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Kingdom of Hejaz

Kingdom of Hejaz
مملكة الحجاز
Mamlakat al-Ḥijāz

1916–1925
 

Flag Coat of arms
Kingdom of Hejaz (green) and present Hejaz region (red)
on the Arabian Peninsula.
Capital Mecca
Languages Arabic
Ottoman Turkish
Religion Islam
Government Absolute monarchy
King
 •  1916–1924 Hussein bin Ali
 •  1924–1925 Ali bin Hussein
Historical era Interwar period
 •  Kingdom established 10 June 1916
 •  Recognized 10 August 1920
 •  Conquered by Nejd 19 December 1925
 •  Ibn Saud crowned King of Hejaz 8 January 1926
Population
 •  1920 est. 850,000 

The Kingdom of Hejaz (Arabic: مملكة الحجاز‎, Mamlakat al-Ḥijāz) was a state in the Hejaz region ruled by the Hashemite family. It became independent from the collapsing Ottoman Empire as a result of World War I when the Sharif of Mecca made a deal with the British that the Arab population would be instigated to revolt against the Turks in exchange for a unified Arab country. The Hejaz region had strategic infrastructure, particularly the Hejaz Railway, which was being used to reinforce Turkish forces in the region.

In 1916, the Sharif of Mecca declared himself King of Hejaz as his Sharifian Army participated with other Arab forces and the British Empire in expelling the Turks from the Arabian peninsula.[1][2]

The kingdom was conquered in 1925 by the neighbouring Sultanate of Nejd under a resurgent House of Saud, creating the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd.[3] On 23 September 1932, the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd joined the Saudi dominions of Al-Hasa and Qatif as the unified Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.[4][5]

Kings of Hejaz

See also

References

  1. ^ Baker, Randall (1979), King Husain and the Kingdom of Hejaz, Oleander Press,  
  2. ^ Teitelbaum, Joshua (2001), The rise and fall of the Hashimite Kingdom of Arabia, New York University Press,  
  3. ^ Yamani, Mai (2009), Cradle of Islam : the Hijaz and the quest for an Arabian identity (Pbk. ed.), I.B. Tauris,  
  4. ^ Madawi Al-Rasheed. A History of Saudi Arabia. Cambridge, England, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
  5. ^ A Brief overview of Hejaz - Hejaz history
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