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List of Emperors of Japan

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Title: List of Emperors of Japan  
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Subject: Empress Kōgyoku, Imperial House of Japan, Emperor Yōmei, Emperor Suizei, Emperor Bidatsu
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List of Emperors of Japan

The List of Emperors of Japan presents the traditional order of succession.[1] Records of the reigns of the Emperors of Japan are compiled according to the traditional Japanese calendar. In the nengō system which has been in use since the late-7th century, years are numbered using the Japanese era name and the number of years which have taken place since that nengō era started.[2]

The sequence, order and dates of the first 28 Emperors of Japan, and especially the first 16, are based on the Japanese Calendar system.[3]

Emperors of Japan (660 BC–present)

# Reign Portrait Posthumous name Personal name (imina) Notes
Legendary Emperors (660 BC-269 AD)
1 00340660–585 BC Emperor Jimmu Kan'yamato Iwarebiko   Traditional dates; claimed descent from the sun goddess, Amaterasu; [4] presumed legendary
2 00491581–549 BC Emperor Suizei Kamu Nunagawamimi no Mikoto   Traditional dates;[5] 3rd son of Jimmu;[6] presumed legendary
3 00451549–511 BC Emperor Annei Shikitsuhiko Tamademi no Mikoto   Traditional dates;[7] son and heir of Suizei;[6] presumed legendary
4 00490510–476 BC Emperor Itoku Oho Yamatohiko Sukitomo no Mikoto   Traditional dates;[8] 2nd son of Anei;[6] presumed legendary
5 00525475–393 BC Emperor Kōshō Mimatsuhiko Kaeshine no Mikoto   Traditional dates;[9] son and heir of Itoku;[6] presumed legendary
6 00608392–291 BC Emperor Kōan Oho Yamato Tarasihiko Kunioshi Hito no Mikoto   Traditional dates;[10] 2nd son of Kōshō;[6] presumed legendary
7 00710290–215 BC Emperor Kōrei Oho Yamato Nekohiko Futoni no Mikoto   Traditional dates;[11] son and heir of Kōan;[6] presumed legendary
8 00786214–158 BC Emperor Kōgen Oho Yamato Nekohiko Kuni Kuru no Mikoto   Traditional dates;[12] son and heir of Korei;[6] presumed legendary
9 00843157–98 BC Emperor Kaika Waka Yamato Nekohiko Oho Bibino no Mikoto   Traditional dates;[13] 2nd son of Kōgen;[6] presumed legendary
10 0090397–30 BC Emperor Sujin Mimaki Irihiko Inie no Mikoto Traditional dates;[14] first Emperor with a direct possibility of existence
11 0097129 BC–70 AD Emperor Suinin Ikume Irihiko Isachi no Mikoto Traditional dates[15]
12 9007171–130 Emperor Keikō Oho Tarasihiko Osirowake no Mikoto Traditional dates[16]
13 9131131–191 Emperor Seimu Waka Tarasihiko Traditional dates[17]
14 9192192–200 Emperor Chūai Tarasi Nakatsuhiko no Mikoto Traditional dates[18]
0145 90201201–269 Empress Jingu Okinaga Tarashihime no Mikoto Traditional dates;[19] served as regent for Emperor Ōjin; not counted among the officially numbered emperors
Kofun Period (270-539)
15 90270270–310 Emperor Ōjin Honda no Sumera-mikoto / Ōtomowake no Mikoto / Homutawake no Mikoto Traditional dates;[20] last proto-historical emperor; deified as Hachiman.
