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Title: Misty1  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: KASUMI, Camellia (cipher), CRYPTREC, WikiProject Cryptography, Integral cryptanalysis
Collection: Feistel Ciphers, Mitsubishi Electric Products, Services and Standards
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


MISTY redirects here. For other meanings, see Misty
Designers Matsui, Ichikawa, Sorimachi, Tokita, Yamagishi
First published 1995
Successors Camellia, MISTY2, KASUMI
Certification CRYPTREC (Candidate), NESSIE
Cipher detail
Key sizes 128 bits
Block sizes 64 bits
Structure Nested Feistel network
Rounds n (8 recommended)
Best public cryptanalysis
Integral cryptanalysis leading to full key recovery with 263.9999 chosen ciphertexts and 279 time, or 264 chosen ciphertexts and 269.5 time.[1]

In cryptography, MISTY1 (or MISTY-1) is a block cipher designed in 1995 by Mitsuru Matsui and others for Mitsubishi Electric.[2][3]

MISTY1 is one of the selected algorithms in the European NESSIE project, and has been among the cryptographic techniques recommended for Japanese government use by CRYPTREC in 2003; however, it was dropped to "candidate" by CRYPTREC revision in 2013.

"MISTY" can stand for "Mitsubishi Improved Security Technology"; it is also the initials of the researchers involved in its development: Matsui Mitsuru, Ichikawa Tetsuya, Sorimachi Toru, Tokita Toshio, and Yamagishi Atsuhiro.[4]

MISTY1 is covered by patents, although the algorithm is freely available for academic (non-profit) use in RFC 2994.


  • Security 1
  • KASUMI 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5


MISTY1 is a Feistel network with a variable number of rounds (any multiple of 4), though 8 are recommended. The cipher operates on 64-bit blocks and has a key size of 128 bits. MISTY1 has an innovative recursive structure; the round function itself uses a 3-round Feistel network. MISTY1 claims to be provably secure against linear and differential cryptanalysis.


KASUMI is a successor of the MISTY1 cipher which was supposed to be stronger than MISTY1 and has been adopted as the standard encryption algorithm for European mobile phones. In 2005, KASUMI was broken, and in 2010 a new paper was published (explained below) detailing a practical attack on the cipher; see the article for more details.

In the paper "Block Ciphers and Stream Ciphers" by Alex Biryukov, it is noted that KASUMI, also termed A5/3, is a strengthened version of block cipher MISTY1 running in a Counter mode.[5]

However, in 2010 Dunkelman, Keller, and Shamir showed that KASUMI is not as strong as MISTY1;[6] the KASUMI attack will not work against MISTY1.

See also


  1. ^ Achiya Bar-On (30 July 2015). Attack on the Full MISTY1"70"A 2 (PDF). 
  2. ^ Mitsuru Matsui (1997). Block encryption algorithm MISTY.  
  3. ^ Mitsuru Matsui (July 1996). "Block encryption algorithm MISTY". Technical report of IEICE ISEC96-11 (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 23, 2000. 
  4. ^ "Episodes in the development of MISTY". 
  5. ^ Alex Biryukov (2004). "Block Ciphers and Stream Ciphers: The State of the Art". 
  6. ^ Orr Dunkelman and Nathan Keller and Adi Shamir (2010). "A Practical-Time Attack on the KASUMI Cryptosystem Used in GSM and 3G Telephony". 
  • Elad Barkan, Eli Biham and Nathan Keller, Instant Ciphertext-Only Cryptanalysis of GSM Encrypted Communication, CRYPTO 2003, pp. 600–616 (PDF).

External links

  • RFC 2994
  • Mitsubishi - About MISTY
  • MISTY1 patent statement from Mitsubishi
  • John Savard's description of MISTY
  • SCAN's entry on MISTY1
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