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Leagues of China

Leagues of Inner Mongolia

A league (Mongolian: (ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ) ayimaγ [æːmɑ̆ɡ̊] Aimag; historically, čiγulγan [t͡ʃʰʊːlɡ̊ɑ̆n] Qûûlgan; Chinese: ; pinyin: méng) is an administrative unit of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China.

Leagues are the prefectures of ROC era, the leagues had a status equivalent to provinces. Leagues contain banners, equivalent to counties.

After the establishment of the provincial level Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in 1947, leagues of Inner Mongolia became equal to prefectures in other provinces and autonomous regions. The governments of the league, (Chinese: 行政公署; pinyin: xíngzhènggōngshǔ), is the administrative branch office dispatched by People's Government of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The leader of the league's government, titled as league leader (simplified Chinese: 盟长; traditional Chinese: 盟長; pinyin: méngzhǎng), is appointed by People's Government of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. So are deputy leaders of leagues. Instead of local level of People's Congress, league's working commissions of the Standing Committee of the People’s Congress of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region are detached and supervise the league's governments, but can not elect or dismiss league's government officials.[1] In such a way, the league's working committee of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region's committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference is instead of league's committee of CPPCC.

Just like prefectures, most leagues have been replaced by prefecture-level cities. There are only 3 leagues remaining in Inner Mongolia.

Leagues have existed since the Qing Dynasty as a level of government. The head of a league was chosen from jasagh or sula of the banners belonging to it. The original six leagues were Jirem, Ju Ud, Jost, Xilingol, Ulanqab, and Ih Ju. More were added in the subsequent centuries.

Today, leagues belong to the prefecture-level cities.

Contents

  • Leagues (1949-present) 1
    • Current 1.1
    • Defunct 1.2
  • Original leagues of the Qing 2
    • The 6 leagues under Inner Mongolia 2.1
    • Other league 2.2
    • Changes 2.3
  • References 3
  • See also 4

Leagues (1949-present)

Current

Name Mongolian Transcription and IPA
(Chakhar Mongolian)
Simplified
Chinese
Pinyin Capital Notes
Hinggan ᠬᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ Hinggan [xɪŋɡ̊ɑ̆n] 兴安 Xīng'ān Ulaanhot Established: 26 July 1980
Xilingol ᠰᠢᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠣᠤᠯ Xiliin Gôl 锡林郭勒 Xīlínguōlè Xilinhot Present day: Xilingol and Hinggan (1954)
Alxa ᠠᠯᠠᠱᠠᠨ Alxaa 阿拉善 Ālāshàn Bayanhot Until 1954 it was known as Alxa Öölüd Banners and Ejin Torghuud Banner

Defunct

Name Mongolian Transcription and IPA
(Chakhar Mongolian)
Simplified
Chinese
Pinyin Capital Notes
Bayannur ᠪᠠᠶ᠋ᠠᠨᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ Bayan Nûûr 巴彦淖尔 Bāyànnào'ěr Linhe
(Linhe District)
Dissolution: 1 December 2003
Present day: Bayannur (prefecture-level city)
Jirem ᠵᠢᠷᠢᠮ Jirem 哲里木 Zhélǐmù Bayisingtu
(Horqin District)
Dissolution: 13 January 1999
Present day: Tongliao (prefecture-level city)
Ju Ud
Ju'ud
ᠵᠤᠤ ᠤᠳᠠ Jûû Ûd 昭乌达 Zhāowūdá Ulanhad
(Hongshan District)
Dissolution: 10 October 1983
Present day: Chifeng (prefecture-level city)
Jost ᠵᠣᠰᠤᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ Jôstiin 卓索图 Zhuósuǒtú Chaoyang
(Shuangta District)
Dissolution: 10 October 1911
Present day: Fuxin, Chaoyang, and part of Chifeng (prefecture-level city)
Chahar ᠴᠠᠬᠠᠷ Qahar 察哈尔 Cháhā'ěr Baochang Dissolution: 1 October 1958
merged into Xilingol and Ulanqab
Ulanqab ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨᠴᠠᠪ Ulaanqab 乌兰察布 Wūlánchábù Jining
(Jining District)
Dissolution: 1 December 2003
Present day: Ulanqab (prefecture-level city), Baotou (1954), & Bayannur (1954)
Ih Ju
Ihju
ᠶᠡᠺᠡ ᠵᠣᠤ Ih Jûû 伊克昭 Yīkèzhāo Dongsheng
(Dongsheng District)
Dissolution: 26 February 2001
Present day: Ordos (prefecture-level city)
Heilongjiang (present day northern part of Inner Mongolia)
Hulunbuir–Nunmoron
Holonbuir–Nunmoron
ᠬᠥᠯᠦᠨᠪᠤᠶᠢᠷ ᠨᠤᠨ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ Holon Bûir–Nûûn Moron 呼伦贝尔纳文慕仁 / 呼纳 Hūlúnbèi'ěr–Nàwénmùrén /
Hūnà
Hailar
(Hailar District)
Dissolution: 1 April 1953 merge into Inner Mongolia Eastern Administrative Zone
Hulunbuir
Holonbuir
ᠬᠥᠯᠦᠨᠪᠤᠶᠢᠷ Holon Bûir 呼伦贝尔 Hūlúnbèi'ěr Hailar
(Hailar District)
Dissolution: 11 April 1949
Merged into Hulunbuir–Nunmoron
Re-established: 21 May 1954
Dissolution: 10 October 2001 (present day greater Hulunbuir)
Nun Moron
Nunmoron
ᠨᠤᠨ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ Nûûn Moron 纳文慕仁 Nàwénmùrén Zalantun Dissolution: 11 April 1949
merge into Hulunbuir–Nunmoron

