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Lithium fluoride

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Title: Lithium fluoride  
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Subject: Lithium, Dictionary of chemical formulas, Thermoluminescent dosimeter, Lithium iodide, Lithium bromide
Collection: Alkali Metal Fluorides, Crystals, Fluorides, Lithium Compounds, Metal Halides, Optical Materials
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Lithium fluoride

Lithium fluoride
Lithium fluoride boule
Lithium fluoride
Names
IUPAC name
Lithium fluoride
Identifiers
 Y
ChemSpider  Y
EC number 232-152-0
Jmol-3D images Image
PubChem
RTECS number OJ6125000
Properties
LiF
Molar mass 25.939(2) g/mol
Appearance white powder or transparent crystals,
non-hygroscopic
Density 2.635 g/cm3
Melting point 845 °C (1,553 °F; 1,118 K)
Boiling point 1,676 °C (3,049 °F; 1,949 K)
0.27 g/100 mL (18 °C)[1]
0.134 g/100 mL (25 °C)
Solubility soluble in HF
insoluble in alcohol
1.3915
Structure
Cubic
a = 403.51 pm
Linear
Thermochemistry
1.604 J/(g K)
1.376 J/(g K)
-616 kJ/mol
Hazards
NFPA 704
0
2
0
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
LD50 (Median dose)
143 mg/kg (oral, rat)[2]
Related compounds
Other anions
Lithium chloride
Lithium bromide
Lithium iodide
Other cations
Sodium fluoride
Potassium fluoride
Rubidium fluoride
Caesium fluoride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 Y  (: Y/N?)

Lithium fluoride is an chemical formula LiF. It is a colorless solid, that transitions to white with decreasing crystal size. Although odorless, lithium fluoride has a bitter-saline taste. Its structure is analogous to that of sodium chloride, but it is much less soluble in water. It is mainly used as a component of molten salts.[3] Formation of LiF releases one of the highest energy per mass of reactants, only second to that of BeO.

Contents

  • Manufacturing 1
  • Applications 2
    • In molten salts 2.1
    • Optics 2.2
    • Radiation detectors 2.3
    • Nuclear reactors 2.4
    • Cathode for PLED and OLEDs 2.5
  • References 3

Manufacturing

LiF is prepared from lithium hydroxide and hydrogen fluoride or by dissolving lithium carbonate in excess hydrogen fluoride, evaporating to dryness and heating to red hot.

Applications

In molten salts

Fluorine is produced by the electrolysis of molten potassium bifluoride. This electrolysis proceeds more efficiently when the electrolyte contains a few percent of LiF, possibly because it facilitates formation of Li-C-F interface on the carbon electrodes.[3] A useful molten salt, FLiNaK, consists of a mixture of LiF, together with sodium fluoride and potassium fluoride. The primary coolant for the Molten-Salt Reactor Experiment was FLiBe; LiF-BeF2 (66-33 mol%).

Optics

Because of its large band gap, LiF crystals are transparent to short wavelength ultraviolet radiation, more so than any other material. LiF is therefore used in specialized UV optics,[4] (See also magnesium fluoride). Lithium fluoride is used also as crystal in X-ray spectrometry.

Radiation detectors

It is also used as a means to record ionizing radiation exposure from gamma rays, beta particles, and neutrons (indirectly, using the 6
3
Li
(n,alpha) nuclear reaction) in thermoluminescent dosimeters.

Nuclear reactors

Lithium fluoride (highly enriched in the common isotope lithium-7) forms the basic constituent of the preferred fluoride salt mixture used in liquid-fluoride nuclear reactors. Typically lithium fluoride is mixed with beryllium fluoride to form a base solvent (FLiBe), into which fluorides of uranium and thorium are introduced. Lithium fluoride is exceptionally chemically stable and LiF/BeF2 mixtures (FLiBe) have low melting points (360 C - 459 C) and the best neutronic properties of fluoride salt combinations appropriate for reactor use. MSRE used two different mixtures in the two cooling circuits.

Cathode for PLED and OLEDs

Lithium fluoride is widely used in PLED and OLED as a coupling layer to enhance electron injection. The thickness of LiF layer is usually around 1 nm. The dielectric constant (or relative permittivity) of LiF is 9.0[5]

References

  1. ^ "Lithium fluoride". Retrieved 2006-02-26. 
  2. ^ http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/rn/7789-24-4
  3. ^ a b J. Aigueperse, P. Mollard, D. Devilliers, M. Chemla, R. Faron, R. Romano, J. P. Cuer, "Fluorine Compounds, Inorganic" in Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2005. doi:10.1002/14356007.a11_307.
  4. ^ "Crystran Ltd., a manufacturer of infrared and ultraviolet optics". Retrieved 2010-12-28. 
  5. ^ C. Andeen, J. Fontanella,D. Schuel, "Low-Frequency Dielectric Constant of LiF, NaF, NaC1, NaBr, KC1, and KBr by the Method of Substitution", Physical Review B, 2, 5068-5073 (1970) doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.2.5068.
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