16 90313313–399 Emperor Nintoku Ō Sazaki no Mikoto Traditional dates[21]
17 90400400–405 Emperor Richū Isaho Wake no Mikoto Traditional dates[22]
18 90406406–410 Emperor Hanzei Tajihi Mizuha Wake no Mikoto Traditional dates[23]
19 90411411–453 Emperor Ingyō Wo Asazuma Wakugo no Sukune Traditional dates[24]
20 90453453–456 Emperor Ankō Anaho no Mikoto Traditional dates[25]
21 90456456–479 Emperor Yūryaku Oho Hatsuse Wakatakeru no Mikoto Traditional dates[26]
22 90480480–484 Emperor Seinei Siraka Takehiro Kuni Osi Waka Yamato Neko no Mikoto Traditional dates[27]
23 90485485–487 Emperor Kenzō Ohoke no Mikoto Traditional dates[28]
24 90488488–498 Emperor Ninken Ohosi(Ohosu) no Mikoto/ Simano Iratsuko Traditional dates[29]
25 90498498–506 Emperor Buretsu Wohatsuse Wakasazaki Traditional dates[30]
26 90507507–531 Emperor Keitai Ōto/Hikofuto (Hikofuto no Mikoto/Ōdo no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates;[31] genealogy from this point is considered accurate
27 90531531–535 Emperor Ankan Hirokuni Oshitake Kanahi no Mikoto Traditional dates[32]
28 90535535–539 Emperor Senka Takeo Hirokuni Oshitate no Mikoto Traditional dates[33]
Asuka Period (539–710)
29 90539539–571 Emperor Kimmei Amekuni Oshiharuki Hironiwa no Sumera Mikoto Traditional dates[34]
30 90572572–585 Emperor Bidatsu Osada no Nunakura no Futotamashiki no Mikoto Traditional dates[35]
31 90585585–587 Emperor Yōmei Ooe/Tachibana no Toyohi no Sumera Mikoto Traditional dates[36]
32 90587587–592 Emperor Sushun Hatsusebe no (Wakasasagi) Mikoto Traditional dates[37]
33 90592592–628 Empress Suiko Nukatabe/Toyomike Kashikiyahime Traditional dates;[38] first non-legendary female emperor; Prince Shotoku acted as her regent
34 90629629–641 Emperor Jomei Tamura (Oki Nagatarashihi Hironuka no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates[39]
35 90642642–645 Empress Kōgyoku Takara (Ame Toyotakaraikashi Hitarashi Hime no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates;[40] reigned twice
36 90645645–654 Emperor Kōtoku Karu (Ame Yorozu Toyohi no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates[41]
37 90655655–661 Empress Saimei Takara (Ame Toyotakaraikashi Hitarashi Hime no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates;[42] second reign of Empress Kōgyoku
38 90661661–672 Emperor Tenji Katsuragi/Nakano-ooe (Ame Mikoto Hirakasuwake no Mikoto/Amatsu Mikoto Sakiwake no Mikoto) Traditional dates[43]
39 90672672 Emperor Kōbun Ōtomo Traditional dates;[44] usurped by Temmu; posthumously named (1870)
40 90672672–686 Emperor Temmu Ōama/Ohoshiama/Ōsama (Ame no Nunahara Oki no Mahito no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates[45]
41 90686686–697 Empress Jitō Unonosarara (Takama no Harahiro no Hime no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates[46]
42 90697697–707 Emperor Mommu Karu (Ame no Mamune Toyoohoji no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates[47]
43 90707707–715 Empress Gemmei Ahe (Yamatoneko Amatsu Mishiro Toyokuni Narihime no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates[48]
Nara Period (710–794)
43 90707707–715 Empress Gemmei Ahe (Yamatoneko Amatsu Mishiro Toyokuni Narihime no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates[48]
44 90715715–724 Empress Genshō Hidaka/Niinomi (Yamatoneko Takamizu Kiyotarashi Hime no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates[49]
45 90724724–749 Emperor Shōmu Obito (Ameshirushi Kunioshiharuki Toyosakurahiko no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates[50]
46 90749749–758 Empress Kōken Abe (Yamatoneko no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates;[51] reigned twice
47 90758758–764 Emperor Junnin Ōi Traditional dates[52] dethroned by Shōtoku; posthumously named (1870)
48 90764764–770 Empress Shōtoku Abe (Yamatoneko no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates;[53] second reign of Empress Kōken
49 90770770–781 Emperor Kōnin Shirakabe (Amemune Takatsugi no Mikoto) Traditional dates[54]
0145 90201posthumous reign Prince Sawara (Sudō-Tennō) Sawara-shinnō Traditional dates. Only recorded instance of posthumously elevated Emperor in Japan.
