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Javal family

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Javal family

The Javal family originated in Alsace. They benefited from Napoleon I's policy of openness toward Jews, and in the nineteenth century experienced a remarkable ascent, with family members becoming prominent bankers, industrialists, physicians, public officials and artists. Dr Dov Weisbrot says"In the twentieth century, the name Javal was equal in prestige with those of Pereire, Fould, and Rothschild."

The Javal were a family of important captains of industry, businessmen and bankers, well rooted for many generation [in 1889] in Paris and Europe (...) The Javal [...] managed for well over a century that jump in the industrial revolution. Amongst the minority of businessmen and industrials that evolved at the top of French society and integrated with its elite, were the Javal. This family produced all across the 19th century bankers, captains of industry, professors of medicine, high civil servants, members of parliament and artists.[1]

The Javal, writes Pierre Birnbaum have known an exceptional financial success. Since the late 18th century, they participated to numerous economic adventures, from railways to textiles and weaved very close links with the business world [...] At the heart of an international industrial network, they start in the early 19th century financial operations on a vast scale, gathering a considerable fortune that places them in the first rank of the social elite.[2]

Early history

The family fortune began in the early part of the eighteenth century but really took off with the industrial revolution. Starting with the two Javal brothers (both named Jacques, and called respectively Jacques Javal the Elder and Jacque Javal the Younger) that operated a spinning mill in Mulhouse.

In 1826, Jacques Javal the Young entered the Board of Manufacturers and in 1828 he was made ​​a Knight of the Legion of Honor, under its industrial activity on the proposal of Count Chabrol de Volvic, prefect of the Seine. He built a mansion at the bottom of rue Taitbout while his son and partner, Joseph, settled rue Chauchat. When Jacques the Younger retired in 1835, he was one of France's richest men.

Leopold Javal

Jacques the Young sponsored Leopold, then 31 years old, to invest in new businesses. Leopold invested in mines in Provence , in pipeline companies, a department store, a public bathhouse on the Seine at the foot of the Samaritaine, a housing neighbourhood for workers in Montrouge. In ten years, he multiplied by three the capital of the family companies and created his own personal fortune. He took control of the banking side of the family empire and renamed it "Leopold Javal and C ie "and took the lead. Through this bank, it invests in the development of railway lines, in combination with the house Koechlin.

He also took up a political career as general counsel of the Gironde from 1851, with the support of the imperial regime, and as a representative of the department of the Yonne to the Legislature to from 1857, where he appeared first as a Republican against the Bonapartist candidate, and was consistently re-elected in 1863, 1869 and 1871. In 1862, he was made ​​an Officier de la Legion d'honneur. He lived at the end of his life, an hotel particulier of rue d'Anjou and started the very important Javal art collection with paintings of François Boucher, Claude Joseph Vernet, Canaletto, Andrea del Sarto, Bruegel and Rubens.

in 1838, he married Augusta de Laemel, daughter of the financier Léopold von Laemel et of the baroness Sophia von Eichthal, sister of the baron Simon von Eichthal.

Being heavily influenced by Saint-Simonism, he began by planting pine and drilled wells and was passionate also about agriculture  : he was taking a lot of care and being very innovative with his properties in the countryside, be it in the over 300 hectares around the cistercian abbaye of Vauluisant that the Javal owned or in Andernos where he enlarged Audenge to Ares and to Lacanau to form a vast area of over 3000 hectares.

Houbigant

The Javal owned the perfume House Houbigant, the second oldest perfume house in Europe. Operating since 1775, the House of Houbigant is the only fragrance house that has existed through four centuries of history. Through these centuries, the perfumers of the House of Houbigant have made groundbreaking discoveries in the formulation of perfumes that have revolutionized forever the way perfumes are constructed.

Over the centuries, the House of Houbigant became perfumer to the royal courts of Europe. When in 1793 Marie-Antoinette was guillotined, she carried 3 vials of Houbigant perfume in her corsage to give her strength. Josephine, the future Empress of France, belonged to a group of stylish young men and women called “The Muscadins” because of their craze for musk which was Josephine’s favourite essence. Houbigant fragrances travelled in Napoleon’s campaign chest during the years when he was conquering Europe. In the spring of 1815 Napoleon was only in Paris for three months, a period known as the "Hundred Days". In those brief months he raised an army and yet found time to shop at Houbigant.

