World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Kola nut

Kola nut – pod (with seeds inside their white testa), and seeds (whole without testa and split into cotyledons).

The kola nut is the fruit of the kola tree, a genus (Cola) of trees that are native to the tropical rainforests of Africa. The caffeine-containing fruit of the tree is used as a flavoring ingredient in beverages, and is the origin of the term "cola".

Contents

  • General description 1
  • Uses 2
  • History 3
  • Cultivation 4
    • Pests and diseases 4.1
  • Chemical composition 5
  • References in culture 6
  • Notes 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9

General description

Cola acuminata

The Kola nut is a caffeine-containing nut of evergreen trees of the genus Cola, primarily of the species Cola acuminata and Cola nitida.[1] Cola acuminata, an evergreen tree about 20 metres in height, has long, ovoid leaves pointed at both the ends with a leathery texture. The trees have yellow flowers with purple spots, and star-shaped fruit. Inside the fruit, about a dozen round or square seeds develop in a white seed-shell. The nut’s aroma is sweet and rose-like. The first taste is bitter, but it sweetens upon chewing. The nut can be boiled to extract the cola. This tree reaches 25 meters in height and is propagated through seeds. C. nitida and C. acuminata can easily be interchanged with other Cola species.

Kola nuts comprise about 2% caffeine, as well as containing kolanin and theobromine. All three chemicals function as stimulants.[2]

Uses

The kola nut has a bitter flavor and contains caffeine. It is chewed in many West African cultures, individually or in a group setting. It is often used ceremonially, presented to chiefs or presented to guests.[3]

Kola nuts are perhaps best known to Western culture as a flavoring ingredient and one of the sources of caffeine in cola and other similarly flavored beverages, although the use of kola (or kola flavoring) in commercial cola drinks has become uncommon. [4]

History

Human use of the kola nut, like the coffee berry and tea leaf, appears to have ancient origins. It is chewed in many West African cultures, individually or in a social setting, to restore vitality and ease hunger pangs.

Kola nuts are an important part of the traditional spiritual practice of culture and religion in West Africa, particularly Niger and Nigeria.[5] The 1970s hit "Goro City", by Manu Dibango, highlights the significance of kola nuts (called "goro" in the Haussa language) to the capital of Niger, Niamey. Kola nuts are used as a religious object and sacred offering during prayers, ancestor veneration, and significant life events, such as naming ceremonies, weddings, and funerals. They are also used in a traditional divination system called Obi divination. For this use, only kola nuts divided into four lobes are suitable. They are cast upon a special wooden board and the resulting patterns are read by a trained diviner.[6] This ancient practice is currently enjoying increased growth within the United States and Caribbean.

There are a number of competing theories about the origin of Coca-Cola. One account holds that in the 1800s, a pharmacist in Georgia, John Pemberton, took extracts of kola and coca and mixed them with sugar, other ingredients, and carbonated water to invent the first cola soft drink. His accountant tasted it and called it "Coca-Cola". The current recipe is a jealously guarded trade secret; it is unknown whether kola nut is still used in Coca-Cola, however the recipe continues to use "de-cocainized" coca extract.[7][8]

Cultivation

Worldwide kola nut yield

Originally a tree of tropical rainforest, it needs a hot humid climate, but can withstand a dry season on sites with a high ground water level. It may be cultivated in drier areas where ground water is available. C. nitida is a shade bearer, but develops a better spreading crown which yields more fruits in open places. Though it is a lowland forest tree, it has been found at altitudes over 300 m on deep, rich soils under heavy and evenly distributed rainfall.

Regular weeding is a must and can either be done manually or by using herbicides. Some irrigation can be provided to the plants, but it is important to remove the water through an effective drainage system, as excess water may prove to be detrimental for the growth of the plant. When not grown in adequate shade, the kola nut plant responds well to fertilizers. Usually, the plants need to be provided with windbreaks to protect them from strong gales.

Kola nuts can be harvested mechanically or by hand, by plucking them at the tree branch. When kept in a cool, dry place, kola nuts can be stored for a long time.

Pests and diseases

The nuts are subject to attack by the kola weevil Balanogastris cola. The larvae of the moth Characoma strictigrapta that also attacks cacao bore into the nuts. Traders sometimes apply an extract of the bark of Rauvolfia vomitoria or the pulverised fruits of Xylopia and Capsicum to counteract the attack on nursery plants. The cacao pests Sahlbergella spp. have been found also on C. nitida as an alternative host plant. While seeds are liable to worm attack, the wood is subject to borer attack.

Chemical composition

References in culture

A kola nut ceremony is briefly described in Chinua Achebe's 1959 novel Things Fall Apart. The eating of kola nuts is referred to at least a further ten times in the novel showing the significance of the kola nut in pre-colonial 1890s Nigerian culture.

The kola nut is also mentioned in The Color Purple by Alice Walker, although it is misspelled "cola".

The kola nut is mentioned in Bloc Party's song "Where is Home?" off of the album Weekend in the City. The lyric, setting a post-funeral scene for the murder of a black boy in London, reads; "After the funeral, breaking kola nuts, we sit and reminisce about the past."

Notes

  1. ^ Burdock, G. A.; Carabin, I. G.; Crincoli, C. M. (2009). "Safety Assessment of Kola Nut Extract as a Food Ingredient".  
  2. ^ Erbe, Lawrence (2014). "Cola". Encyclopedia Americana (Grolier Online). 
  3. ^ "Kola Nut". Igbo insight guide to Enugu and Igboland's Culture and Language. igboguide.org. 
  4. ^ Aina Adewale-Somadhi (2004). Practitioner's Handbook for the IFA Professional. Ile Orunmila Communications. p. 1.  
  5. ^ Epega, A. A. (2003). Obi Divination. Athelia Henrietta Press. pp. 1–2.  
  6. ^ http://www.snopes.com/cokelore/formula.asp
  7. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/1988/07/01/business/how-coca-cola-obtains-its-coca.html

References

  • Jarvis, G. (May 21, 2002). "The Rise and Fall of Cocaine Cola". LewRockwell.com. 
  • Kim, Katherine, (2001). Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine
  • Mariama Bâ, "So Long a Letter"

External links

  • Cola in West African plants – A Photo Guide.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.