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List of sports team names and mascots derived from indigenous peoples

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Title: List of sports team names and mascots derived from indigenous peoples  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Mascot, Atlantic Coast Conference/Athletic programs/4, Sports mascots, Chief Noc-A-Homa, Cultural appropriation
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

List of sports team names and mascots derived from indigenous peoples

Many sports teams have names or mascots derived from peoples that are indigenous to the region where the team is also located. There is not total agreement on the definition of

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  2. ^ "Who Are Indigenous Peoples". Retrieved November 15, 2014. 
  3. ^ "Indigenous: Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Retrieved November 15, 2014. 
  4. ^ Pewewardy, Cornel (1999). "From enemy to mascot: The deculturation of Indian mascots in sports culture". Canadian Journal of Native Education 23 (2): 176–189.  
  5. ^ Longwell-Grice, Robert; Hope Longwell-Grice (2003). "Chiefs, Braves, and Tomahawks: The Use of American Indians as University Mascots". NASPA Journal (National Association of Student Personnel Administrators, Inc.) 40 (3): 1–12.  
  6. ^ "Statement of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights on the Use of Native American Images and Nicknames as Sports Symbols". The United States Commission on Civil Rights. April 13, 2001. Retrieved 2012-06-13. 
  7. ^ "Anti-Defamation and Mascots". National Congress of American Indians. Retrieved 12 January 2013. 
  8. ^ Keen, Judy (Oct 7, 2010). "Wis. law lets residents challenge race-based mascots". USA Today. 
  9. ^ "State Board of Education Bans Use of Native American Mascots". Oregon State Department of Education. Retrieved February 10, 2013. 
  10. ^ Abby Ellin (Sep 29, 2012). "Washington State Wants Schools to Ban Native American Mascots". ABC News. Retrieved 2013-09-17. 
  11. ^ "2012 Native American Mascot Resolution" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-09-17. 
  12. ^ "Warpaint". Kansas City Chiefs. Retrieved November 13, 2014. 
  13. ^ "How the Atlanta Braves adopted the tomahawk chop from the Florida State Seminoles". Retrieved November 15, 2014. 
  14. ^ Staurowsky, Ellen (December 1998). "An Act of Honor or Exploitation? The Cleveland Indians' Use of the Louis Francis Sockalexis Story". Sociology of Sports Journal 15 (4): 299. 
  15. ^ The Hockey News: Special Features:'s NHL Logo Rankings
  16. ^ "History: Peoria Chiefs". Retrieved November 14, 2014. 
  17. ^ Brutlag Hosick, Michelle (March 14, 2005). "Mascot matter fits into proper-environment discussion". The NCAA News. Retrieved February 5, 2013. 
  18. ^ Brand, Myles (October 24, 2005). "NCAA correctly positioned as a catalyst for social change". National Collegiate Athletic Association. Retrieved January 16, 2013. 
  19. ^ "NCAA says Catawba College can use Indians nickname". May 30, 2006. Retrieved February 1, 2013. 
  20. ^ Doug Lederman (September 6, 2005). "Two More Universities Off NCAA's Mascot List". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved November 4, 2013. 
  21. ^ Wieberg, Steve (2005-08-12). "Fla. State gets backing". USA Today. 
  22. ^ Associated Press (February 23, 2006). "NCAA: Mississippi College Can Keep Choctaws Nickname". Retrieved November 4, 2013. 
  23. ^ Associated Press (September 3, 2005). "NCAA takes Utah off banned mascots list". ESPN. Retrieved November 4, 2013. 
  24. ^ "About Bacone College". 
  25. ^ [1]
  26. ^ 'Fighting Illini FAQ' | University of Illinois Archives
  27. ^ "Willie Wampum". 
  28. ^ Daniel Trujillo (April 24, 2015). "Eastern New Mexico University does away with Zia mascot". KRQE News. 
  29. ^ Gary Fuller. "Arcadia High School's Apache Name Continues To Spark Controversy". Retrieved 2013-11-15. 
  30. ^ Bañes, Lanz Christian (2013-11-18). "Vallejo: Apache mascot at high school may be changed". Retrieved 23 November 2013. 
  31. ^ "Ugh! to Agawam's Nickname". The Los Angeles Times. April 25, 1987. Retrieved 2014-01-17. 
  32. ^ "Dustin High School, Oklahoma". 
  33. ^ "Bibb County High School, Centreville, Alabama". 
  34. ^ "Escanaba Area Public Schools: Indian Education Program". 
  35. ^ Alan Boraas (September 19, 2014). "Aniak Halfbreeds? Proud name; Washington Redskins? Racist slur". Alaska Dispatch News. 
  36. ^ "Indian mascots for schools and sports teams? Contentious Saugatuck forum revives debate". The Grand Rapids Press. April 21, 2009. Retrieved 2013-11-15. 
  37. ^ "Western Local Schools". 
  38. ^ "Westminster Catawba Christian School". 
  39. ^ "Wetumpka, Alabama". 
  40. ^ Weyauwega-Fremont
  41. ^ "White Cloud". 
  42. ^ "Leoti Kansas". 
  43. ^ "Salisbury, Maryland". 
  44. ^ "Williford, Arkansas". 
  45. ^ "Winnebago Nebraska". 
  46. ^ "Medicine Hat Mohawks name challenged in student's petition". CBC News. May 22, 2015. 
  47. ^ DAN SEUFERT (April 16, 2014). "Students say they want to change the face of Belmont mascot". 
  48. ^ "Killingly High School". 
  49. ^ "Mascot spotlights Indian grievances". 
  50. ^ Cindy Kranz (August 14, 2003). "Student, school at odds on mascot". The Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved 2013-11-15. 
  51. ^ "Belding Michigan". 
  52. ^ "Camden-Frontier High School". 
  53. ^ "Redskins nickname causing new uproar". June 12, 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-15. 
  54. ^ Colleen Wells (April 29, 2010). "Controversial Clinton School's Redskins mascot will stay". Toledo News Now. Retrieved 2013-11-15. 
  55. ^ "Conrad: ReskinsSports". 
  56. ^ "Kingston High School, Oklahoma". 
  57. ^ "Little River High School, Kansas". 
  58. ^ Stephen W Butera (October 18, 2013). "Redskins name at Loudon H.S. a tradition, despite national controversy". WBIR. 
  59. ^ "McLoud: Our-Community Is Proud Of Our Name". 
  60. ^ "Momence High School, Illinois". 
  61. ^ Omari Fleming (Oct 25, 2013). "Parent Asks School To Change Mascot Name". Fox News. 
