (2010). "Why Liberals and Atheists Are More Intelligent" (PDF). Social Psychology Quarterly 73 (1): 33–57.  
  110. ^ Deary I. J., Batty G. D., Gale C. R. (2008). "Bright Children Become Enlightened Adults". Psychological Science 19: 1–6.  
  111. ^ Deary I. J., Batty G. D., Gale C. R. "Childhood Intelligence Predicts Voter Turnout, Voting Preferences, and Political Involvement in Adulthood: The 1970 British Cohort Study". Intelligence 36: 548–55.  
  112. ^ a b Kaufman 2009, p. 126.
  113. ^ Kaufman, Alan; Lichtenberger, Elizabeth (2002). Assessing adolescent and adult intelligence. 
  114. ^ Kaufman 2009, p. 132.
  115. ^ Neisser, U.; Boodoo, G.; Bouchard, T. J. , J.; Boykin, A. W.; Brody, N.; Ceci, S. J.; Halpern, D. F.; Loehlin, J. C.; Perloff, R.; Sternberg, R. J.; Urbina, S. (1996). "Intelligence: Knowns and unknowns". American Psychologist 51 (2): 77.  
  116. ^ Nisbett, R. E.; Aronson, J.; Blair, C.; Dickens, W.; Flynn, J.; Halpern, D. F.; Turkheimer, E. (2012). "Intelligence: New findings and theoretical developments". American Psychologist 67 (2): 130–159.  
  117. ^ Jensen, A. (1998) The g Factor: The Science of Mental Ability (p. 531)
  118. ^ Jackson, D. N. (2002, December 5–7). Evaluating g in the SAT: Implications for the sex differences and interpretations of verbal and quantitative aptitude. Paper presented at the International Society for Intelligence Research, Nashville, TN."
  119. ^  
  120. ^ Brody, Nathan (2005). "To g or Not to g—That Is the Question". In Wilhelm, Oliver & Engle, Randall W. (Eds.). Handbook of Understanding and Measuring Intelligence. Thousand Oaks (CA):  
  121. ^ Bernie Devlin, Stephen E. Fienberg, Daniel P. Resnick & Kathryn Roeder, ed. (1997). Intelligence, Genes, and Success: Scientists Respond to the Bell Curve. New York (NY):  
  122. ^  
  123. ^ "RAND_TR193.pdf" (PDF). 
  124. ^ "MR818.ch2.pdf" (PDF). 
  125. ^ "Social Security Administration". 
  126. ^ Flynn, James R. (2009). What Is Intelligence: Beyond the Flynn Effect (expanded paperback ed.). Cambridge:  
  127. ^ The Waning of I.Q. by David Brooks, The New York Times
  128. ^ Contemporary Education Review, 1982
  129. ^ Psychometrics of Intelligence. K. Kemp-Leonard (ed.) Encyclopedia of Social Measurement, 3, 193-201: [3]
  130. ^ Schönemann, Peter H. (1997). "On models and muddles of heritability". Genetica 99 (2–3): 97–108.  
  131. ^ Sternberg, Robert J., and Richard K. Wagner. "The g-ocentric view of intelligence and job performance is wrong." Current directions in psychological science (1993): 1-5.
  132. ^
  133. ^  
  134. ^ Hunt, Earl (2011). Human Intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 424.  
  135. ^ Verney, S. P.; Granholm, E; Marshall, SP; Malcarne, VL; Saccuzzo, DP (2005). "Culture-Fair Cognitive Ability Assessment: Information Processing and Psychophysiological Approaches". Assessment 12 (3): 303–19.  
  136. ^ Shuttleworth-Edwards, Ann; Kemp, Ryan; Rust, Annegret; Muirhead, Joanne; Hartman, Nigel; Radloff, Sarah (2004). "Cross-cultural Effects on IQ Test Performance: A Review and Preliminary Normative Indications on WAIS-III Test Performance". Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 26 (7): 903–20.  