50 90781781–806 Emperor Kammu Yamabe (Yamatoneko Amatsu Hitsugi Iyaderi no Mikoto) Traditional dates[55]
Heian Period (794–1185)
50 90781781–806 Emperor Kammu Yamabe (Yamatoneko Amatsu Hitsugi Iyaderi no Mikoto) Traditional dates[55]
51 90806806–809 Emperor Heizei Ate (Yamatoneko Ameoshikuni Takahiko no Mikoto) Traditional dates[56]
52 90809809–823 Emperor Saga Kamino Traditional dates[57]
53 90823823–833 Emperor Junna Ōtomo Traditional dates[58]
54 90833833–850 Emperor Ninmyō Masara Traditional dates[59]
55 90850850–858 Emperor Montoku Michiyasu Traditional dates[60]
56 90858858–876 Emperor Seiwa Korehito Traditional dates[61]
57 90876876–884 Emperor Yōzei Sadaakira Traditional dates[62]
58 90884884–887 Emperor Kōkō Tokiyasu Traditional dates[63]
59 90887887–897 Emperor Uda Sadami Traditional dates[64]
60 90897897–930 Emperor Daigo Atsuhito Traditional dates[65]
61 90930930–946 Emperor Suzaku Yutaakira Traditional dates[66]
62 90946946–967 Emperor Murakami Nariakira Traditional dates[67]
63 90967967–969 Emperor Reizei Norihira Traditional dates[68]
64 90969969–984 Emperor En'yū Morihira Traditional dates[69]
65 90984984–986 Emperor Kazan Morosada Traditional dates[70]
66 90986986–1011 Emperor Ichijō Yasuhito/Kanehito Traditional dates[71]
67 910111011–1016 Emperor Sanjō Okisada/Iyasada Traditional dates[72]
68 910161016–1036 Emperor Go-Ichijō Atsuhira Traditional dates[73]
69 910361036–1045 Emperor Go-Suzaku Atsunaga/Atsuyoshi Traditional dates[74]
70 910451045–1068 Emperor Go-Reizei Chikahito Traditional dates[75]
71 910681068–1073 Emperor Go-Sanjō Takahito Traditional dates[76]
72 910731073–1086 Emperor Shirakawa Sadahito Traditional dates[77]
73 910871087–1107 Emperor Horikawa Taruhito Traditional dates[78]
74 911071107–1123 Emperor Toba Munehito Traditional dates[79]
75 911231123–1142 Emperor Sutoku Akihito Traditional dates[80]
76 911421142–1155 Emperor Konoe Narihito Traditional dates[81]
77 911551155–1158 Emperor Go-Shirakawa Masahito Traditional dates[82]
78 911581158–1165 Emperor Nijō Morihito Traditional dates[83]
79 911651165–1168 Emperor Rokujō Yorihito Traditional dates[84]
80 911681168–1180 Emperor Takakura Norihito Traditional dates[84]
81 911801180–1185 Emperor Antoku Tokihito Traditional dates[85]
Kamakura Period (1185–1333)
82 911831183–1198 Emperor Go-Toba Takahira Traditional dates[86]
83 911981198–1210 Emperor Tsuchimikado Tamehito Traditional dates[87]
84 912101210–1221 Emperor Juntoku Morihira/Morinari Traditional dates[88]
85 912211221 Emperor Chūkyō Kanehira/Kanenari Traditional dates;[89] posthumously named (1870)
86 912211221–1232 Emperor Go-Horikawa Yutahito Traditional dates[90]
87 912321232–1242 Emperor Shijō Mitsuhito/Hidehito Traditional dates[91]
88 912421242–1246 Emperor Go-Saga Kunihito Traditional dates[92]
89 912461246–1260 Emperor Go-Fukakusa Hisahito Traditional dates[93]
90 912601260–1274 Emperor Kameyama Tsunehito Traditional dates[94]
91 912741274–1287 Emperor Go-Uda Yohito Traditional dates[95]
92 912871287–1298 Emperor Fushimi Hirohito Traditional dates[96]
93 912981298–1301 Emperor Go-Fushimi Tanehito Traditional dates[97]
94 913011301–1308 Emperor Go-Nijō Kuniharu Traditional dates[98]
95 913081308–1318 Emperor Hanazono Tomihito Traditional dates[99]
96 913181318–1339 Emperor Go-Daigo Takaharu Traditional dates;[100] Southern Court
