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Title: Linaria  
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Subject: Nuttallanthus, Picture of the day/June 2, 2005, Linaria dalmatica, Toadflax, Linaria ricardoi
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For the bird genus see Linaria (bird genus)
Common toadflax (Linaria vulgaris)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Plantaginaceae
Tribe: Antirrhineae
Genus: Linaria

see text

Linaria is a genus of 150 species of herbaceous annuals and perennials and the largest genus in the Antirrhineae tribe of the Plantaginaceae family.


  • Taxonomy 1
    • Species 1.1
    • Etymology 1.2
  • Distribution and habitat 2
  • Ecology 3
  • Uses 4
  • References 5
  • Bibliography 6


Linaria was traditionally placed in the figwort family Scrophulariaceae. Phylogenetic analysis has now placed it in the vastly expanded family Plantaginaceae.

Closely related genera include the Nuttallanthus (American toadflaxes, recently split from Linaria), Antirrhinum (snapdragons) and Cymbalaria (Ivy-leaved toadflaxes).


Some of the more familiar Linaria include:

  • Common toadflax or butter-and-eggs (Linaria vulgaris), a European species which is widely introduced elsewhere and grows as a common weed in some areas.
  • Broomleaf toadflax or Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria genistifolia, syn. L. dalmatica), a native of southeast Europe that has become a weed in parts of North America.[1]
  • Pale toadflax (Linaria repens), a species from western Europe similar to L. purpurea, but with paler flowers.


The members of this genus are known in English as toadflax, a name shared with several related genera. The scientific name Linaria means "resembling Linum" (flax), which the foliage of some species superficially resembles.

Distribution and habitat

The genus is native to temperate regions of Europe, northern Africa and Asia, with the highest species diversity in the Mediterranean region.


Some Linaria are regarded as noxious weeds. They are likely toxic to livestock, but ruminants generally avoid them.[2]


Toadflaxes are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the Mouse Moth (Amphipyra tragopoginis) and the Common Buckeye (Junonia coenia). L. vulgaris has been used as a medicinal herb for the treatment of many illnesses and conditions, including cancer, hepatitis, hemorrhoids, scrofula, and scurvy. It has been used as an astringent, an emollient, and a laxative.[3]


  1. ^ ).Linaria dalmaticaDalmatian Toadflax ( National Invasive Species Information Center, United States National Agricultural Library.
  2. ^ Sing, S. E. and R. K. Peterson. (2011). ) toadflax in North America.L. vulgaris) and yellow (Linaria dalmaticaAssessing environmental risks for established invasive weeds: Dalmatian ( International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 8(7) 2828-53.
  3. ^ Duke, J. A. .Linaria vulgarisEthnobotanical uses: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases.


  • A Phylogeny of Toadflaxes (Linaria Mill.) Based on Nuclear Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences: Systematic and Evolutionary Consequences. Mario Fernández-Mazuecos, José Luis Blanco-Pastor, and Pablo Vargas. International Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 174, No. 2 (February 2013), pp. 234-249 Published by: The University of Chicago Press

Article DOI: 10.1086/668790

  • Vargas P, JA Rosselló, R Oyama, J Güemes. 2004 Molecular evidence for naturalness of genera in the tribe Antirrhineae (Scrophulariaceae) and three independent evolutionary lineages from the New World and the Old. Plant Syst Evol 249:151–172.
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