World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Iraqi Interim Government

Article Id: WHEBN0000762287
Reproduction Date:

Title: Iraqi Interim Government  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Iraqi Governing Council, De-Ba'athification, History of Iraq (2003–11), 2004, NATO Training Mission – Iraq
Collection: Cabinets of Iraq, Government of Iraq, Provisional Governments
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Iraqi Interim Government

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Iraq
Constitution

The Iraqi Interim Government was created by the United States and its coalition allies as a caretaker government to govern Iraq until the drafting of the new constitution following the National Assembly election conducted on January 30, 2005. The Iraqi Interim Government itself took the place of the Coalition Provisional Authority (and the Iraq Interim Governing Council) on June 28, 2004, and was replaced by the Iraqi Transitional Government on May 3, 2005.

Contents

  • Organization 1
    • The Law and the head of government 1.1
  • Actions of the Interim Government 2
    • "Precedents" and accusations 2.1
    • Allawi's policies 2.2
    • Criticism 2.3
  • Members of the Interim Government 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Organization

Interim Prime Minister Iyad Allawi.

It was recognized by the U.S., the United Nations, the Arab League and several other countries as being the sovereign government of Iraq (see Iraqi sovereignty for more information). The U.S. retained significant de facto power in the country and critics contend that the government existed only at the pleasure of the United States and other coalition countries, whose military forces still remain in Iraq. The coalition did promise that its troops would leave if the new sovereign government requested it, but no such request was made.

The Law and the head of government

The government's head of government was Prime Minister Iyad Allawi and his deputy was the influential and charismatic Barham Salih. The ceremonial head of state was President Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer. They were all sworn in at a second and more public ceremony on June 28, 2004, shortly after the small private one at which L. Paul Bremer, the Coalition Provisional Authority's administrator, formally gave chief justice Midhat Mahmoud the legal documents instituting the hand-over.

Absent a permanent constitution, the new government operated under the Law of Administration for the State of Iraq for the Transitional Period.

Allawi was a former member of the Iraq Interim Governing Council and was chosen by the council to be the Interim Prime Minister of Iraq to govern the country beginning with the United States' handover of sovereignty (June 28, 2004) until national elections, scheduled for early 2005. Although many believe the decision was reached largely on the advice of United Nations special envoy to Iraq, Lakhdar Brahimi, the New York Times reported that Brahimi only endorsed him reluctantly after pressure from U.S. officials, including Paul Bremer, the former US Iraqi Administrator.[1] Two weeks later, Brahimi announced his resignation, due to "great difficulties and frustration."[2] Allawi is often described as a moderate Shia (a member of Iraq's majority faith) chosen for his secular background and ties to the United States. However, his image has been undermined with the media suggesting that Allawi was Washington's puppet.[3][4]

Actions of the Interim Government

After his interim government assumed legal custody of Saddam Hussein and re-introduced capital punishment, Allawi gave assurances that he would not interfere with the trial and would accept any court decisions. In an interview with Dubai-based TV station al-Arabiya he said: "As for the execution, that is for the court to decide — so long as a decision is reached impartially and fairly."[5]

"Precedents" and accusations

In early July, Allawi issued an unprecedented statement claiming that the Iraqi interim government had provided intelligence for the U.S. air strikers with 500 and 1000 pound (220 and 450 kg) bombs on Fallujah in July. Later he announced new security measures, including the right to impose martial law and curfews, as well as a new counter-terrorist intelligence unit, the General Security Directorate.[6] Allawi vowed to crush the Iraqi insurgency, saying he would "annihilate those terrorist groups".[7]

On July 17, The Sydney Morning Herald alleged that one week before the handover of sovereignty, Allawi himself summarily executed six suspected insurgents at a Baghdad police station.[8] The allegations are backed up by two independent sources[9] and the execution is said to have taken place in presence of about a dozen Iraqi police, four American security men and Interior Minister Falah al-Naqib. Allawi reportedly said that the execution was to "send a clear message to the police on how to deal with insurgents." Both Allawi's office and Naqib have denied the report. US ambassador John Negroponte did not clearly deny the allegations. On July 18, Iraqi militants offered a $285,000 reward for anyone who could kill Iyad Allawi.[10]

Allawi's policies

In August, Allawi closed the Iraqi office of Al Jazeera for thirty days. His minister Hoshiyar Zebari deplored the "one-sided and biased coverage" and declared that the interim government "will not allow some people to hide behind the slogan of freedom of the press and media." Allawi also appointed ex-Baathist and former Saddam intelligence officer Ibrahim Janabi as the head of the Higher Media Commission, a regulator of Iraq's media.[11] The banning of Al Jazeera was widely criticised in the Arab world and the West, for example by Reporters Sans Frontières who called it "a serious blow to press freedom".[12][13]

The negotiations that followed the fighting between Muqtada al-Sadr's militia and joint US/Iraqi forces in Najaf ended when Allawi withdrew his emissary Mouwaffaq al-Rubaie on August 14. An al-Sadr spokesman alleged that they "had agreed with Rubaie on all points but Allawi called him back and he ended the issue."[14]

Criticism

Allawi has been heavily criticised by members of his own government. Justice minister Malik Dohan al-Hassan resigned over the issue of an arrest warrant of Ahmed Chalabi. Vice president Ibrahim al-Jafari commented on the attacks against al-Sadr: "War is the worst choice, and it is only used by a bad politician." Another Iraqi official said: "There are brush fires burning out of control all over the place from terrorists and insurgents, and he starts a new bonfire in Najaf."

While the strategy of "eliminat[ing] Moqtada Sadr's political movement" by "crushing his military power" instead of integrating him into the political process received mostly praise in the West,[15] the Arab press levelled harsh criticism of Allawi's handling of the Najaf situation.[16]

Members of the Interim Government

As appointed on 28 June 2004:[17]

See also

References

  1. ^ Lorimer, Doug (29 June 2004). "IRAQ: US still calls the shots".  
  2. ^ Shamir, Shlomo (13 June 2004). "Brahimi quits post as UN envoy in Iraq".  
  3. ^ "Iraq's New S.O.B.".  
  4. ^  
  5. ^ "U.S. Airstrike on Fallujah House Kills 10".  
  6. ^ Yates, Dean (17 July 2004). "Allawi sets up spy agency".  
  7. ^ "Iraqi PM vows to crush insurgents".  
  8. ^ McGeough, Paul (17 July 2004). "Allawi shot prisoners in cold blood: witnesses".  
  9. ^ McKew, Maxine. "Iraqs interim PM executed six insurgents: witnesses".  
  10. ^ "Fourteen killed in Falluja strike".  
  11. ^ Berkowitz, Bill. "Iraq's Prime Minister suppresses media".  
  12. ^ O'Carroll, Lisa (9 August 2004). "'"Al-Jazeera closure 'a blow to freedom.  
  13. ^ "Banning bad news in Iraq".  
  14. ^ "Talks collapse in Iraqi holy city".  
  15. ^ "Analysis: Will Najaf strategy work?".  
  16. ^ "Press round on Iraq's new leaders".  
  17. ^ "Interim Iraqi government".  

External links

  • Official Homepage of the Iraqi Interim Government
  • Iraq Assembly Off to a Faltering Start (One World, Aug 15)
  • middleeastreference.org.uk: Members of the Iraqi Cabinet
  • Iraq: The interim government leaders (Council on Foreign Relations)
Preceded by
Coalition Provisional Authority
Government of Iraq
June 28, 2004 - May 3, 2005
Succeeded by
Iraqi Transitional Government
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.