  137. ^ Cronshaw, Steven F.; Hamilton, Leah K.; Onyura, Betty R.; Winston, Andrew S. (2006). "Case for Non-Biased Intelligence Testing Against Black Africans Has Not Been Made: A Comment on Rushton, Skuy, and Bons (2004)". International Journal of Selection and Assessment 14 (3): 278–87.  
  138. ^ Goldberg Edelson, M. (2006). "Are the Majority of Children With Autism Mentally Retarded?: A Systematic Evaluation of the Data". Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities 21 (2): 66–83.  
  139. ^ Borsboom, Denny (2006). "The attack of the psychometricians". Psychometrika 71 (3): 425–40.  
  140. ^ Neisser, Ulric; Boodoo, Gwyneth; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.; Boykin, A. Wade; Brody, Nathan; Ceci, Stephen J.; Halpern, Diane F.; Loehlin, John C.; Perloff, Robert (1996). "Intelligence: Knowns and unknowns". American Psychologist 51 (2): 77–101.  
  141. ^ Mindes, G. Assessing young children. Merrill/Prentice Hall, 2003, p. 158
  142. ^ Haywood, H. Carl & Lidz, Carol Schneider. Dynamic Assessment in Practice: Clinical And Educational Applications. Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 1
  143. ^ Vygotsky, L.S. (19332-34/1997). The Problem of Age. in The Collected Works of L. S. Vygotsky, Volume 5, 1998, pp. 187-205
  144. ^ Chaiklin, S. (2003). "The Zone of Proximal Development in Vygotsky's analysis of learning and instruction." In Kozulin, A., Gindis, B., Ageyev, V. & Miller, S. (Eds.) Vygotsky's educational theory and practice in cultural context. 39-64. Cambridge: Cambridge University
  145. ^ Zaretskii,V.K. (2009). The Zone of Proximal Development What Vygotsky Did Not Have Time to Write. Journal of Russian and East European Psychology, vol. 47, no. 6, November–December 2009, pp. 70–93
  146. ^ Sternberg, R.S. & Grigorenko, E.L. (2001). All testing is dynamic testing. Issues in Education, 7(2), 137-170
  147. ^ Sternberg, R.J. & Grigorenko, E.L. (2002). Dynamic testing: The nature and measurement of learning potential. Cambridge (UK): University of Cambridge
  148. ^ Haywood, C.H. & Lidz, C.S. (2007). Dynamic assessment in practice: Clinical and educational applications. New York: Cambridge University Press
  149. ^ Feuerstein, R., Feuerstein, S., Falik, L & Rand, Y. (1979; 2002). Dynamic assessments of cognitive modifiability. ICELP Press, Jerusalem: Israel
  150. ^ Dodge, Kenneth A. Foreword, xiii-xv. In Haywood, H. Carl & Lidz, Carol Schneider. Dynamic Assessment in Practice: Clinical And Educational Applications. Cambridge University Press, 2006, p.xiii-xiv
  151. ^  

Bibliography

  • Aiken, Lewis (1979). Psychological Testing and Assessment (Third ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.  
  • Aiken, Lewis R. (31 May 2004) [Plenum Press 1996]. Assessment of Intellectual Functioning. Perspectives on Individual Differences (second (reprint) ed.). Springer.  
  • American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.  
  •  
  •  
  • Borsboom, Denny (September 2006). "The attack of the psychometricians". Psychometrika 71 (3): 425–440.  
  • Brody, Nathan (2005). "Chapter 26: To g or Not to g—That Is the Question". In Wilhelm, Oliver; Engle, Randall W. Handbook of Understanding and Measuring Intelligence. Thousand Oaks (CA):  
  • Campbell, Jonathan M. (2006). "Chapter 3: Mental Retardation/Intellectual Disability". In Campbell, Jonathan M.; Kamphaus, Randy W. Psychodiagnostic Assessment of Children: Dimensional and Categorical Approaches. Hoboken (NJ): Wiley.  
  • Carroll, John B. (1998). "Human Cognitive Abilities: A Critique". In McArdle, John J.; Woodcock, Richard W. Human Cognitive Abilities in Theory and Practice. Mahwah (NJ): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 5–23.  