Northern Court (1333–1392)
0961 913311331–1333 Emperor Kōgon Kazuhito Traditional dates[101]
0962 913361336–1348 Emperor Kōmyō Yutahito Traditional dates[102]
0962 913481348–1351 Emperor Sukō Okihito Traditional dates[103]
0962 913511351–1352 Interregnum
0963 913521352–1371 Emperor Go-Kōgon Iyahito Traditional dates[104]
0964 913711371–1382 Emperor Go-En'yū Ohito Traditional dates[105]
0964 913821382–1392 Emperor Go-Komatsu Motohito Traditional dates;[106] reunified courts in 1392; see 100 below
Muromachi Period (1333–1573)
96 913181318–1339 Emperor Go-Daigo Takaharu Traditional dates;[100] Southern Court
97 913391339–1368 Emperor Go-Murakami Norinaga/Noriyoshi Traditional dates; [107] Southern Court
98 913681368–1383 Emperor Chōkei Yutanari Traditional dates;[108] Southern Court
99 913831383–1392 Emperor Go-Kameyama Hironari Traditional dates;[109] Southern Court
100 913921392–1412 Emperor Go-Komatsu Motohito Traditional dates;[110] reunified courts; see also entry in Northern Court section above
101 914121412–1428 Emperor Shōkō Mihito Traditional dates[111]
102 914281428–1464 Emperor Go-Hanazono Hikohito Traditional dates[112]
103 914641464–1500 Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado Fusahito Traditional dates[113]
104 915001500–1526 Emperor Go-Kashiwabara Katsuhito Traditional dates[114]
105 915261526–1557 Emperor Go-Nara Tomohito Traditional dates[115]
106 915571557–1586 Emperor Ōgimachi Michihito Traditional dates[116]
Azuchi-Momoyama Period (1573–1603)
106 915571557–1586 Emperor Ōgimachi Michihito Traditional dates[116]
107 915861586–1611 Emperor Go-Yōzei Kazuhito/Katahito Traditional dates[117]
Edo Period (1603–1867)
107 915861586–1611 Emperor Go-Yōzei Kazuhito/Katahito Traditional dates[117]
108 916111611–1629 Emperor Go-Mizunoo
(Go-Minoo)
Kotohito Traditional dates[118]
109 916291629–1643 Empress Meishō Okiko Traditional dates[119]
110 916431643–1654 Emperor Go-Kōmyō Tsuguhito Traditional dates[120]
111 916551655–1663 Emperor Go-Sai Nagahito Traditional dates[121]
112 916631663–1687 Emperor Reigen Satohito Traditional dates[122]
113 916871687–1709 Emperor Higashiyama Asahito Traditional dates[123]
114 917091709–1735 Emperor Nakamikado Yasuhito Traditional dates[124]
115 917351735–1747 Emperor Sakuramachi Teruhito Traditional dates[125]
116 917471747–1762 Emperor Momozono Toohito Traditional dates[126]
117 917621762–1771 Empress Go-Sakuramachi Toshiko Traditional dates[127]
118 917711771–1779 Emperor Go-Momozono Hidehito Traditional dates[128]
119 917801780–1817 Emperor Kōkaku Tomohito Traditional dates[129]
120 918171817–1846 Emperor Ninkō Ayahito Traditional dates[130]
121 918461846–1867 Emperor Kōmei Osahito
Modern Japan (Imperial and Postwar) (1867–present)
122 918671867–1912 Emperor Meiji Mutsuhito First Emperor of the Empire of Japan.
123 919121912–1926 Emperor Taishō Yoshihito Crown Prince Hirohito served as Sesshō (Prince Regent) 1921–1926.
124 919261926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Hirohito Served as Sesshō (Prince Regent) 1921–1926. Last Emperor of the Empire of Japan.
125 919891989–present Emperor "Kinjō"
(Reigning monarch)
Akihito Referred to as 'the Present Emperor' or Tenno Heika (i.e. His Imperial Majesty the Emperor) in Japanese and as Emperor Akihito in English. His posthumous name is likely to be Emperor Heisei.

