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List of extinct plants


List of extinct plants

The following is a list of extinct plants only.


  • Prehistoric extinctions 1
  • Carboniferous Orchid 2
    • Permian 2.1
    • Triassic 2.2
    • Jurassic 2.3
    • Cretaceous 2.4
    • Paleocene 2.5
    • Eocene 2.6
    • Oligocene 2.7
    • Miocene 2.8
    • Pliocene 2.9
    • Pleistocene 2.10
  • Modern extinctions 3
    • Africa 3.1
    • Americas 3.2
    • Asia 3.3
    • Europe 3.4
    • Oceania 3.5
  • Plants extinct in the wild 4
    • Africa 4.1
    • Americas 4.2
    • Asia 4.3
    • Europe 4.4
    • Oceania 4.5
  • Extinct plant cultivars 5
  • Plants previously thought extinct and subsequently rediscovered 6
  • Extinct algae 7
  • See also 8
  • References 9
  • External links 10

Prehistoric extinctions

Carboniferous Orchid











Modern extinctions


Saint Helena Olive (Nesiota elliptica)





Plants extinct in the wild






Extinct plant cultivars

Plants previously thought extinct and subsequently rediscovered

See Lazarus species

  • Badula ovalifolia – from Mauritius. Known in 1830's; collected in 1970 and 1997 but misidentified (Page and D'Argent 1997, IUCN report)/confirmed identity in 2008 (Florens et al., Kew Bulletin)
  • Café marron (Ramosmania rodriguesii) - rediscovered on Rodrigues in 1979
  • Jellyfish tree (Medusagyne oppositifolia) - rediscovered in Seychelles in the 1970s
  • Sichuan Thuja – (Thuja sutchuenensis) – rediscovered 1999 (Sichuan, China)
  • Gibraltar Campion (Silene tomentosa) - rediscovered on Gibraltar in 1994
  • Astragalus nitidiflorus (1909, Spain) - rediscovered 2004 (Cartagena, Spain)

Extinct algae

See also

  • A list of Presumed Extinct Plant species in South Africa (likely to be extinct but not yet adequately confirmed) can be found at