  62. ^ Christian Menno (October 25, 2013). "Student newspaper to stop using school's 'Redskin' nickname". The Morning Call. 
  63. ^ Oriskany NY
  64. ^ Ringgold LA
  65. ^ Rush Springs OK
  66. ^ Saranac MI
  67. ^ Sayre PA
  68. ^ Wolf Lake, Illinois
  69. ^
  70. ^ Melanie Mason (October 11, 2015). "California schools barred from using 'Redskins' as team name or mascot". Los Angeles Times. 
  71. ^ Gray George (January 21, 2014). "Redskins mascot a source of pride, outrage". Calaveras Enterprise. 
  72. ^ "Chowchilla High School, California". 
  73. ^ South Stokes High School, North Carolina
  74. ^ Broken Bow OK
  75. ^ Hot Springs HS
  76. ^ Lamar CO
  77. ^ Leflore OK
  78. ^ Quinton OK
  79. ^ Salmon, ID
  80. ^ Salmon River ID
  81. ^ Sigourney IA
  82. ^ Logo relates to Air Force?
  83. ^ "Hall High School Warriors removes Indian mascot". West Hartford News. June 15, 2012. 
  84. ^ [2]
  85. ^ No longer "Indians"?
  86. ^ Joe Vazquez (February 12, 2015). "John Swett High School In Crockett Drops ‘Indians’ Mascot". KCBS. 
  87. ^ Matthew Conyers (October 29, 2015). "Northwest Catholic High School Drops Indians As Nickname, Introduces Lions". Hartford Courant. 
  88. ^
  89. ^ Tamalpais High School official site: A Brief History of Tam, accessed 10/21/2013
  90. ^ Jerry Ulmer (August 29, 2014). "The Dalles becomes latest Oregon school to drop Native American mascot". The Oregonian. 
  91. ^ Bañes, Lanz Christian (2013-11-21). "Vallejo school board votes to drop Apaches' name". Vallejo Times Herald. Retrieved 23 November 2013. 
  92. ^ Schaefer, Samantha (November 21, 2013). "Controversial Apache mascot dropped by Northern California school". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 23 November 2013. 
  93. ^ Lanz Christian Bañes (February 6, 2014). "Redhawks chosen as new Vallejo High mascot, replacing Apaches". Times-Herald. 
  94. ^ [3]
  95. ^ "Indians"?
  96. ^ Hawk Logo
  97. ^ Heide Brandes (December 10, 2014). "Oklahoma City high school drops the name 'Redskins' for its team". Reuters. 
  98. ^ Tim Willert (May 23, 2015). "Red Wolves will replace Redskins as Capitol Hill High School mascot in Oklahoma City". The Oklahoman. 
  99. ^ Cooperstown CS
  100. ^ "Cooperstown Redskins No More: NY School Board Votes To Retire Nickname After Criticism". AP. March 7, 2013. Retrieved October 15, 2013. 
  101. ^ Cheryl Meyer (April 13, 2002). "Huntley students pick new mascot: Red Raiders takes Redskins' place on school teams". The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved December 17, 2013. 
  102. ^ Troy Blevins. "Houston ISD votes to change school mascots". KPRC. 
  103. ^ Ericka Mellon (April 15, 2014). "New HISD mascots: Huskies, Wolf Pack, Texans". The Houston Chronicle. 
  104. ^ Louis Ojeda Jr. (April 16, 2014). "Houston schools change 'historically insensitive' mascots". FOX Sports Southwest. 
  105. ^ Lindsey Bever (March 17, 2015). "The ‘Redskins’ are no more — at least in Lancaster, N.Y.". The Washington Post. 
  106. ^ "New Lancaster Mascot is the Legends". WGRZ. June 3, 2015. 
  107. ^ Vargas, Nicole (2005-09-27). "Tradition meets political correctness". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved December 18, 2012. 
  108. ^ "History of the NCHS Mascot". Retrieved 2013-11-15. 
  109. ^ Bob Chiarito (July 26, 2012). "20 years later, Redskins still special for many Central grads". Post-Tribune. Retrieved October 8, 2014. 
  110. ^ Charlie Bermant. "Redhawks logo selected for Port Townsend High School". Peninsula Daily News. 
  111. ^ Rob Rogers (February 9, 2011). "150 attend meeting on Red Lodge High School mascot". Billings Gazette. 
  112. ^ "Retiring Red Lodge Redskins". 
  113. ^ Ryan McLaughlin (June 8, 2012). "Sanford High School replaces Redskins with Spartans". Bangor Daily News. 
  114. ^ Seth Koenig (March 19, 2011). "Wiscasset High to keep ‘Redskins’ mascot through end of school year". Times Record. 
  115. ^ Seth Koenig (April 15, 2011). "Wiscasset High releases poll on proposals to replace controversial ‘Redskins’ moniker". Retrieved 2013-11-15. 
  116. ^ "Wiscasset moving backward; Redskin’s name not appropriate". Bangor Daily News. August 26, 2014. 
  117. ^ Beth Brogan (October 8, 2014). "Wiscasset selectmen approve request to change offensive road name". Bangor Daily News. 
  118. ^ Antioch Redskins
  119. ^ Dearborn Heights Redskins Jr. Football
  120. ^ Grayling Redskins Youth Football
  121. ^ Lancaster Junior Redskins
  122. ^ Morden Redskins
  123. ^ Little Redskins
  124. ^ New Rock Redskins
  125. ^ Ohio Redskins Youth Sports
  126. ^ Patterson Redskins Football
  127. ^ Rochester Redskins
  128. ^ Sarasota Redskins
  129. ^ South Cherokee Recreation Association
  130. ^ Sterling Heights Redskins
  131. ^ Wayland Redskins
  132. ^ Woonsocket Redskins
  133. ^ Albemarle Redskins Virginia
  134. ^ Bennetts Creek Warriors
  135. ^ Derby Red Raiders, CT
  136. ^ East Bay Warriors, Oakland CA
  137. ^ Fort Braden Chiefs, FL
  138. ^ Immokalee Seminoles, FL
  139. ^ Lower Sussex Indians, DE
  140. ^ Nonnewaug Chiefs, CT
  141. ^ [4]
  142. ^ Phoenix, AZ
  143. ^ Pomperaug Warriors, CT
  144. ^ Reynolds Corner Redskins, Toledo OH
  145. ^ Southeast Apaches, San Antonio, Texas
  146. ^ Southland Comanches, CO
  147. ^ Stratford Redskin, CT
  148. ^ Water Oak Indians , CT
  149. ^ Western Albemarle Chiefs
  150. ^ Willamette Redskins, Eugene OR
  151. ^ Skokie Indians, Illinois
  152. ^ "Antioch Redskins, Plant City, Florida". 
  153. ^ DeRon Talley (November 15, 2012). "D'ville Redskins headed to the Superbowl". The Donaldsonville Chief. 
  154. ^ Fauquier Youth Football, Fauquier County, Virginia
  155. ^ [5]
  156. ^ Kanawha Youth Football Redskins, Richmond, Virginia
  157. ^ Loudon Redskins Youth Football, Loudon, Tennessee
  158. ^ [6]
  159. ^ Rochester Redskins, Rochester, Michigan
  160. ^ "Local Redskins youth league not feeling pressure to change name". WWSB. June 19, 2014. 
  161. ^ [7]
  162. ^ South Cherokee Redskins Association, Woodstock, Georgia
  163. ^ Southwest Redskins, Houston, Texas
  164. ^ Washington Redskins Midget Football, Washington, New Jersey