See also

Notes

Japanese Imperial kamon — a stylized chrysanthemum blossom
  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric. (2005). p. 962.Japan Encyclopedia,"Traditional Order of Tennō" in
  2. ^ Nussbaum, p. 704.Japan Encyclopedia,"Nengō" in
  3. ^ A list of other Japanese calling themselves or being called emperors (追尊天皇, 尊称天皇, 異説に天皇とされる者, 天皇に準ずる者, 自称天皇) can be seen on the Japanese WorldHeritage page 天皇の一覧 (List of Japanese monarchs).
  4. ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). ), pp. 1-3Nihon Ōdai Ichiran (Annales des empereurs du japon; Brown, Delmer M. (1979). p. 249Gukanshō,; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, pp. 84-88;
  5. ^ Titsingh, pp. 3-4; Brown, pp. 250-251; Varley, pp. 88-89.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Brown, p. 248.
  7. ^ Titsingh, p. 4; Brown, p. 251; Varley, p. 89.
  8. ^ Titsingh, p. 4; Brown, p. 251; Varley, p. 89.
  9. ^ Titsingh, pp. 4-5; Brown, p. 251; Varley, p. 90.
  10. ^ Titsingh, p. 5; Brown, pp. 251-252; Varley, p. 90.
  11. ^ Titsingh, pp. 5-6; Brown, p. 252; Varley, pp. 90-92.
  12. ^ Titsingh, p. 6; Brown, p. 252; Varley, pp. 92-93.
  13. ^ Titsingh, pp. 6-7; Brown, p. 252; Varley, p. 93.
  14. ^ Titsingh, pp. 7-9; Brown, p. 253; Varley, p. 93-95.
  15. ^ Titsingh, p. 9-10; Brown, pp. 253-254; Varley, pp. 95-96.
  16. ^ Titsingh, p. 11-14; Brown, p. 254; Varley, pp. 96-99.
  17. ^ Brown, p. 254; Varley, pp. 99–100; Titsingh, pp. 14–15.
  18. ^ Brown, pp. 254–255; Varley, pp. 100–101; Titsingh, p. 15.
  19. ^ Brown, p. 255; Varley, pp. 101–103; Titsingh, pp. 16–19.
  20. ^ Titsingh, pp. 19–22; Brown, p. 255-56; Varley, pp. 103–10.
  21. ^ Brown, pp. 256–257; Varley, pp. 110–111; Titsingh, pp. 22–24.
  22. ^ Brown, p. 257; Varley, p. 111; Titsingh, pp. 24–25.
  23. ^ Brown, p. 257; Varley, p. 112; Titsingh, p. 25.
  24. ^ Brown, pp. 257–258; Varley, p. 112; Titsingh, p. 26.
  25. ^ Brown, p. 258; Varley, p. 113; Titsingh, p. 26.
  26. ^ Brown, p. 258; Varley, pp. 113–115; Titsingh, pp. 27–28.
  27. ^ Brown, p. 258–259; Varley, pp. 115–116; Titsingh, pp. 28–29.
  28. ^ Brown, p. 259; Varley, p. 116; Titsingh, pp. 29–30.
  29. ^ Titsingh, p. 30; Brown, p. 259-260; Varley, p. 117.
  30. ^ Brown, p. 260; Varley, pp. 117–118; Titsingh, p. 31.
  31. ^ Brown, pp. 260–261; Varley, pp. 17–18, 119–120; Titsingh, p. 31–32.
  32. ^ Brown, p. 261; Varley, pp. 120–121; Brown, p. 261; Titsingh, p. 33.
  33. ^ Brown, p. 261; Varley, p. 121; Titsingh, p. 33–34.
  34. ^ Brown, pp. 261–262; Varley, pp. 123–124; Titsingh, p. 34–36.
  35. ^ Varley, pp. 124–125; Brown, pp. 262–263; Titsingh, p. 36–37.
  36. ^ Brown, p. 263; Varley, pp. 125–126; Titsingh, p. 37–38.
  37. ^ Brown, p. 263; Varley, p. 126; Titsingh, p. 38–39.
  38. ^ Brown, pp. 263–264; Varley, pp. 126–129; Titsingh, pp. 39–42.
  39. ^ Brown, pp. 264–265; Varley, pp. 129–130; Titsingh, pp. 42–43.
  40. ^ Brown, pp. 265–266; Varley, pp. 130–132; Titsingh, pp. 43–47.
