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Korean postpositions

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Korean postpositions

Korean postpositions are suffixes or short words in Korean grammar that immediately follow a noun or pronoun. This article uses the Revised romanization to show pronunciation. Look to the hangul versions underneath for the official orthographic form.


| Nouns (topic) | Naneun haksaengida.
나는 학생이다. || I am a student. |- | Nouns (topic) | Igeoseun yeonpirida.
이것은 연필이다. || This is a pencil. |- | Nouns (genericized nominative) | Chitaneun ppareuda.
치타는 빠르다. || Cheetahs are fast. |- | Nouns (topic) | Jeoneun jjajangmyeon juseyo.
저는 짜장면 주세요. || I'd like a jajangmyeon. |-

!
i/ga
이/가

| colspan="2" | Used as an identifier particle or a subject particle. I 이 is used following a consonant, Ga 가 is used following a vowel. |- | Nouns (agent) | Naega masyeotda.
내가 마셨다. || I drank. |- | Nouns (identifier) | Jeogeosi Han-gang-iya.
저것이 한강이야. || That is the Han River. |- | Nouns (specific nominative) | Chitaga neurida.
치타가 느리다. || This cheetah is slow. |-

!
do

| colspan="2" | Used as an additive particle. When dealing with additive qualities/descriptions of the same subject, ttohan 또한 is used. |- | Nouns | Geunyeodo gongbuhanda.
그녀도 공부한다. || She studies too. |- | Nouns (additive) | Jeongnameun guninieotda. Geuneun ttohan jeongchigayeotda.
정남은 군인이었다. 그는 또한 정치가였다. || Jeong-nam was a soldier. He was also a politician. |-

!
(r-)eul
을/를

| colspan="2" | Used as an object particle. Eul 을 is used following a consonant, Reul 를 is used following a vowel, |- | Nouns (objective) | Naneun Ramyeoneul meogeotda.
나는 라면을 먹었다. || I ate ramen. |-

!
ege/hante
에게/한테

| colspan="2" | Used as a dative particle. Ege 에게 is the literary form, and Hante 한테 is the colloquial form. |- | Noun | Neohuiege hal mari itda.
너희에게 할 말이 있다. || I have something to tell you. |-

!
kke

| colspan="2" | Kke 께 is the honorific dative marker. |- | Noun | Goyongjukke seonmureul deuryeotda.
고용주께 선물을 드렸다. || I gave a gift to my employer. |-

!
(eu)ro
으로/로

| colspan="2" | Used to mark the instrumental case, which can also denote destination or role. Euro 으로 is used following a consonant other than 'ㄹ', which is abbreviated to Ro 로 following a vowel or a consonant 'ㄹ'. |- | Noun (means) | KTX-ro Seoureseo Busankkaji se sigan geollinda.
KTX로 서울에서 부산까지 3시간 걸린다. || It takes 3 hours to go from Seoul to Busan via KTX. |- | Noun (destination) | Naeil Hojuro tteonamnida.
내일 호주로 떠납니다. || I am leaving for Australia tomorrow. |- | Noun (role) | Unjeonsaro chwijikhaeyo.
운전사로 취직해요. || I'm going to be working as a driver. |-

!
e

| colspan="2" | Used for any words relating to time or place. |- | Time (noun) | Maikeureun parweore watda.
마이클은 8월에 왔다. || Michael came in August. |- | Location (noun) | Jedongeun ilbone gatda.
제동은 일본에 갔다. || Jedong went to Japan. |-

!
eseo
에서

| colspan="2" | Translates to: "from" when used with a motion verb. May also be used as "at", "in" when used with an action verb which is not motion related. |- | Noun (from) | Junggugeseo wasseo.
중국에서 왔어. || I came from China. |- | Noun (in) | Bang-eseo gongbu-reul haet-da.
방에서 공부를 했다. || I studied in my room. |-

!
man

| colspan="2" | Translates to: "only", used after a noun. |- | Noun | Ojik jeimseu-man hangugeo-reul gongbu-haet-da.
오직 제임스만 한국어를 공부했다. || Only James studied Korean. |-

!
ui

| colspan="2" | Functions as: possession indicator, noun link, topic marker. |- | Noun: possession | Migugui daetongryeong
미국의 대통령 || President of the United States |-

!
(g)wa
과/와

| colspan="2" | Translates to: "and" (conjunction); "with" or "as with" (preposition). Gwa 과 is used following a consonant, Wa 와 is used following a vowel. |- | Nouns: conjunction | Neowa na
나 || You and I |-

|}

References

  • Martin SE (2006). Reference Grammar of Korean: A Complete Guide to the Grammar and History of the Korean Language. Tuttle Publishing.
  • Vincent M, Yeon J (2010). Complete Korean. McGraw-Hill Professional.
  • Ihm Ho Bin, Hong Kyung Pyo, and Chang Suk In. Korean Grammar for International Learners. Yonsei University Press


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