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Invasion of Lingayen Gulf

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Title: Invasion of Lingayen Gulf  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Rafael Ileto, Battle of Baguio (1945), Military history of the Philippines during World War II, World War II, Battle of Bessang Pass
Collection: 1945 in Japan, 1945 in the Philippines, Battles of World War II Involving Australia, Battles of World War II Involving Japan, Battles of World War II Involving the United States, Far East Naval Theatre of World War II, History of Pangasinan, Invasions by Australia, Invasions by the United States, Invasions of the Philippines, Military History of the Philippines During World War II, Pacific Ocean Theatre of World War II, South West Pacific Theatre of World War II
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Invasion of Lingayen Gulf

Invasion of Lingayen Gulf
Part of World War II, Pacific War

U.S. naval force approaches the shores of Lingayen
Date 6–9 January 1945
Location Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, Philippines
Result Decisive Allied victory
Belligerents
 United States  Australia  Empire of Japan
Commanders and leaders
Jesse B. Oldendorf;
Walter Krueger
Tomoyuki Yamashita
Strength
800+ ships;
203,608 soldiers
unknown
Casualties and losses
24 ships sunk
67 ships damaged
Unknown, but heavy

The Invasion of Lingayen Gulf was an Allied amphibious operation in the Philippines during World War II. In the early morning of 6 January 1945, a large Allied force commanded by Admiral Jesse B. Oldendorf began approaching the shores of Lingayen. U.S. Navy and Royal Australian Navy warships began bombarding suspected Japanese positions along the coast of Lingayen from their position in Lingayen Gulf for three days. On 9 January, the U.S. 6th Army landed on a 20 mi (32 km) beachhead between the towns of Lingayen and San Fabian.

Contents

  • Background 1
  • Operations 2
  • Commemoration 3
  • References 4

Background

During World War II, the Lingayen Gulf proved a strategically important theater of war between American and Japanese forces. On 22 December 1941, the Japanese 14th Army—under Lieutenant General Masaharu Homma—landed on the Eastern part of the gulf at Agoo, Caba, Santiago and Bauang, where they engaged in a number of relatively minor skirmishes[1] with the defenders, which consisted of a poorly-equipped contingent of predominantly American and Filipino troops, and managed to successfully invade and occupy the gulf. Following the defeat, the next day General Douglas MacArthur issued the order to retreat from Luzon and withdraw to Bataan. For the next three years, the gulf remained under Japanese occupation prior to the Lingayen Gulf Landings.

Operations

USS Columbia is attacked by a kamikaze off Lingayen Gulf, 6 January 1945.
The kamikaze aircraft hits Columbia at 17:29.

Beginning on 6 January 1945, a heavy naval and air bombardment of suspected Japanese defenses on Lingayen began. Underwater demolitions began, but found no beach obstacles, and encountered sparse opposing forces. Aircraft and naval artillery bombardment of the landing areas also occurred, with kamikazes attacking on the 7th. On the 8th, it was observed that in the town of Lingayen, as a response to the pre-landing bombardment, Filipinos had begun to form a parade, complete with United States and Philippine flags; fire was shifted away from that area.[2]

At 09:30 on 9 January 1945, about 68,000 men under General Walter Krueger of the U.S. 6th Army—following a devastating naval bombardment—landed at the coast of Lingayen Gulf meeting no opposition. A total of 203,608 soldiers were eventually landed over the next few days, establishing a 20 mi (32 km) beachhead, stretching from Sual, Lingayen and Dagupan (XIV Corps) to the west, and San Fabian (I Corps) to the east. The total number of troops under the command of MacArthur was reported to have even exceeded the number that Dwight D. Eisenhower controlled in Europe.[3] Within a few days, the assault forces had quickly captured the coastal towns and secured the 20 mile long beachhead, as well as penetrating up to five miles inland.

Despite their success in driving out the Japanese forces stationed there, they suffered relatively heavy losses; particularly to their convoys, due to kamikaze attacks. From 4–12 January, a total of 24 ships were sunk and another 67 were damaged by kamikazes; including the battleships USS Mississippi, New Mexico and Colorado (the latter was accidentally hit by friendly fire), the heavy cruiser HMAS Australia, the light cruiser USS Columbia, and the destroyers USS Long and USS Hovey.[3] Following the landings, the Lingayen Gulf was turned into a vast supply depot for the rest of the war to support the Battle of Luzon.

Commemoration

On 9 January 2008, Gov. Amado Espino, Jr. and Vice Gov. Marlyn Primicias-Agabas institutionalized the commemoration to honor the war veterans. The resolution named 9 January as US House of Representatives — the Filipino Veterans' Equity Act of 2006 and the Filipino Veterans' Equity of 2005 sponsored by former Senator Daniel Inouye.[4]

References

  1. ^ Encyclopedia of American History
  2. ^ Smith, Robert Ross (1993). Triumph in the Philippines. Washington, D.C.: United States Army. p. 756.  
  3. ^ a b Pacific wrecks - Lingayan Gulf
  4. ^ Abs-Cbn Interactive, 63rd anniversary of Lingayen Gulf Landing commemorated

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