  41. ^ Brown, pp. 266–267; Varley, pp. 132–133; Titsingh, pp. 47–50.
  42. ^ Brown, p. 267; Varley, pp. 133–134; Titsingh, pp. 50–52.
  43. ^ Brown, p. 268; Varley, p. 135; Titsingh, pp. 52–56.
  44. ^ Brown, pp. 268–269; Varley, pp. 135–136; Titsingh, pp. 56–58.
  45. ^ Brown, pp. 268–269; Varley, pp. 135–136; Titsingh, pp. 58–59.
  46. ^ Brown, pp. 269–270; Varley, pp. 136–137; Titsingh, pp. 59–60.
  47. ^ Brown, pp. 270–271; Varley, pp. 137–140; Titsingh, pp. 60–63.
  48. ^ a b Brown, p. 271; Varley, p. 140; Titsingh, pp. 63–65.
  49. ^ Brown, p. 271–272; Varley, pp. 140–141; Titsingh, pp. 65–67.
  50. ^ Brown, pp. 272–273; Varley, pp. 141–143; Titsingh, pp. 67–73.
  51. ^ Brown, pp. 274–275; Varley, p. 143; Titsingh, pp. 73–75.
  52. ^ Brown, p. 275; Varley, pp. 143–144; Titsingh, pp. 75–78.
  53. ^ Brown, p. 276; Varley, pp. 144–147; Titsingh, pp. 78–81.
  54. ^ Brown, p. 276–277; Varley, pp. 147–148; Titsingh, pp. 81–85.
  55. ^ a b Brown, pp. 277–279; Varley, pp. 148–150; Titsingh, pp. 86–95.
  56. ^ Brown, pp. 279–280; Varley, p. 151; Titsingh, pp. 96–97.
  57. ^ Brown, pp. 280–282; Varley, pp. 151–164; Titsingh, pp. 97–102.
  58. ^ Brown, p. 282–283; Varley, p. 164; Titsingh, pp. 103–106.
  59. ^ Brown, pp. 283–284; Varley, pp. 164–165; Titsingh, pp. 106–112.
  60. ^ Brown, pp. 285–286; Varley, p. 165; Titsingh, pp. 112–115.
  61. ^ Brown, pp. 286–288; Varley, pp. 166–170; Titsingh, pp. 115–121.
  62. ^ Brown, pp. 288–289; Varley, pp. 170–171; Titsingh, pp. 121–124.
  63. ^ Brown, p. 289; Varley, pp. 171–175; Titsingh, pp. 124–125.
  64. ^ Brown, p. 289–290; Varley, pp. 175–179; Titsingh, pp. 125–129.
  65. ^ Brown, pp. 290–293; Varley, pp. 179–181; Titsingh, pp. 129–134.
  66. ^ Brown, pp. 294–295; Varley, pp. 181–183; Titsingh, pp. 134–138.
  67. ^ Brown, pp. 295–298; Varley, pp. 183–190; Titsingh, pp. 139–142.
  68. ^ Brown, p. 298; Varley, pp. 190–191; Titsingh, pp. 142–143.
  69. ^ Brown, pp. 299–300; Varley, pp. 191–192; Titsingh, pp. 144–148.
  70. ^ Brown, pp. 300–302; Varley, p. 192; Titsingh, pp. 148–149.
  71. ^ Brown, pp. 302–307; Varley, pp. 192–195; Titsingh, pp. 150–154.
  72. ^ Brown, p. 307; Varley, p. 195; Titsingh, pp. 154–155.
  73. ^ Brown, pp. 307–310; Varley, pp. 195–196; Titsingh, pp. 156–160.
  74. ^ Brown, pp. 310–311; Varley, p. 197; Titsingh, pp. 160–162.
  75. ^ Brown, pp. 311–314; Varley, pp. 197–198; Titsingh, pp. 162–166.
  76. ^ Brown, pp. 314–315; Varley, pp. 198–199; Titsingh, pp. 166–168.
  77. ^ Brown, pp. 315–317; Varley, pp. 199–202; Titsingh, pp. 169–171.
  78. ^ Brown, pp. 317–320; Varley, p. 202; Titsingh, pp. 172–178.
  79. ^ Brown, pp. 320–322; Varley, pp. 203–204; Titsingh, pp. 178–181.