  • Cox, Catherine M. (1926). The Early Mental Traits of 300 Geniuses. Genetic Studies of Genius Volume 2. Stanford (CA): Stanford University Press. Lay summary (2 June 2013). 
  •  
  • Deary, Ian J.; Batty, G. David (2007). "Cognitive epidemiology". Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 61 (5): 378–384.  
  • Dumont, Ron; Willis, John O.; Elliot, Colin D. (2009). Essentials of DAS-II® Assessment. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. p. 126.  
  • Dumont, Ron; Willis, John O. (2013). "Range of DAS Subtest Scaled Scores". Dumont Willis. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. 
  • Eysenck, Hans (1995). Genius: The Natural History of Creativity. Problems in the Behavioural Sciences No. 12. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  
  • Eysenck, Hans (1998). Intelligence: A New Look. New Brunswick (NJ):  
  • Carroll, John B. (1993). Human cognitive abilities: A survey of factor-analytic studies. New York:  
  • Flanagan, Dawn P.; Harrison, Patti L., eds. (2012). Contemporary Intellectual Assessment: Theories, tests, and issues (Third ed.). New York (NY):  
  • Flanagan, Dawn P.;  
  • Fletcher, Richard B.; Hattie, John (11 March 2011). Intelligence and Intelligence Testing. Taylor & Francis.  
  • Flint, Jonathan; Greenspan, Ralph J.; Kendler, Kenneth S. (28 January 2010). How Genes Influence Behavior. Oxford University Press.  
  •  
  • Flynn, James R. (2012). Are We Getting Smarter? Rising IQ in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge:  
  • Frey, Meredith C.; Detterman, Douglas K. (2004). "Scholastic Assessment org?". Psychological Science 15 (6): 373–8.  
  • Freides, David (1972). "Review of Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Third Revision". In Oscar Buros. Seventh Mental Measurements Yearbook. Highland Park (NJ): Gryphon Press. pp. 772–773. 
  • Georgas, James; Weiss, Lawrence; van de Vijver, Fons; Saklofske, Donald (2003). "Preface". In Georgas, James; Weiss, Lawrence;  
  •  
  • Gottfredson, Linda S. (1997). "Why g matters: The complexity of everyday life". Intelligence 24 (1): 79–132.  
  • Gottfredson, Linda S. (1998). "The general intelligence factor" (PDF).  
  • Gottfredson, Linda S. (11 March 2005). "Chapter 9: Suppressing Intelligence Research: Hurting Those We Intend to Help". In Wright, Rogers H.; Cummings, Nicholas A. Destructive Trends in Mental Health: The Well Intentioned Path to Harm. Taylor & Francis. pp. 155–186.  
  • Gottfredson, Linda S. (2006). "Chapter 20: Social consequences of group differences in cognitive ability (Conseqüências sociais das diferenças de grupo na capacidade cognitiva)". In Flores-Mendoza, Carmen E.; Colom, Roberto. Introdução à Psicologia das Diferenças Individuais. Porto Alegre, Brazil:  
  • Gottfredson, Linda S. (2009). "Chapter 1: Logical Fallacies Used to Dismiss the Evidence on Intelligence Testing". In Phelps, Richard F. Correcting Fallacies about Educational and Psychological Testing. Washington (DC): American Psychological Association.  
  •  
  • Gregory, Robert J. (1995). "Classification of Intelligence". In  
  • Groth-Marnat, Gary (2009). Handbook of Psychological Assessment (Fifth ed.). Hoboken (NJ): Wiley.  
  •  
  • Hopkins, Kenneth D.; Stanley, Julian C. (1981). Educational and Psychological Measurement and Evaluation (sixth ed.). Engelwood Cliffs (NJ):  
  • Hunt, Earl (2001). "Multiple Views of Multiple Intelligence". PsycCRITIQUES 46 (1): 5–7.  
  • Hunt, Earl (2011). Human Intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  
  • Jensen, Arthur R. (1980). Bias in mental testing. New York (NY):  
  •  
  • Jensen, Arthur R. (10 July 2006). Clocking the Mind: Mental Chronometry and Individual Differences. Elsevier.  