  • MaxPreps is a site for U.S. High School sports information, and can be searched by mascot name as well as school name, but the data is not kept up to date so it is only a starting place.
  • MascotDB is a searchable database of mascots from Pro to High School.
  • List of Semi-Pro Football Teams

Sources of data on teams/mascots

External links

See also

Fictional teams

  • Raynes Park Little League, Kensington - Redskins

Youth football (England)


Junior League Lacrosse (Canada)

Youth/Little league football

Little league baseball

  • Albemarle Redskins, Albemarle County, Virginia[133]
  • Bennetts Creek Warriors, Suffolk, Virginia[134]
  • Derby Red Raiders, Derby, Connecticut [135]
  • East Bay Warriors, Oakland, California[136]
  • Fort Braden Chiefs, Fort Braden, Florida[137]
  • Immokalee Seminoles, Florida[138]
  • Lower Sussex Indians, DE[139]
  • Nonnewaug Chiefs, Woodbury, CT[140]
  • Oak Cliff Redskins, Dallas, Texas[141]
  • Phoenix, AZ[142]
  • Pomperaug Warriors, Southbury, CT[143]
  • Reynolds Corner Redskins, Toledo OH[144]
  • Southeast Apaches, San Antonio, Texas [145]
  • Southland Comanches, CO[146]
  • Stratford Redskin, CT[147]
  • Water Oak Indians, Watertown, CT[148]
  • Western Albemarle Chiefs, Crozet, Virginia[149]
  • Willamette Redskins, Eugene OR[150]

Pop Warner Football League

  • Antioch Redskins of Plant City, FL, Youth Football[118]
  • Carey Junior High School, Cheyenne, Wyoming (Braves)
  • Dearborn Heights Redskins Jr. Football, Dearborn Heights, MI[119]
  • Gaffney Middle School, Gaffney, South Carolina (Chiefs)
  • Gettysburg Area Middle School Braves
  • Granard Middle School, Gaffney, South Carolina (Warriors)
  • Grayling Redskins Youth Football, Grayling, MI[120]
  • J.D. Meisler Middle School, Metairie, Louisiana (Chiefs)
  • James Madison Middle School, Titusville, Florida (Mohawks)
  • Knox Redskins, Knox, Indiana
  • Lakeview Middle School, Rossville, Georgia (Warriors)
  • Lancaster Junior Redskins, Lancaster (village), NY[121]
  • McCormick Junior High School, Cheyenne, Wyoming (Warriors)
  • Morden Redskins, South Eastern Manitoba Hockey League (amateur adult)[122]
  • Morris, IL – Little Redskins IKWF sanctioned wrestling club (K-8th grade) Uses a version of the DC team logo[123]
  • New Rock Redskins, Conyers, GA (Ages 6–12) Uses the DC team logo[124]
  • Orangeview J.H.S (Buena Park, CA) Warriors
  • Ohio Redskins Youth Sports (age 4-14), Columbus, OH[125]
  • Patterson Redskins Football (youth) Patterson, CA[126]
  • Pocahontas Middle School, Powhatan County, Virginia (Squaws)
  • Rochester Redskins, Rochester Hills, MI[127]
  • Sarasota Redskins Youth Football, Sarasota, FL (age 4-14)[128]
  • South Cherokee Recreation Association (SCRA) Youth Footfall, Woodstock, GA Uses the DC team logo[129]
  • Sterling Heights Redskins, Sterling Heights, MI (youth) Uses the DC team logo[130]
  • Stonybrook Redskins, Indianapolis, IN
  • Wayland Redskins, Wayland, NY (Youth Football ages 6–12)[131]
  • Woonsocket Redskins, Woonsocket, RI – Youth Football (K-9th grade) Uses the DC team logo[132]

Middle school

Former Redskins

General William J. Palmer High School, Colorado Springs, Colorado - Did not change the name "Terrors", but the original mascot was a caricature of a Native American called "Eagle Beak", replaced in 1985 with an Eagle (the bird).

Prior usage

[Delaware Valley High School]], Milford, PA

Whiteland Community High School, Whiteland, IN

Wickes High School, Wickes, Arkansas

A number of schools with the name "Warriors" never used indigenous imagery, or changed in response to the controversy. An example of the latter is the Hall High School (Connecticut) which dropped its Indian logo in 2012.[83]


With the passage of a law on October 11, 2015 the schools in California will have until January 1, 2017 to change their name.[70]