  1. ^ F. H. Knowlton (1889), "New species of fossil wood (Araucarioxylon arizonicum) from Arizona and New Mexico", Proceedings of the United States National Museum
  2. ^ a b c Mary Gordon Calder (1953). "A coniferous petrified forest in Patagonia" (PDF). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Geology (The British Museum) 2 (2): 97–138. 
  3. ^ Channing, A.; Zamuner, A.; Edwards, D.; Guido, D. (2011). "Equisetum thermale sp. nov. (Equisetales) from the Jurassic San Agustin hot spring deposit, Patagonia: Anatomy, paleoecology, and inferred paleoecophysiology.". American Journal of Botany 98 (4): 680–697.  
  4. ^ a b Bogner, J.; Johnson, K. R.; Kvacek, Z.; Upchurch, G. R. (2007). "New fossil leaves of Araceae from the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene of western North America" (PDF). Zitteliana A (47): 133–147.  
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Wolfe, J.A.; Tanai, T. (1987). (maples) in the Cenozoic of Western North America"Acer"Systematics, Phylogeny, and Distribution of . Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University. Series 4, Geology and mineralogy 22 (1): 1–246. 
  6. ^ Manchester, S.R.; Xiang, X-P.; Xiang, Q-Y (2010). ) in the Paleocene and Eocene of the Northern Hemisphere"Cornus Subg. Cornus"Fruits of Cornelian Cherries (Cornaceae: (PDF). International Journal of Plant Sciences 171 (8): 882–891.  
  7. ^ a b c Hickey, Leo (1977). Stratigraphy and Paleobotany of the Golden Valley Formation (Early Tertiary) of Western North Dakota. Boulder, Colorado: Geological Society of America.  
  8. ^ Zhou, Z.; Quan, C.; Liu, Y-S (2012). "Tertiary Ginkgo ovulate organs with associated leaves from North Dakota, U.S.A., and their evolutionary significance". International Journal of Plant Sciences 173 (1): 67–80.  
  9. ^ Stockey, R. A.; Rothwell, G. W.; Falder, A. B. (2001). sp. nov. from the Paleocene of Central Alberta, Canada"Metasequoia foxii"Diversity among Taxodioid Conifers: . International Journal of Plant Sciences 162 (1): 221–234.  
  10. ^ a b Herrera, F.A.; Jaramillo, C.A.; Dilcher, D.L.; Wing, S.L.; Gómez-N, C. (2007). "Fossil Araceae from a Paleocene neotropical rainforest in Colombia". American Journal of Botany 95: 1569–1583.  
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Manchester, S.R. (1994). "Fruits and Seeds of the Middle Eocene Nut Beds Flora, Clarno Formation, Oregon". Palaeontographica Americana 58: 30-31. 
  12. ^ Arnold, C. A. (1955). from British Columbia"Azolla"A Tertiary (PDF). Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan 12 (4): 37–45. 
  13. ^ Schorn, Howard; Wehr, Wesley (1986). "Abies milleri, sp. nov., from the Middle Eocene Klondike Mountain Formation, Republic, Ferry County, Washington". Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History (1): 1–7. 
  14. ^ Kotyk, M.E.A.; Basinger, J.F.; McIlver, E.E. (2003). "Early Tertiary Chamaecyparis Spach from Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian High Arctic". Canadian Journal of Botany 81: 113–130.  
  15. ^ a b Radtke, M.G.; Pigg, K.B.; Wehr, W.C. (2005). "Fossil Corylopsis and Fothergilla Leaves (Hamamelidaceae) from the Lower Eocene Flora of Republic, Washington, U.S.A., and Their Evolutionary and Biogeographic Significance". International Journal of Plant Sciences 166 (2): 347–356.  
  16. ^ Pigg, K.B.; Manchester S.R.; Wehr W.C. (2003). "Corylus, Carpinus, and Palaeocarpinus (Betulaceae) from the Middle Eocene Klondike Mountain and Allenby Formations of Northwestern North America". International Journal of Plant Sciences 164 (5): 807–822.  
  17. ^ Manchester, S.; Pigg, K. (2008). "The Eocene mystery flower of McAbee, British Columbia". Botany 86: 1034–1038.  
  18. ^ a b c d Call, V.B.; Dilcher, D.L. (1997). (Eucommiaceae) in North America"Eucommia"The fossil record of (PDF). American Journal of Botany 84 (6): 798–814.  
  19. ^ Mustoe, G.E. (2002). "Eocene Ginkgo leaf fossils from the Pacific Northwest".  
  20. ^ a b c d Wolfe, J.A.; Wehr, W.C. (1987). "Middle Eocene dicotyledonous plants from Republic, northeastern Washington". United states Geological Survey Bulletin 1597: 1–25. 
  21. ^ DeVore, M.L.; Moore, S.M.; Pigg, K.B.; Wehr, W.C. (2004). leaves (Rosaceae: Kerrieae) from the Lower Middle Eocene of Southern British Columbia"Neviusia"Fossil . Rhodora 12 (927): 197–209.  
  22. ^ Stockey, R.S. (1983). "Pinus driftwoodensis sp.n. from the early Tertiary of British Columbia". Botanical gazette 144 (1): 148–156.  
  23. ^ Heinrichs, J; Hedenäs, L; Schäfer-Verwimp, A; Feldberg, K; Schmidt, AR (2014). "An in situ preserved moss community in Eocene Baltic amber". Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 210: 113–118.  
  24. ^ Wolfe, J.A.; Wehr, W.C. (1988). -like foliage from the Paleogene of western North America"Chamaebatiaria"Rosaceous . Aliso 12 (1): 177–200. 
  25. ^ Pigg, K.B.; Dillhoff, R.M.; DeVore, M.L.; Wehr, W.C. (2007). "New diversity among the Trochodendraceae from the Early/Middle Eocene Okanogan Highlands of British Columbia, Canada, and Northeastern Washington State, United States". International Journal of Plant Sciences 168 (4): 521–532.  
  26. ^ a b Pigg, K.B.; Wehr, W.C.; Ickert-Bond, S.M. (2001). "Trochodendron and Nordenskioldia (Trochodendraceae) from the Middle Eocene of Washington State, U.S.A.". International Journal of Plant Sciences 162 (5): 1187–1198.  
  27. ^ Manchester, S.R. (1987). "The fossil history of the Juglandaceae". Monographs in Systematic Botany 21: 1–137. 
  28. ^ a b Calvillo-Canadell, L.; Cevallos-Ferriz, S.R.S.; Rico-Arce, L. (2010). "Miocene Hymenaea flowers preserved in amber from Simojovel de Allende, Chiapas, Mexico". Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 160 (3-4): 126–134.  
  29. ^ Miller, C.N. jr. (1982). "Osmunda wehrii, a New Species Based on Petrified Rhizomes from the Miocene of Washington". American Journal of Botany 69 (1): 116–121.  
  30. ^ a b Poinar, G. (2002). "Fossil palm flowers in Dominican and Baltic amber". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 139 (4): 361–367.  
  31. ^ Axelrod, D. (1980). "Contributions to the Neogene paleobotany of central California". University of California publications in geological sciences 121: 1–212. 
  32. ^ McKown, A.D.; Stockey, R.A.; Schweger, C.E. (2002). "A New Species of Pinus Subgenus Pinus Subsection Contortae From Pliocene Sediments of Ch'ijee's Bluff, Yukon Territory, Canada" (PDF). International Journal of Plant Sciences 163 (4): 687–697.  
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an Red List of South African Plants
  34. ^ http://sabs.appstate.edus/ Newsletter of the Southern Appalachia Botanical Society

External links

  • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
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