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Title: Isopentyl  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Pentyl, Barbiturate
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CAS number 78-78-4 YesY
PubChem 6556 YesY
ChemSpider 6308 YesY
UNII ZH67814I0O YesY
EC number 201-142-8
UN number 1265
MeSH isopentane
ChEBI CHEBI:30362 YesY
RTECS number EK4430000
Beilstein Reference 1730723
Gmelin Reference 49318
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Molecular formula C5H12
Molar mass 72.15 g mol−1
Appearance Colorless liquid
Odor Odorless
Density 616 mg mL−1[2]
Melting point

-161--159 °C, 112-114 K, -258--254 °F

Boiling point

28-28 °C, 300.9-301.3 K, 82-83 °F

Vapor pressure 76.992 kPa (at 20 °C)
kH 7.2 nmol Pa−1 kg−1
λmax 192 nm
Refractive index (nD) 1.354
Std enthalpy of
−179.1–−177.3 kJ mol−1
Std enthalpy of
−3.5052–−3.5036 MJ mol−1
Standard molar
260.41 J K−1 mol−1
Specific heat capacity, C 164.85 J K−1 mol−1
GHS pictograms
GHS signal word DANGER
GHS hazard statements H224, H304, H336, H411
GHS precautionary statements P210, P261, P273, P301+310, P331
EU Index 601-006-00-1
EU classification N
R-phrases R12, R51/53, R65, R66, R67
S-phrases (S2), S16, S29, S33
NFPA 704
Flash point −51 °C
420 °C
Explosive limits 1.4–8.3%
Related compounds
Related alkanes
Related compounds 2-Ethyl-1-butanol
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Isopentane, C5H12, also called methylbutane or 2-methylbutane, is a branched-chain alkane with five carbon atoms. Isopentane is an extremely volatile and extremely flammable liquid at room temperature and pressure. The normal boiling point is just a few degrees above room temperature and isopentane will readily boil and evaporate away on a warm day. Isopentane is commonly used in conjunction with liquid nitrogen to achieve a liquid bath temperature of −160 °C. It is 1% or less of natural gas.[3]


Isopentane is the name recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).[4] An isopentyl group is a subset of the generic pentyl group. It has the chemical structure -CH2CH2CH(CH3)2.


Isopentane is one of three structural isomers with the molecular formula C5H12, the others being pentane (n-pentane) and neopentane (dimethyl propane).


Isopentane is one of the ingredients in both Aquafresh and Sensodyne.[5]


External links

  • International Chemical Safety Card 1153
  • IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry (online version of the "Blue Book")
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