Red Raiders/Raiders
  • Morgantown, West Virginia
  • Monache High School, Porterville, California - There is a large mural of a Native American on the side of the school's gym, created by Adam Sanchez, class of 2002. This refers to the high school's mascot, the "Marauder."
  • Adair County High School (Columbia, Kentucky)
  • Albany High School (Albany, Georgia)
  • Altamont High School, Altamont, Illinois
  • Alvarado High School, Alvarado, Texas
  • Amesbury High School, Amesbury, Massachusetts
  • Anacoco High School, Anacoco, Louisiana
  • Anacostia High School, Washington, D.C.
  • Andale High School, Andale, Kansas
  • Anderson High School, Anderson, Indiana
  • Arapaho High School, Arapaho, Oklahoma
  • Arickaree High School, Anton, Colorado
  • Armijo High School, Fairfield, California
  • Rome, Georgia
  • Asher High School, Asher, Oklahoma
  • Athens High School, Athens, Michigan
  • Avinger High School, Avinger, Texas
  • Baldwin Middle-Senior High School, Baldwin, Florida
  • Bartlett Junior Senior High School, Webster, Massachusetts
  • Berkeley Springs High School, Berkeley Springs, West Virginia
  • Berlin High School, Berlin, Wisconsin
  • Billerica Memorial High School, Billerica, Massachusetts
  • Biloxi High School, Biloxi, Mississippi
  • Bismarck High School, Bismarck, Missouri
  • Brentwood High School, Brentwood, New York
  • Bridgeport High School, Bridgeport, West Virginia
  • Brimfield High School, Brimfield, Illinois
  • Broken Bow High School, Broken Bow, Nebraska
  • Browning High School, Browning, Montana - Blackfeet Indian Reservation
  • Buhl High School, Buhl, Idaho
  • Burroughs High School, Burbank, California
  • Byhalia High School, Byhalia, Mississippi
  • Caddo Hills High School, Norman, Arkansas
  • Calumet High School, Chicago, Illinois
  • Camanche High School, Camanche, Iowa
  • Cambridge High School, Cambridge, New York
  • Campbell High School, Campbell, Texas
  • Canal Winchester High School, Canal Winchester, Ohio
  • Canaseraga High School, Canaseraga, New York
  • Candor High School, Candor, New York
  • Carlisle High School, Price, Texas
  • Carlisle High School, Carlisle, Ohio
  • Carlyle High School, Carlyle, Illinois
  • Carrollton High School, Carrollton, Alabama
  • Catoosa High School, Catoosa, Oklahoma
  • Cedarville High School, Cedarville, Ohio
  • Central High School, Cheyenne, Wyoming
  • Central High School, St. Joseph, Missouri
  • Folkston, Georgia
  • Summerville, Georgia
  • Cherokee High School (Alabama), Cherokee, Alabama
  • Cherokee High School, Rogersville, Tennessee
  • Chesaning High School, Chesaning, Michigan,
  • Cheyenne Mountain High School, Colorado Springs, Colorado
  • Chiefland High School, Chiefland, Florida
  • Chilhowee High School, Chilhowee, Missouri
  • Choctawhatchee High School, Fort Walton Beach, Florida
  • Cincinnati Country Day High School, Cincinnati, Ohio
  • Clark County High School, Kahoka, Missouri
  • Clarke High School, Osceola, Iowa
  • Clarksville High School, Clarksville, Iowa
  • Clearwater High School, Clearwater, Kansas
  • Cleveland High School, Cleveland, Texas
  • Clifton-Fine High School, Star Lake, New York
  • Cobre High School, Bayard, New Mexico
  • Colbert County High School, Leighton AL
  • Colville High School, Colville WA
  • Comanche High School, Comanche TX
  • Comanche High School, Comanche OK
  • Conemaugh Township High School, Davidsville PA
  • Conneaut Lake High School, Conneaut Lake PA
  • Conneaut Valley High School, Conneautville PA
  • Copley High School, Copley OH
  • Cord-Charlotte High School, Charlotte AR
  • Couch Myrtle High School, MO
  • Council Rock North High School, Newtown PA
  • County Line High School, Branch, AR
  • Cowanesque Valley High School, Westfield PA
  • Coxsackie-Athens High School, Coxsackie NY
  • Cross Keys High School, Atlanta, GA
  • Dakota High School, Dakota, IL
  • Danville High School, Danville, VT
  • Dartmouth High School, South Dartmouth, MA
  • Delaplaine High School, Delaplaine, AR
  • Dobyns-Bennett High School, Kingsport, TN
  • Dodge County High School, Eastman, GA
  • Donegal High School, Mt. Joy, PA
  • Douglass High School, Douglass, TX
  • DuQuoin High School, DuQuoin, IL
  • East Bay High School, Gibsonton, FL
  • East Coweta High School, Sharpsburg, GA
  • East Limestone High School, Athens, AL
  • East Robertson High School, Cross Plains, TN
  • El Reno High School, El Reno, OK
  • Elko High School, Elko , NV
  • Elsberry High School, Elsberry, MO
  • Elton High School, Elton LA
  • Fair Park High School, Shreveport, LA
  • Fairfield High School, Fairfield, OH
  • Fairfield High School, Cincinnati, OH
  • Farmington High School, Farmington, CT
  • Flandreau Indian High School, Flandreau, SD
  • Forest City High School, Forest City, IA
  • Fort Davis High School, Fort Davis, TX
  • Fort Defiance High School, Virginia
  • Fort Osage High School, Independence, MO
  • Fort Recovery High School, Fort Recovery, OH
  • Fort White High School, Fort White, FL
  • Four Winds High School (Spirit Lake Reservation), Fort Totten, ND
  • Fourche Valley High School, Briggsville, AR
  • Franklin High School (Reisterstown, Maryland)
  • Frankston High School, Frankston, TX
  • Fullerton Union High School, Fullerton, CA
  • Gaffney High School, Gaffney, SC
  • Ganado High School, Ganado, TX
  • Gar-Field Senior High School, Woodbridge, VA
  • Giddings State High School, Giddings, TX
  • Gilbert High School, Gilbert, SC
  • Girard High School, Girard, OH
  • Glens Falls High School, Glens Falls, NY
  • Grafton Memorial High School, Grafton, MA
  • Grand Ridge High School, Grand Ridge, FL
  • Grand Saline High School, Grand Saline, TX
  • Greenville High School, Greenville, CA
  • Greenwood High School, Greenwood, WI
  • Groton High School, Groton, NY
  • Groveton High School, Groveton, TX
  • Guilford High School, Guilford, CT
  • H.C. Wilcox Technical High School, Meriden CT
  • Hallsville High School, Hallsville, MO
  • Hancock County High School, Sneedville, TN
  • Hanover High School, Hanover, MA
  • Happy Camp High School, Happy Camp, CA
  • Harlandale High School, San Antonio, TX
  • Harpeth High School, Kingston Springs, TN
  • Hart High School, Newhall, CA