In 1829, Houbigant was appointed perfumer to Her Royal Highness, the Princess Adelaide d’Orleans, mother of King Louis-Philippe. In 1838, the French house was awarded the license of “Perfumer to Her Majesty, Queen Victoria of England”. Czar Alexander III named Houbigant perfumer to the Imperial Court of Russia in 1890. Houbigant created a perfume, “The Czarina’s Bouquet”, in honor of the Empress, Maria Fyodorovna. When her son ascended the throne as Czar Nicolas II in 1894, Houbigant continued as royal perfumer. Hand-written ledgers record the purchases of the Dowager Empress from 1900 until the eve of the Russian Revolution in 1917. Her sister, Queen Alexandra, wife of King Edward VII, began her purchases in 1902. The account books reveal that the two queens did their Christmas shopping together at Houbigant. Other royalty luminaries include La Comtesse de Saxe, first cousin of Louis XVI the King and Queen of Holland; the Queen of Italy; Princess Mathilde, sister of Napoleon, Prince of Battenberg; Le Duc de Mouchy; Tolstoy; the Russian Ambassador; Guy de Maupassant; the Rothschilds and more.

In 1882, the famous Fougère Royale came out, a fragrance that would define a new category of perfumes — the "fougère" (or fern-like) fragrance family, which is still today the most popular family in men fragrances. In 1912, Houbigant perfumer Bienaimé picked up the ball from Paul Parquet and introduced Quelque Fleurs, one of Houbigant's all time great fragrances and the first multi-floral bouquet ever created. During the same period, Houbigant stretched out its commercial arms around the world. Under the direction of the Paris office, offices were established in the United States, England, Belgium, Holland, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Poland, Romania. Connections were made in Havana, Buenos-Aires, Rio-de-Janeiro, Australia, Japan, and China.

The Weiller

With the Weiller branch (Paul-Louis Weiller, son of industrialist and politician Lazare Weiller (1858-1928) and Alice Javal, the first woman to ever pilot an airplane), they conducted an intense social life between the royal families of Europe, the great men of and political affairs ( Aristotle Onassis, Henry Ford, Jean Paul Getty, Richard Nixon, Georges Pompidou ... with whom Paul-Louis Weiller sometimes worked or whom sometimes worked for him), the personalities of the arts and letters show that it brings in the last of the Parisian salons in the tradition of those described by Marcel Proust. Paul-Louis Weiller also funded many charities.

Captain of industry at the age of twenty-nine years, from 1922 to 1940, Paul-Louis Weiller developed the largest construction company of aircraft in Europe, the Gnome et Rhône conglomerate, which became the Snecma after nationalization in 1945 . From 1925, he gradually buys the capital of the airline CIDNA. He participated in the creation of other airlines to Africa. They will all be nationalized in 1933 to become Air France, of which he will be one of the first directors (he was offered in 1933 by Pierre Cot, the Ministre de l'Air, to be President of Air France, but he refused).

Paul-Louis Weiller was married August 29, 1922 in Paris, with Princess Alexandra Ghica (of the ruling princes of Wallachia and Moldavia) with whom he had a daughter, Mary Elizabeth and whom he divorced in 1931.

He married second wife Aliki Diplarakou, Miss Europe in 1930. Aliki was the daughter of a diplomat Georgios Diplarakos. She had three sisters, Nada Diplarakos who married French Ambassador André Rodocanachi, Cristina Diplarakos, who married Henri Claudel, a son of the French poet Paul Claudel. Aliki second marriage was in in 1945 with Sir John (Jack) Wriothesley Russell (23 August 1914 - 3 August 1984), an English aristocrat who was descended from John Russell, 6th Duke of Bedford and cousin of the philosopher Bertram Russell.