Original leagues of the Qing

The 6 leagues under Inner Mongolia

Name Mongolian Transcription and IPA
(Chakhar Mongolian)
Simplified
Chinese
Pinyin Tribes & Banners Notes
Jirem ᠵᠢᠷᠢᠮ Jirem 哲里木 Zhélǐmù 4 tribes
10 banners
Jost ᠵᠣᠰᠤᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ Jôstiin 卓索图 Zhuósuǒtú 2 tribes
5 banners
Ju Ud
Ju'ud
ᠵᠤᠤ ᠤᠳᠠ Jûû Ûd 昭乌达 Zhāowūdá 8 tribes
11 banners
Xilingol ᠰᠢᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠣᠤᠯ Xiliin Gôl 锡林郭勒 Xīlínguōlè 5 tribes
10 banners
Ulanqab ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨᠴᠠᠪ Ulaanqab 乌兰察布 Wūlánchábù 4 tribes
6 banners
Ih Ju
Ihju
ᠶᠡᠺᠡ ᠵᠣᠤ Ih Jûû 伊克昭 Yīkèzhāo 1 tribe
7 banners

Other league

Name Mongolian Transcription and IPA
(Chakhar Mongolian)
Simplified
Chinese
Pinyin Tribes & Banners Notes
Chahar ᠴᠠᠬᠠᠷ Qahar 察哈尔 Cháhā'ěr 8 banners

Changes

Year(s) Leagues
1636-1928 (Qûûlgan) Jirem, Ju Ud, Jost, Xilingol, Ulanqab, and Ih Ju
1928-1938 (Qûûlgan and Province) Jirem, Ju Ud, Jost, Xilingol, Chahar Province (Qahar), Ulanqab, and Ih Ju
1938-1945 (ROC) Jirem, Ih Ju
1938-1945 (Mengjiang) Ju Ud, Xilingol, Chahar (Qahar), Ulanqab, Bayantala (Bayantal)
1945-1948 (Aimag) Nun Moron, Jirem, Ju Ud, Jost, Xilingol, Qahar, Ulanqab, and Ih Ju
1948-1949 (Aimag) Hulunbuir, Nun Moron, Jirem, Ju Ud, Jost, Xilingol, Qahar, Ulanqab, and Ih Ju
1949 (Aimag) Hulunbuir, Nun Moron, Jirem, Ju Ud, Jost, Xilingol, Qahar, Ulanqab, and Ih Ju
1949-1953 (Aimag) Hulunbuir–Nun Moron, Hinggan, Jirem, Ju Ud, Xilingol, Qahar
1953 (Aimag) Ju Ud, Xilingol, Qahar
1953-1956 (Aimag) Hulunbuir, Jirem, Ju Ud, Xilingol, Qahar, Ulanqab, Ih Ju
1956-1958 (Aimag) Hulunbuir, Jirem, Ju Ud, Xilingol, Qahar, Ulanqab, Ih Ju, Bayannur
1958-1969 (Aimag) Hulunbuir, Jirem, Ju Ud, Xilingol, Ulanqab, Ih Ju, Bayannur
1969-1979 (Inner Mongolia) Xilingol, Ulanqab, Ih Ju, Bayannur
1969-1979 (Heilongjiang) Hulunbuir
1969-1979 (Jilin) Jirem
1979-1980 (Aimag) Hulunbuir, Jirem, Ju Ud, Xilingol, Ulanqab, Ih Ju, Bayannur, Alxa
1980-1983 (Aimag) Hulunbuir, Hinggan, Jirem, Ju Ud, Xilingol, Ulanqab, Ih Ju, Bayannur, Alxa
1983-1999 (Aimag) Hulunbuir, Hinggan, Jirem, Xilingol, Ulanqab, Ih Ju, Bayannur, Alxa
1999-2001 (Aimag) Hulunbuir, Hinggan, Xilingol, Ulanqab, Ih Ju, Bayannur, Alxa
2001-2003 (Aimag) Hinggan, Xilingol, Ulanqab, Bayannur, Alxa
2003–present (Aimag) Hinggan, Xilingol, Alxa

References

  1. ^ "The standing committee of the people’s congress of a province and autonomous region may set up administrative offices in the prefectures under its jurisdiction. " from Item 2, Article 53, Organic Law of the Local People’s Congresses and Local People’s Governments of the People’s Republic of China (2004 Revision)

See also

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