  • Hartford High School, Hartford, MI
  • Haskell High School, Haskell, TX
  • Hays High School, Hays, KS
  • Hayti High School, Hayti, MO
  • Hazlehurst High School, Hazlehurst, MS
  • Hillsboro High School, Hillsboro, OH
  • Holt High School, Wentzville, MO
  • Holy Cross High School, Covington, KY
  • Hononegah High School, Rockton, IL
  • Hoosic Valley High School, Schaghticoke, NY
  • Hoxie High School, Hoxie, KS
  • Huckabay High School, Stephenville, TX
  • Immokalee High School, Immokalee, FL
  • Indian Lake Central High School, Indian Lake, NY
  • Indian River High School, Dagsboro, DE
  • Indiana High School, Indiana, PA
  • Indianola High School, Indianola, IA
  • Irwin County High School, Ocilla, GA
  • Istrouma High School, Baton Rouge, LA
  • Itawamba Agricultural High School, Fulton, MS
  • Jackson High School, Jackson, MO
  • Jackson North Side High School, Jackson, TN
  • Jacksonville High School, Jacksonville, TX
  • Jefferson High School, Daly City, CA
  • Jim Ned High School, Tuscola, TX
  • John Jay High School, Cross River, NY
  • Johnston City High School, Johnston City , IL
  • Jourdanton High School, Jourdanton, TX
  • Juniata High School, Mifflintown, PA
  • Karnack High School, Karnack, TX
  • Keller High School, Keller, TX
  • Kelly High School, Wise, VA
  • Kennett High School, Kennett, MO
  • Keshequa High School, Nunda, NY
  • Ketcham High School, Wappingers Falls, NY
  • Kewaskum High School, Kewaskum, WI
  • Keya Paha County High School, Springview, NE
  • Keystone Heights High School, Keystone Heights, FL
  • Kiowa High School, Kiowa, CO
  • Lake Central High School, St. John, IN
  • Lane Technical College Prep High School, Chicago, IL
  • Larned High School, Larned, KS
  • Lawrenceville High School, Lawrenceville, IL
  • Lehighton Area High School, Lehighton, PA
  • Lemont High School, Lemont, IL
  • Lenape High School, Medford, NJ
  • Letchworth High School, Gainesville NY
  • Lewistown High School, Lewistown IL
  • Liberty High School, Liberty, NY
  • Lipan High School, Lipan, TX
  • Little Axe High School, Norman, OK
  • Loachapoka High School, Loachapoka, AL
  • Lodge Grass High School, Lodge Grass, MT
  • Loveland High School, Loveland , CO
  • Lumpkin County High School, Dahlonega, GA
  • Lutie High School, Theodosia, MO
  • Lyme Central High School, Chaumont, NY
  • Madison Central High School, Richmond, KY
  • Mahnomen High School, Mahnomen, MN
  • Mahnomen/Waubun High School, Mahnomen, MN
  • Mahopac High School, Mahopac, NY
  • Manchester High School, Manchester, CT
  • Manhasset High School, Manhasset, NY
  • Manhattan High School, Manhattan, KS
  • Marengo High School, Marengo, IL
  • Maricopa High School, Maricopa, CA
  • Marietta High School, Marietta, OK
  • Marion High School, Marion, IA
  • Marked Tree High School, Marked Tree, AR
  • Marysville High School, Marysville, CA
  • Mascoutah High School, Mascoutah, IL
  • McEachern High School, Powder Springs, GA
  • Mechanicsburg High School, Mechanicsburg, OH
  • Medicine Lodge High School, Medicine Lodge, KS
  • Menomonee Falls High School, Menomonee Falls ,WI
  • Meredosia-Chambersburg High School, Meredosia, IL
  • Milan High School, Milan, IN
  • Milford High School, Milford, CT
  • Millersburg High School, Millersburg, PA
  • Minatare High School, Minatare, NE
  • Minooka High School, Minooka, IL
  • Mishicot High School, Mishicot, WI
  • Mississinewa High School, Gas City, IN
  • Mohawk High School, Marcola, OR
  • Molalla High School, Molalla, OR
  • Montgomery Central High School, Cunningham, TN
  • Montgomery County High School, Mt. Sterling, KY
  • Montrose High School, Montrose, CO
  • Montville High School, Oakdale, CT
  • Morton High School, Morton, TX
  • Mosinee High School, Mosinee, WI
  • Mountain Valley High School, Saguache, CO
  • Mountain Valley/Moffat High School, Saguache, CO
  • Mt. Gilead High School, Mt. Gilead, OH
  • Mukwonago High School, Mukwonago, WI
  • Muncy High School, Muncy, PA
  • Murray County High School, Chatsworth, GA
  • Napa High School, Napa, CA
  • Navajo High School, Altus, OK
  • Negreet High School, Negreet, LA
  • Neoga High School, Neoga IL
  • New Hope High School, New Hope, AL
  • Newberry High School, Newberry, MI
  • Newington High School, Newington, CT
  • Newington/Berlin High School, Newington, CT
  • Newton Local High School, Pleasant Hill, OH
  • Nezperce High School, Nezperce, ID
  • Nocona High School, Nocona, TX
  • North Shawnee High School, Mission, KS
  • North Brookfield High School, North Brookfield, MA
  • North Central High School, Spokane , WA
  • North East High School, North East, MD
  • North Haven High School, North Haven, CT
  • North Haven/Amity/Cheshire High School, North Haven, CT
  • North Hills High School, Pittsburgh, PA
  • Northside Vernon, TX
  • Northumberland High School, Heathsville, VA
  • Northwest High School, Canal Fulton, OH
  • Norwood High School, Norwood, OH
  • Nyack High School, Upper Nyack, NY
  • Nyack/Tappan Zee High School, Upper Nyack, NY
  • Odessa-Montour High School, Odessa, NY
  • Ogallala High School, Ogallala, NE
  • Ohatchee High School, Ohatchee, AL
  • Oklahoma School for the Deaf, Sulphur, OK
  • Oneida High School, Oneida, TN
  • Oneida High School, Oneida, NY
  • Onteora High School, Boiceville, NY
  • Orangeburg Prep High School, Orangeburg, SC
  • Osage High School, Kaiser, MO
  • Osage City High School, Osage City, KS
  • Osceola High School, Osceola, MO
  • Oshkosh West High School, Oshkosh, WI
  • Oskaloosa High School, Oskaloosa, IA
  • Oswego High School, Oswego, KS
  • Owego Free Academy High School, Owego, NY
  • Pacific High School, Pacific, MO
  • Paint Rock High School, Paint Rock, TX
  • Palm Springs High School, Palm Springs, CA
  • Pascack Valley High School, Hillsdale, NJ
  • Passaic High School, Passaic, NJ
  • Pawnee High School, Pawnee, IL
  • Pawnee City High School, Pawnee City, NE
  • Pawnee/Divernon High School, Pawnee, IL
  • Pecatonica High School, Pecatonica, IL
  • Peebles High School, Peebles, OH
  • Penn Hills High School, Pittsburgh, PA
  • Pennsauken High School, Pennsauken, NJ
  • Peru High School, Peru, NY
  • Peters Township High School, McMurray, PA
