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List of manned spacecraft

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Title: List of manned spacecraft  
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Subject: Human spaceflight, List of human spaceflight programs, Project Gemini, Space/Topics/Lists, Spaceflight lists and timelines
Collection: Lists of Spacecraft, Manned Spacecraft
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

List of manned spacecraft

This is a list of Human spaceflight types, including space stations, sorted by nation and series in chronological order. Canceled programs are listed at the end.


  • Comparison 1
  • Current human spacecraft 2
    • Orbital 2.1
      • Russian 2.1.1
      • Chinese 2.1.2
    • Space stations 2.2
  • Former human spacecraft 3
    • Orbital 3.1
      • Soviet/Russian 3.1.1
      • American 3.1.2
    • Space stations 3.2
    • Suborbital 3.3
  • Proposed or in development 4
    • Orbital 4.1
      • Russian 4.1.1
      • American 4.1.2
      • European 4.1.3
      • Japanese 4.1.4
      • Indian 4.1.5
      • Iranian 4.1.6
      • British 4.1.7
    • Suborbital 4.2
      • Russian 4.2.1
      • American 4.2.2
      • Canadian 4.2.3
      • Romanian 4.2.4
      • Danish 4.2.5
      • French 4.2.6
      • British 4.2.7
      • Argentine 4.2.8
      • Uganda 4.2.9
  • Cancelled 5
    • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 5.1
    • Joint NASA / United States Air Force 5.2
    • Joint NASA / European Space Agency (ESA) 5.3
    • Soviet space program 5.4
    • Russian Federal Space Agency (RKA) 5.5
    • European Space Agency (ESA) 5.6
      • Space stations 5.6.1
    • China National Space Administration (CNSA) 5.7
    • UK 5.8
    • Japan 5.9
      • National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) 5.9.1
      • Other Japan 5.9.2
  • Notes 6
  • References 7


Scaled comparison of manned spacecraft, including names, manufacturers, and dates of operation
Scaled comparison of manned spacecraft, including names, manufacturers, and dates of operation

Current human spacecraft

Soyuz-TMA spacecraft
Shenzhou spacecraft



  • Soyuz (1967–present) 2 or 3 person Earth orbital;[1] fourth and fifth generations continued operation by Russian Federation


  • Shenzhou (2003–present) 3 person Earth orbital craft

Space stations

International Space Station

Former human spacecraft



Apollo 17 spacecraft
  • Vostok (1961–1963) single-person Earth orbital craft[2]
  • Voskhod (1964–1965) 2 or 3 person Vostok derivative[3]


Space stations


  • X-15 (1959–1970) air-launched spaceplane; first X-15 flight to pass Kármán line occurred in 1963[9]
  • SpaceShipOne (2003–2004) air-launched spaceplane

Proposed or in development


Orion ground test article
Dragon spacecraft during an uncrewed cargo mission to the ISS








  • Skylon (unpiloted reusable spaceplane with possible Passenger Module, engine in development)


SpaceShipTwo with mothership in hangar



  • The Spaceship Company's SpaceShipTwo (suborbital, in development)
  • The Spaceship Company's SpaceShipThree (suborbital, proposed)
  • XCOR Aerospace's Lynx (suborbital, in development)
  • Blue Origin's New Shepard (suborbital, in development)
  • Masten Space Systems's XA Series (suborbital, in development)
  • Masten Space Systems's O Series (orbital, proposed)
  • Masten Space Systems's XL Series (orbital/lunar, proposed)


  • DreamSpace Group's XF1 (suborbital, proposed)[13]


  • Stabilo (suborbital, in development)
  • Orizont (suborbital, in development)



  • VSH (suborbital, manned version of VEHRA, in development)


  • Starchaser Industries's Nova 2 (suborbital, in development)
  • Starchaser Industries's Thunderbird (suborbital, in development)
  • Starchaser Industries's Thunderstar (suborbital, in development)


AATE VESA (Spanish for Argentine Suborbital Space Vehicle) "Gauchito"


African Space Research Program (Ugandian Suborbital Space Vehicle) "African Skyhawk" (in development), "Dynacraft Spaceship" (project)


National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

Joint NASA / United States Air Force

Joint NASA / European Space Agency (ESA)

  • X-38 (canceled 1999) lifting body crew-rescue vehicle for ISS

Soviet space program

  • Soyuz 7K-VI Zvezda[14] (1962-1968; military researching ship)
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 (1967–1970) part of the abandoned Soviet manned lunar flyby program
  • Soyuz L3 spacecraft (late 1960s to early 1970s); part of the abandoned Soviet manned lunar landing program (The LOK would carry two cosmonauts into orbit around the Moon, acting as "mother" spacecraft for the LK Lander, which would land one member of the crew to the surface)
  • Spiral-EPOS (also known as EPOS – Russian acronym for Experimental Passenger Orbital Aircraft – canceled 1976)[15]
  • Shuttle Buran (1976-1988) canceled after one unmanned orbital flight[16]
  • Strelec (Archer; 1979 - 1991) universal military 3 person spaceship - tank, which was created within the project of cosmical complex Sapfir (Sapphire, project canceled)[17]
  • Zarya (project canceled 1989)
  • MAKS (project canceled 1991)

Russian Federal Space Agency (RKA)

  • Kliper (government funding canceled 2006)

European Space Agency (ESA)

  • Hermes (project cancelled 1992)
  • Hopper (project cancelled)
  • ATV evolution (project not adopted)

Space stations

China National Space Administration (CNSA)

  • Shuguang (project cancelled 1972)
  • FSW (unmanned flights only; manned program cancelled)



National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA)

  • HOPE-X (project cancelled 2003)
  • Fuji (project not adopted)

Other Japan


  1. ^ Gatland, pp.148-165
  2. ^ Gatland, pp.109-115
  3. ^ Gatland, pp.131-113
  4. ^ Gatland, pp.148, 151-165
  5. ^ Gatland, pp.166-185, 266-275
  6. ^ Gatland, pp.190, 278-280
  7. ^ Gatland, pp.191, 207, 283, 284
  8. ^ Gatland, pp.229-246
  9. ^ Long, Tony (2007-07-19). "July 19, 1963: Cracking the 100-Kilometer-High Barrier ... in a Plane". Advance Publications. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  10. ^ a b c d Ferster, Warren (2011-04-18). "NASA Announces CCDev 2 Awards". Imaginova Corp. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  11. ^ [6]
  12. ^ "printer friendly page ATV evolution: Advanced Reentry Vehicle (ARV)". European Space Agency. 2010-03-35. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  13. ^ CBC News 
  14. ^ [7]
  15. ^ [8]
  16. ^ [9]
  17. ^ [10]


  • Gatland, Kenneth (1976). Manned Spacecraft (2nd ed.).  
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