They had a son Paul-Annik Weiller (1933-1998)[3]http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/obituary-paulannik-weiller-1184109.html who married in Rome, in Santa Maria in Trastevere in 1965, Emmanuela Donna Olimpia a Torlonia di Civitella-Cesi. She was the daughter of


The daughter of Paul-Annik, Sibilla Weiller married in 1994 Prince Guillaume of Luxembourg, Prince of Nassau and Parma, youngest son of Grand Duke Jean of Luxembourg (descendants and heirs of the House of Nassau-Weilburg, agnatically, now a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon-Parma, itself a cadet branch of the House of Capet)

Cerf Herschel Jacob (became Javal in 1808) (1751-1819), merchant at Seppois-le-Bas
x (1) : Hindel Juda Blum
│
├──> Jacques Javal the Elder
│    x Claire Schöngrun (died in 1822)
│    │
│    └──> Joseph Javal ( -1844)
│         x Julie Javal
│
├──> Jacques Javal the Younger ( -1858)
│    x Lucie Blumenthal
│    │
│    ├──> Julie Javal
│    │    x Joseph Javal ( -1844)
│    │       
│    └──> Léopold Javal (1804-1872), banker, agronomist, republican deputy of Yonne
│         x (22 July 1838) Augusta de Laemel (1817-1893)
│         │
│         ├──> Louis Émile Javal (1839-1907), ophthalmologist, deputy of Yonne
│         │    x (30 July 1867) : Maria-Anna Ellissen (1847-1933)
│         │    │
│         │    ├──> Alice Javal (1869-1943)
│         │    │    x (23 May 1882) Lazare Weiller (1858-1928), industrialist, senator of Bas-Rhin
│         │    │    │
│         │    │    ├──> Jean-Pierre Weiller (1890- ?)
│         │    │    │
│         │    │    ├──> Marie-Thérèse Weiller (1890- ?)
│         │    │    │
│         │    │    ├──> Georges-André Weiller (1892- ?)
│         │    │    │
│         │    │    └──> Paul-Louis Weiller (1893-1993), industrialist and financier
│         │    │
│         │    ├──> Jeanne Félicie Javal (1871- ?)
│         │    │    x Paul Louis Weiss (1867-1945), engineer
│         │    │    │
│         │    │    ├──> Louise Weiss (1893-1983), journalist and politician
│         │    │    │
│         │    │    ├──> Emile Jean Jacques Weiss (1894-1987), inspector of finances
│         │    │    │
│         │    │    ├──> André Eugène Paul Weiss (1899-1950), prefect
│         │    │    │
│         │    │    ├──> Francis Weiss
│         │    │    │
│         │    │    └──> Marie Jenny Emilie Weiss (1903-1987), pediatrician and psychoanalyst
│         │    │           x Alexandre Roudinesco
│         │    │           │  
│         │    │           └──> Élisabeth Roudinesco (1944-), historian and psychoanalyst
│         │    │
│         │    ├──> Jean Javal (1871-1915), engineer, deputy of Yonne
│         │    │    x Lily Lévy (1882-1958), writer
│         │    │
│         │    ├──> Louis Adolphe Javal (1873-1944), professor of medicine
│         │    │    │
│         │    │    ├──> 
│         │    │    │    } 2 daughters died in a concentration camp
│         │    │    ├──> 
│         │    │    │
│         │    │    └──> Léopold Javal
│         │    │
│         │    └──> Mathilde Julie Javal (1876-1944)
│         │         
│         │  
│         ├──> Pauline Javal (1842- ?)
│         │    x Jean Théodore de Salemfelds, officer in the army of Austria-Hungary
│         │ 
│         ├──> Ernest Javal (1843-1897), prefect of La Creuse
│         │    x Marie Seligmann
│         │   
│         ├──> Eugène Javal (1846-1847)
│         │
│         ├──> Alfred Javal (1848-1921), engineer and industrialist
│         │ 
│         └──> Sophie Javal (1853-1947)
│              x (1878) : Paul Wallerstein (died in 1903), engineer
│          
│
├──> 2 other sons
│
│
│
x (2) : Keyle Felix

Notes and references

Bibliography

  • Frédéric Viey, « La famille Javal », in : Léo Hamon (dir.), Les Républicains sous le Second Empire, Entretiens d'Auxerre, Paris, Éditions de la Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, 1993, p. 91
  • Dr Dov Weisbrot, “France in the European Domain: Identity, Languages and Revolutions”

External links

  • La Famille Javal
  • Obituary of Paul Annik Weiller http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/obituary-paulannik-weiller-1184109.html
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