  • Pinson Valley High School, Pinson, AL
  • Piqua High School, Piqua, OH
  • Plainview High School, Ardmore, OK
  • Pinson Valley High School, Pinson, AL
  • Pocahontas High School, Pocahontas, VA
  • Pocahontas High School, Pocahontas, IA
  • Pocahontas/Pomeroy-Palmer High School, Pomeroy IA
  • Pocatello High School, Pocatello, ID
  • Pocola High School, Pocola, OK
  • Ponca High School, Ponca, NE
  • Pontiac High School, Pontiac, IL
  • Poplar High School, Poplar, MT
  • Port Neches-Groves High School, Port Neches, TX
  • Portage High School, Portage, IN
  • Powell Valley High School, Speedwell, TN
  • Powhatan High School, Powhatan, VA
  • Poyen High School, Poyen, AR
  • Prairie Lea High School, Prairie Lea, TX
  • Preston High School, Preston, ID
  • Puxico High School, Puxico, MO
  • Quanah High School, Quanah, TX
  • Rahway High School, Rahway, NJ
  • Ravena-Coeymans-Selkirk High School, Ravena, NY
  • Reardan High School, Reardan, WA
  • Red Jacket High School, Shortsville, NY
  • Renton High School, Renton, WA
  • Richfield Springs Central High School, Richfield Springs, NY
  • Riesel High School, Riesel, TX
  • Ripon High School, Ripon, CA
  • Rittman High School, Rittman, OH
  • Roosevelt High School, Yonkers, NY
  • Roseburg High School, Roseburg, OR
  • Roxborough High School, Philadelphia, PA
  • Rural Retreat High School, Rural Retreat, VA
  • Russellville High School, Russellville, MO
  • Sac City High School, Sac City, IA
  • Sacred Heart Catholic School, Hallettsville, TX
  • Sanborn Regional High School, Kingston, NH
  • Sandwich Community High School, Sandwich, IL
  • Sanford High School, Sanford, CO
  • Sanger High School, Sanger, TX
  • Santa Fe High School, Santa Fe, TX
  • Satanta High School, Satanta, KS
  • Saugatuck High School, Saugatuck, MI[36]
  • Sauquoit Valley High School, Sauquoit, NY
  • Scappoose High School, Scappoose, OR
  • Schoharie High School, Schoharie, NY
  • Seminole High School, Seminole, TX
  • Seminole County High School, Donalsonville, GA
  • Seneca High School, Seneca, WI
  • Seneca High School, Seneca, MO
  • Sequatchie County High School, Dunlap, TN
  • Sequoyah High School, Tahlequah, OK
  • Sewanhaka High School, Floral Park, NY
  • Seymour High School, Payson, IL
  • Shady Side Academy, Pittsburgh, PA
  • Shamokin Area High School, Coal Township, PA
  • Shattuck High School, Shattuck, OK
  • Shawnee High School (Lima, Ohio)
  • Shelter Island High School, Shelter Island, NY
  • Shelter Island/Ross High School, Shelter Island, NY
  • Shoshone High School, Shoshone, ID
  • Sissonville High School, Charleston, WV
  • Skowhegan Area High School, Skowhegan, ME
  • Sleepy Eye High School, Sleepy Eye, MN
  • Souderton High School, Souderton, PA
  • South Bend High School, South Bend, WA
  • Southampton High School, Courtland, VA
  • Southern High School, Salineville, OH
  • Southern Choctaw High School, Gilbertown, AL
  • Southern Fulton High School, Warfordsburg, PA
  • Spirit Lake High School, Spirit Lake, IA
  • St. Francis High School, St. Francis, KS
  • St. Joseph High School, South Bend, IN
  • St. Paul High School, St. Paul, KS
  • St. Stephens High School, Hickory, NC
  • St. Vincent High School, Perryville, MO
  • Stafford High School, Falmouth, VA
  • Stamford Central High School, Stamford, NY
  • Stebbins High School, Riverside, OH
  • Stephens County High School, Toccoa, GA
  • Stilwell High School, Stilwell, OK
  • Stockbridge Valley High School, Munnsville, NY
  • Strafford High School, Strafford, MO
  • Strasburg High School, Strasburg, CO
  • Susquehanna Township High School, Harrisburg, PA
  • Swett High School, Crockett, CA
  • Tallulah Falls High School, Tallulah Falls, GA
  • Tarkio High School, Tarkio, MO
  • Tecumseh High School (Michigan), Tecumseh, MI
  • Tekonsha High School, Tekonsha, MI
  • Tioga High School, Tioga, LA
  • Tishomingo High School, Tishomingo, OK
  • Toledo High School, Toledo, WA
  • Toms River South High School, Toms River, NJ
  • Touchet High School, Touchet, WA
  • Towns County High School, Hiawassee, GA
  • Turners Falls High School, Montague, MA
  • Twin Lakes High School, Monticello, IN
  • Union City High School, Union City, IN
  • Unionville High School, Kennett Square, PA
  • Upper Perkiomen High School, Pennsburg, PA
  • Valley High School, Lucasville, OH
  • Van-Far High School, Vandalia, MO
  • Venice High School, Venice, FL
  • Vero Beach High School, Vero Beach, FL
  • Vici High School, Vici, OK
  • Vidalia High School, Vidalia, GA
  • Waite High School, Toledo, OH
  • Wapanucka High School, Wapanucka, OK
  • Wapello Jr/Sr High School, Wapello, Iowa - "Indian Arrows"
  • Ware High School, Ware, MA
  • Washington-Marion High School, Lake Charles, LA
  • Waterloo High School, Waterloo, NY
  • Watertown High School, Watertown, CT
  • Watertown/Pomperaug High School, Watertown, CT
  • Waterville High School, Waterville, NY
  • Waterville/Madison Central High School, Waterville, NY
  • Waukon High School, Waukon, IA
  • Wauseon High School, Wauseon, OH
  • Waxahachie High School, Waxahachie, TX
  • Wayne City High School, Wayne City, IL
  • Wayne Valley High School, Wayne, NJ
  • Waynesboro High School, Waynesboro, PA
  • Weehawken High School, Weehawken, NJ
  • Weeping Water High School, Weeping Water, NE
  • Weequahic High School, Newark, NJ
  • Wells High School, Wells, NY
  • West Allegheny High School, Imperial, PA
  • West Canada Valley High School, Newport, NY
  • West Forest High School, Tionesta, PA
  • West Seneca High School, West Seneca, NY
  • Western High School, Latham, OH [37]
  • Westminster Catawba Christian High School, Rock Hill, SC[38]
  • Wetumpka High School, Wetumpka AL[39]
  • Weyauwega-Fremont High School, Weyauwega, Wisconsin[40]
  • White Cloud High School, White Cloud, MI[41]
  • Wichita County High School, Leoti, KS[42]
  • Wicomico High School, Salisbury, MD[43]
  • Wilcox RVT, Meriden CT
  • Williford High School, Williford AR[44]
  • Winnebago High School, Winnebago, Illinois
  • Winnebago High School, Winnebago, NE[45]
  • Yazoo City High School, Yazoo City, MS
  • Ysleta High School, El Paso TX
  • Yuma High School, Yuma, CO
Indian / Indians / Indian Arrows
Eskimos or Eskymos
Dine' Warriors

