Khumar

For other uses, see Khumar (disambiguation).

Khumarinskoye gorodishche (Russian: Хумаринское городище) or Khumar[1] is a ruined medieval fortress on the top of Mount Kalezh above the Kuban Gorge in the Greater Caucasus, Karachay–Cherkessia, Russia.

The fortress, situated 11 km (7 mi) upstream from Karachaevsk and formerly accessed only by ladder, occupies some forty hectares. The 18-foot (5.5 m) high walls, with twelve bastions, were pierced by a single 5-metre-wide gate. The fortifications are supposed to have been constructed either by the Khazars or by the Bulgars in connection with the Khazar-Arab Wars.

The site is rich in pseudo-runic inscriptions, an evidence of early medieval Turkic occupation by tribes of the Saltovo-Mayaki cultural group. Unfortunately, most of the inscriptions were heavily damaged by locals and are now illegible.[2]

Among the more controversial finds from the site was a folding, modular altar unearthed in the area. Scholars at the archaeological museum in Rostov-on-Don asserted that the altar was part of a Khazar Jewish shrine built in imitation of the Biblical mishkan.[3]

In the 9th and 10th centuries, it was the site of a populous town, mentioned in Byzantine and Georgian sources as Skhimar (Russian: Схимар). It is believed that St. Maximus the Confessor was held there during his exile to the Caucasus. Within four kilometers from the fortress stands the Shoana Church (ca. 925), first described by Abraham Firkovich in 1848.

The town was destroyed by Tamerlane during his invasion of the Golden Horde in 1396.

Notes

References

  • Brook, Kevin Alan. The Jews of Khazaria, 2d ed. Rowman & Littlefield, Inc., 2006.
  • Ya'ari, Ehud. "Skeletons in the Closet." The Jerusalem Report. Vol 6, No. 9, September 7, 1995. pp. 26–30.

External links

  • Official website of Karachaevsk
  • Views of the ruins
  • (Russian) Khumarinskoye runic inscriptions
  • (Russian) Treasure troves at Khumarinskoye
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.