  •  
  • Johnson, Wendy (2012). "How Much Can We Boost IQ? An Updated Look at Jensen's (1969) Question and Answer". In Slater, Alan M.; Quinn, Paul C. Developmental Psychology: Revisiting the Classic Studies. Psychology: Revisiting the Classic Studies. Thousand Oaks (CA): SAGE.  
  • Johnson, Wendy; Turkheimer, E.; Gottesman, Irving; Bouchard, Thomas (2009). "Beyond Heritability: Twin Studies in Behavioral Research". Current Directions in Psychological Science 18 (4): 217–220.  
  •  
  •  
  • Kaufman, Scott Barry (1 June 2013). Ungifted: Intelligence Redefined. Basic Books.  
  • Kranzler, John H.; Floyd, Randy G. (1 August 2013). Assessing Intelligence in Children and Adolescents: A Practical Guide. Guilford Press.  
  • Lahn, Bruce T.; Ebenstein, Lanny (2009). "Let's celebrate human genetic diversity". Nature 461 (7265): 726–728.  
  • Lohman, David F.; Foley Nicpon, Megan (2012). "Chapter 12: Ability Testing & Talent Identification". In Hunsaker, Scott. Identification: The Theory and Practice of Identifying Students for Gifted and Talented Education Services. Waco (TX): Prufrock. pp. 287–386.  
  •  
  • Matarazzo, Joseph D. (1972). Wechsler's Measurement and Appraisal of Adult Intelligence (fifth and enlarged ed.). Baltimore (MD): Williams & Witkins. Lay summary (4 June 2013). 
  • McIntosh, David E.; Dixon, Felicia A.; Pierson, Eric E. (2012). "Chapter 25: Use of Intelligence Tests in the Identification of Giftedness". In Flanagan, Dawn P.; Harrison, Patti L. Contemporary Intellectual Assessment: Theories, tests, and issues (Third ed.). New York (NY):  
  • Murray, Charles (1998). Income Inequality and IQ. Washington (DC):  
  • Naglieri, Jack A. (1999). Essentials of CAS Assessment. Essentials of Psychological Assessment. Hoboken (NJ):  
  •  
  • Perleth, Christoph; Schatz, Tanja; Mönks, Franz J. (2000). "Early Identification of High Ability". In Heller, Kurt A.; Mönks, Franz J.;  
  • Shurkin, Joel (1992). Terman's Kids: The Groundbreaking Study of How the Gifted Grow Up. Boston (MA): Little, Brown.  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • Urbina, Susana (2011). "Chapter 2: Tests of Intelligence". In  
  • Wasserman, John D. (2012). "Chapter 1: A History of Intelligence Assessment: The Unfinished Tapestry". In Flanagan, Dawn P.; Harrison, Patti L. Contemporary Intellectual Assessment: Theories, tests, and issues (Third ed.). New York (NY):  
  •  
  • Wechsler, David (1997). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd ed.). San Antoni0 (TX): The Psychological Corporation. 
  • Wechsler, David (2003). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (4th ed.). San Antonio (TX): The Psychological Corporation. 
  • Weiner, Irving B.; Graham, John R.; Naglieri, Jack A., eds. (2 October 2012). Handbook of Psychology. Volume 10: Assessment Psychology. John Wiley & Sons.  
  • Weiss, Lawrence G.; Saklofske, Donald H.; Prifitera, Aurelio; Holdnack, James A., eds. (2006). WISC-IV Advanced Clinical Interpretation. Practical Resources for the Mental Health Professional. Burlington (MA): Academic Press.   This practitioner's handbook includes chapters by L.G. Weiss, J.G. Harris, A. Prifitera, T. Courville, E. Rolfhus, D.H. Saklofske, J.A. Holdnack, D. Coalson, S.E. Raiford, D.M. Schwartz, P. Entwistle, V. L. Schwean, and T. Oakland.

External links

  • Classics in the History of Psychology
  • Human Intelligence: biographical profiles, current controversies, resources for teachers
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.