Most of the schools with the name use a bird logo, therefore are not directly derived from an indigenous people although there may be an indirect reference to Chief Black Hawk. The following do use Native American images/symbols.

Blackhawks / Black Hawk
Big Reds

The following high schools are listed in alphabetical order by team name:

Current usage

High schools

Old Name School City, State Year Changed New Name Notes
Apaches Illinois Valley Community College Oglesby, Illinois 2001 Eagle
Apaches Southwestern College Chula Vista, California 2001 Jaguars Community College
Beothuk Memorial University of Newfoundland St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada 1987 Sea-Hawks The Beothuk aboriginal peoples went extinct in 1829 and the university deemed the use of the Beothuk name to be offensive
Braves Bradley University Peoria, Illinois While the nickname has never changed, all Native American imagery has been removed. The logo is now a block B and the mascot is a gargoyle.
Braves Chowan University Murfreesboro, North Carolina 2006 Hawks
Braves Husson College Bangor, Maine 2004 Eagles [25]
Braves University of West Georgia Carrollton, Georgia 2006 Wolves
Braves Seneca College Toronto, Ontario 1999-2000 The Sting
Braves Quinnipiac University Hamden, Connecticut 2002 Bobcats
Brown Indians/Squaws St. Bonaventure University Allegany (town), New York 1979 Bonnies
Chief Ouabache Indiana State University Terre Haute, Indiana 1989 N/A The team name was always the Sycamores; Chief Ouabache and "Indian Princess" were the on-field mascots.
Chiefs Oklahoma City University Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Stars
Chiefs Springfield College Springfield, Massachusetts Pride
Chieftains Seattle University Seattle, Washington Redhawks "H" is NOT capitalized here, unlike the case with Miami's nickname.
Chieftains Stonehill College Easton, Massachusetts Skyhawks
Fighting Illini University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 2007 Old name was retained as referring to the state[26] Chief Illiniwek has been officially retired, but is widely used by students and fans
Fighting Sioux University of North Dakota Grand Forks, North Dakota 2012 None yet selected
Hurons Eastern Michigan University Ypsilanti, Michigan 1991 Eagles The mascot is "Swoop"
Indians Adams State University Alamosa, Colorado Grizzlies
Indians Arkansas State University Jonesboro, Arkansas Red Wolves
Indians Catawba College Salisbury, North Carolina Catawba Indians Approved by the Catawba Tribe
Indians University of the Cumberlands Williamsburg, Kentucky 2002 Patriots Originally Cumberland College, name changed 2005
Indians Dartmouth College Hanover, New Hampshire 1970s Big Green Indians was not official
Indians Midwestern State University Wichita Falls, Texas 2006 Mustangs
Indians McMurry University Abilene, Texas 2006 War Hawks
Indians University of Louisiana at Monroe Monroe, Louisiana 2006 Warhawks "Chief Brave Spirit" mascot also retired
Indians Indiana University of Pennsylvania Indiana County, Pennsylvania 2007 Crimson Hawks
Indians Newberry College South Carolina 2008 Wolves
Indians Stanford University Stanford, California 1972 Cardinals The nickname was changed to the current "Cardinal" in 1981, which reflects the school color, a shade of red
Indians Siena College Loudonville, New York 1988 Saints
Indians College of William & Mary Williamsburg, Virginia 1978 Tribe Mascot is the Griffin
Indians and Otahkians Southeast Missouri State University Cape Girardeau, Missouri 2004 Redhawks "H" is NOT capitalized here, unlike the case with Miami's nickname.
Mohawks Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts North Adams, Massachusetts Trailblazers
Plainsmen Nebraska Wesleyan University Lincoln, Nebraska Prairie Wolves
Red Raiders Colgate University Hamilton (village), New York Raiders
Redmen Carthage College Kenosha, Wisconsin Red Men/Lady Reds
Redmen University of Massachusetts Amherst (UMass) Amherst, Massachusetts 1972 Minutemen and Minutewomen According to the University Redmen referred to the color of uniforms worn by the athletics teams
Redmen Northeastern State University Tahlequah, Oklahoma RiverHawks Founded as the Cherokee National Female Seminary
Redmen St. John's University New York City 1995 Red Storm The school's website indicates that the name did not refer to American Indians, but to the school color, a bright cardinal red. However, some athletics logos used an Indian character as late as the 1980s.
Redmen and Lady Reds Simpson College Indianola, Iowa 1992 The Storm
Redmen and Redwomen University of Rio Grande Rio Grande, Ohio 2008 RedStorm
Redskins Miami University Oxford, Ohio 1997 RedHawks
Redskins Southern Nazarene University Bethany, Oklahoma Crimson Storm
Saltine Warrior Syracuse University Syracuse, New York Orange
Savages Dickinson State University Dickinson, North Dakota 1972 Blue Hawks
Savages Eastern Washington University Cheney, Washington 1973 Eagles
Savages Southeastern Oklahoma State University Durant, Oklahoma 2006 Savage Storm
Warriors Hartwick College Oneonta, New York 1994 Hawks
Warriors Marquette University Milwaukee, Wisconsin 1994 Golden Eagles Retired the mascot "Willie Wampum" in 1971[27]
Zias Eastern New Mexico University Portales, New Mexico 2015 Greyhounds The women's teams are reverting to the name used prior to the 1970s, which is the same as the men's teams.[28]

Prior Usage

Current Usage

Schools granted waivers to retain their nicknames after gaining support from those respective tribes.

Schools that removed all references to Native American culture or were deemed not to have references to Native American culture as part of their athletics programs:

In 2005 the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) distributed a "self evaluation" to 31 colleges for teams to examine the use of potentially offensive imagery with their mascot choice.[17] Subsequently 19 teams were cited as having potentially "hostile or abusive" names, mascots, or images, that would be banned from displaying them during post-season play, and prohibited from hosting tournaments.[18]

Colleges and universities

Amateur and school teams

Old Name Sport/League City, State Year Changed New Name Notes
Akron Indians National Football League Akron, Ohio NA Akron Pros Changed back to the Indians in 1926, then folded
Tri-Cities "Blackhawks" National Basketball Association Moline, Illinois 1951 Atlanta Hawks Team was also the Milwaukee & St. Louis "Hawks"
Buffalo Braves National Basketball Association Buffalo, New York 1978 Los Angeles Clippers Also the San Diego Clippers
Burlington Indians Minor League Baseball Burlington, North Carolina 2006 Burlington Royals Changed affiliation from Cleveland Indians to Kansas City Royals
Canton/Akron Indians Minor League Baseball Akron, Ohio 1996 Aeros Former farm team for the Cleveland Indians
Cleveland Indians (1921) National Football League Cleveland, Ohio defunct
Cleveland Indians (1931) National Football League Cleveland, Ohio defunct
Duluth Eskimos National Football League Duluth, Minnesota 1927 NA, defunct also known as the Duluth "Kelleys"
Flint Indians Michigan Baseball League Flint, Michigan 1941 NA
Golden State Warriors National Basketball Association Oakland, California 1971 NA Originally Philadelphia Warriors, then San Francisco Warriors, dropped Indian imagery when they move to Oakland
Indios de Ciudad Juarez Minor League Baseball Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico 1984 defunct
Kansas City Scouts National Hockey League Kansas City, Missouri 1976 now the New Jersey Devils First moved to Colorado and became the "Rockies"
Kinston Indians Minor League Baseball Kinston, North Carolina 2012 NA replaced by the Carolina Mudcats
Mexico City Aztecas Continental Basketball Association Mexico City NA Only one season 1994-95
Oorang Indians National Football League NA, defunct Consisting mostly of Native Americans
Ottawa Tomahawks National Basketball League of Canada Ottawa 2013 Ottawa SkyHawks Name changed shortly after announced due to controversy, team folded after one season.
Peoria Chiefs Minor League Baseball Peoria, Illinois NA Adopted their name from a 1950s team, but did not use indigenous imagery, instead using imagery related to firefighters.[16]
Salisbury Indians Minor League Baseball Salisbury, Maryland NA Defunct
Syracuse Chiefs Minor League Baseball Syracuse, New York First Became the "SkyChiefs" with a train Logo, then reverted to the old name while retaining the new logo.
Springfield Indians American Hockey League Peoria, Illinois Rivermen First moved to Worcester and became the IceCats
Toronto Tecumsehs National Hockey Association Toronto, Ontario 1913 Toronto Ontarios renamed the Toronto Shamrocks in 1915 and ceased operations later that year

Many professional teams changed because they moved to another city, or went out of business ("defunct" in table below).

