World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Kad network

Article Id: WHEBN0001756564
Reproduction Date:

Title: Kad network  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: EMule, AMule, Comparison of file sharing applications, KMLDonkey, Kademlia
Collection: File Sharing Networks
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Kad network

The Kad network is a peer-to-peer (P2P) network which implements the Kademlia P2P overlay protocol.[1] The majority of users on the Kad Network are also connected to servers on the eDonkey network, and Kad Network clients typically query known nodes on the eDonkey network in order to find an initial node on the Kad network.


  • Usage 1
  • Clients 2
    • Client Search 2.1
    • Major Clients 2.2
    • Malware/Virus 2.3
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5


The Kad network uses a UDP-based protocol to:

  • Find sources for eD2k hashes.
  • Search for eD2k hashes based on keywords in the file name.
  • Find comments and ratings for files (hashes).
  • Provide buddy services for firewalled (Low ID) nodes.
  • Store locations, comments and (keywords out of) filenames.

Note that the Kad network is not used to actually transfer files across the P2P network. Instead, when a file transfer is initiated, clients connect directly to each other (using the standard public IP network). This traffic is susceptible to blocking/shaping/tracking by an ISP or any other opportunistic middle-man.

As with all decentralized networks, the Kad network requires no official or common servers. As such, it cannot be disabled by shutting down a given subset of key nodes. While the decentralization of the network prevents a simple shut-down, traffic analysis and deep packet inspection will more readily identify the traffic as P2P due to the high variable-destination packet throughput. The large packet volume typically causes a reduction in available CPU and/or network resources usually associated with P2P traffic.


Client Search

The Kad network supports searching of files by name and a number of secondary characteristics such as size, extension, bit-rate, and more. Features vary based on client used.

Major Clients

Only a few major clients currently support the Kad network implementation. However, they comprise over 80% of the user base and are probably closer to 95% of ed2k installations.

  • eMule: An open source Windows client which is the most popular, with 80% of network users. It also runs on Linux using the Wine libraries.
There are a number of minor variants, or forks, of eMule which support the same basic features as eMule itself. They include: aMule (A Linux client similar to eMule) and eMule Mods (not eMule Plus), possibly others.


  • TDL-4: A botnet virus that is reported[2] to use this network as a backup for updates and new instructions if its Command and Control servers are taken down.

See also


  1. ^ Wang, Peng; Tyra, James; Chain-Tin, Eric; Malchow, Tyson; Foo Kune, Denis; Hopper, Nicholas; Kim, Yongdae (September 2008). "Attacking the Kad Network" (PDF). SecureComm. 
  2. ^ "Botnet access to the Kad network". SecureList. Retrieved 30 June 2011. 

External links

  • A global view of KAD
  • Improving Lookup Performance over a Widely-Deployed DHT
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.