  80. ^ Brown, pp. 322–324; Varley, pp. 204–205; Titsingh, pp. 181–185.
  81. ^ Brown, pp. 324–326; Varley, p. 205; Titsingh, pp. 186–188.
  82. ^ Brown, p. 326–327; Varley, pp. 205–208; Titsingh, pp. 188–190.
  83. ^ Brown, pp. 327–329; Varley, pp. 208–212; Titsingh, pp. 191–194.
  84. ^ a b Brown, pp. 329–330; Varley, p. 212; Titsingh, pp. 194–195.
  85. ^ Brown, pp. 333–334; Varley, pp. 214–215; Titsingh, pp. 200–207.
  86. ^ Brown, pp. 334–339; Varley, pp. 215–220; Titsingh, pp. 207–221.
  87. ^ Brown, pp. 339–341; Varley, pp 220; Titsingh, pp. 221–230.
  88. ^ Brown, pp. 341–343, Varley, pp. 221–223; Titsingh, pp 230–238.
  89. ^ Brown, pp. 343–344; Varley, pp. 223–226; Titsingh, pp. 236–238.
  90. ^ Brown, pp. 344–349; Varley, pp. 226–227; Titsingh, pp. 238–241.
  91. ^ Varley, p. 227; Titsingh, pp. 242–245.
  92. ^ Varley, pp. 228–231; Titsingh, pp. 245–247.
  93. ^ Varley, pp. 231–232; Titsingh, pp. 248–253.
  94. ^ Varley, pp. 232–233; Titsingh, pp. 253–261.
  95. ^ Varley, pp. 233–237; Titsingh, pp. 262–269.
  96. ^ Varley, pp. 237–238; Titsingh, pp. 269–274.
  97. ^ Varley, pp. 238–239; Titsingh, pp. 274–275.
  98. ^ Varley, p. 239; Titsingh, pp. 275–278.
  99. ^ Varley, pp. 239–241; Titsingh, pp. 278–281.
  100. ^ a b Varley, pp. 241–269; Titsingh, pp. 281–286, and Titsingh, p. 290–294.
  101. ^ Titsingh, pp. 286–289.
  102. ^ Titsingh, pp. 294–298.
  103. ^ Titsingh, pp. 298–301.
  104. ^ Titsingh, pp. 302–309.
  105. ^ Titsingh, pp. 310–316.
  106. ^ Titsingh, pp. 317-327.
  107. ^ Varley, pp. 269–270 | Titsingh, p. .
  108. ^ Titsingh, p. .
  109. ^ [Titsingh, p. ]–320.
  110. ^ Titsingh, pp. 320–327.
  111. ^ Titsingh, pp. 327–331.
  112. ^ Titsingh, pp. 331–351.
  113. ^ Titsingh, pp. 352–364.
  114. ^ Titsingh, pp. 364–372.
  115. ^ Titsingh, pp. 372–382.
  116. ^ a b Titsingh, pp. 382–402.
  117. ^ a b Titsingh, pp. 402–409.
  118. ^ Titsingh, pp. 410–411.
  119. ^ Titsingh, pp. 411–412.
  120. ^ Titsingh, pp. 412–413.
  121. ^ Titsingh, p. 413.
  122. ^ Titsingh, pp. 414–415.
  123. ^ Titsingh, pp. 415–416.
  124. ^ Titsingh, pp. 416–417.
  125. ^ Titsingh, pp. 417–418.
  126. ^ Titisngh, pp. 418–419.
  127. ^ Titsingh, p. 419.
  128. ^ Titsingh, pp. 419–420.
  129. ^ Titsingh, pp. 420–421.
  130. ^ Titsingh, p. 421.

References

  • Ackroyd, Joyce. (1982). Lessons from History: the 'Tokushi yoron'. Brisbane: University of Queensland Press. 10-ISBN 070221485X/13-ISBN 9780702214851; OCLC 157026188
  • Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds. (1979). Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. 10-ISBN 0-520-03460-0; 13-ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; OCLC 251325323
  • Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Odai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691
  • Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. 10-ISBN 0-231-04940-4; 13-ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5; OCLC 59145842

External links

  • Japan opens imperial tombs for research
  • The Imperial Household Agency
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