Prior pro usage

Rugby league

Rugby union

Motorcycle Racing

Lacrosse (Canada)

Ice hockey


Canadian football

All three existing NBA teams that previously used indigenous imagery have stopped doing so. (See Prior usage list below).


Affiliate of the Texas Rangers:

Affiliate of the Pittsburgh Pirates:

Affiliate of the Cleveland Indians:

Affiliates of the Atlanta Braves: (An additional affiliate is the Lynchburg Hillcats)

Minor league
  • Chief Noc-A-Homa existed until 1983 season, Princess Win-A-Lotta was introduced late 1970s, dropped at same time as Noc-A-Homa. In 1991 the Braves adopted the Tomahawk Chop from Florida State University when Deion Sanders joined the team.[13]
  • Cleveland Indians (Cleveland, Ohio) - Receives the most attention due to its mascot, Chief Wahoo. While the origin of the name is sometimes attributed to Louis Sockalexis from the Penobscot tribe having played for the team, documentary evidence indicates otherwise.[14]
Major league


All of these teams are composed of Indigenous Australians

Australian rules football

  • Colo-Colo, Santiago de Chile. Name relates to the Mapuche
  • Lautaro, Buin. Also called Guerreros de Buín (Warriors Buín)




Association football (soccer)

  • Garland Aztecs, Garland, Texas - Semi-Pro
  • Kansas City Chiefs (NFL) - While adopting Native American imagery, the team was named in honor of Kansas City mayor Harold Roe Bartle who was instrumental in bringing the AFL Dallas Texans to Kansas City, MO in 1963 (becoming the last professional team to adopt an indigenous-derived name). Bartel earned his nickname as founder of a Boy Scouts honor camping society Tribe of Mic-O-Say in which he was "Chief" Lone Bear. In 1989 the Chiefs switched from Warpaint, a Pinto horse ridden by a man in a feathered headdress, to their current mascot K. C. Wolf. Warpaint returned in 2009, but is ridden by a cheerleader.[12]
  • Southern California Apaches - (Semi-Pro, United Football Alliance League)
  • Washington Redskins (NFL) See also: Washington Redskins name controversy

American football

Current usage

Professional teams


  • Professional teams 1
    • Current usage 1.1
      • American football 1.1.1
      • Association football (soccer) 1.1.2
      • Australian rules football 1.1.3
      • Baseball 1.1.4
        • Major league
        • Minor league
      • Basketball 1.1.5
      • Canadian football 1.1.6
      • Cricket 1.1.7
      • Ice hockey 1.1.8
      • Lacrosse (Canada) 1.1.9
      • Motorcycle Racing 1.1.10
      • Rugby union 1.1.11
      • Rugby league 1.1.12
    • Prior pro usage 1.2
  • Amateur and school teams 2
    • Colleges and universities 2.1
      • Current Usage 2.1.1
      • Prior Usage 2.1.2
    • High schools 2.2
      • Current usage 2.2.1
        • Apaches
        • Arrows
        • Aztecs
        • Big Reds
        • Blackhawks / Black Hawk
        • Braves
        • Brownies
        • Cherokees
        • Chickasaws
        • Chiefs
        • Chieftains
        • Chippewas
        • Choctaws
        • Comanches
        • Dine' Warriors
        • Eskimos or Eskymos
        • Halfbreeds
        • Hurons
        • Indian / Indians / Indian Arrows
        • Marauders
        • Mohawks
        • Mohigans
        • Red Raiders/Raiders
        • Redmen
        • Reds
        • Redskins
        • Renegades
        • Sachems
        • Sauras
        • Savages
        • Seminoles
        • Sioux
        • Thunderbirds
        • Tomahawks/Tomahawk
        • Warriors
      • Prior usage 2.2.2
        • Former Redskins
    • Middle school 2.3
    • Pop Warner Football League 2.4
    • Little league baseball 2.5
    • Youth/Little league football 2.6
    • Junior League Lacrosse (Canada) 2.7
    • YMCA 2.8
    • Youth football (England) 2.9
  • Fictional teams 3
  • See also 4
  • External links 5
    • Sources of data on teams/mascots 5.1
  • References 6

The trend towards the elimination of indigenous names and mascots in local schools has been steady, with two thirds having been eliminated over the past 50 years according to the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI).[7] In a few states with significant Native American populations, change has been mandated by law, such in Wisconsin,[8] Oregon,[9] and Washington.[10][11] The list below for U.S. High Schools however remains substantial, with over 400 teams currently calling themselves "Indians", over 100 "Braves", 74 "Warriors" using indigenous imagery (there are many with the name but using generic, Greek or Roman mascots), and 56 "Redskins".

While the history of colonization and marginalization is not unique to the Americas, the practice of deriving sports team names, imagery, and mascots from indigenous peoples is a significant phenomena in the United States and Canada. The rise of indigenous rights movements in these counties has also led to controversy regarding the continuation of practices rooted in colonialism.[4] Such practices maintain the power relationship between the dominant culture and the indigenous culture, and can be seen as a form of cultural imperialism.[5] Such practices are seen as particularly harmful in schools and universities, which have the a stated purpose of promoting ethnic diversity and inclusion.[6] In recognition of the responsibility of higher education to eliminate behaviors that creates a hostile environment for education, in 2005 the NCAA initiated a policy against "hostile and abusive" names and mascots that led to the change of many derived from Native American culture, with the exception of those that established an agreement with particular tribes for the use of their specific names. Other schools retain their names because they were founded for the education of Native Americans, and continue to have a significant number of indigenous students. In other former colonies in Asia, Africa and South America, the adoption of indigenous names for majority indigenous teams is also found.

This definition in international law is not identical to the American English dictionary definition of the word indigenous, which is broad enough to include native and born as synonyms.[3] The additional criteria of a people both colonized or invaded and reduced to a marginalized minority is however part of the current majority understanding of the terms First Nations, Native American and Indigenous peoples of the Americas as referring to the decedents of pre-colonial peoples of the Americas, not everyone born there. There are team names derived from non-indigenous peoples, such as the Boston Celtics, the University of Notre Dame "Fighting Irish" and the Minnesota Vikings (the latter name was selected in reference to the Scandinavian settlers of that region), none of which belong on this list. There is no doubt that the Irish and other ethnic groups in America were subject to marginalization, but not colonization. Colonization of the Celtic peoples in their native lands by the English did occur, but lies outside of the scope of this article.

  • People descended from the pre-colonial/pre-invasion inhabitants of a region.
  • People that continue to have a distinct language or culture with close ties to the land.
  • People who suffer economic and political marginalization as a minority group.
  • People who identify themselves as indigenous.


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